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skopeo Build Status

Please be aware skopeo is still work in progress and it currently supports only registry API V2

skopeo is a command line utility for various operations on container images and image repositories.

Inspecting a repository

skopeo is able to inspect a repository on a Docker registry and fetch images layers. By inspect I mean it fetches the repository's manifest and it is able to show you a docker inspect-like json output about a whole repository or a tag. This tool, in contrast to docker inspect, helps you gather useful information about a repository or a tag before pulling it (using disk space) - e.g. - which tags are available for the given repository? which labels the image has?

Examples:

# show properties of fedora:latest
$ skopeo inspect docker://docker.io/fedora
{
    "Name": "docker.io/library/fedora",
    "Tag": "latest",
    "Digest": "sha256:cfd8f071bf8da7a466748f522406f7ae5908d002af1b1a1c0dcf893e183e5b32",
    "RepoTags": [
        "20",
        "21",
        "22",
        "23",
        "heisenbug",
        "latest",
        "rawhide"
    ],
    "Created": "2016-03-04T18:40:02.92155334Z",
    "DockerVersion": "1.9.1",
    "Labels": {},
    "Architecture": "amd64",
    "Os": "linux",
    "Layers": [
        "sha256:236608c7b546e2f4e7223526c74fc71470ba06d46ec82aeb402e704bfdee02a2",
        "sha256:a3ed95caeb02ffe68cdd9fd84406680ae93d633cb16422d00e8a7c22955b46d4"
    ]
}

# show unverifed image's digest
$ skopeo inspect docker://docker.io/fedora:rawhide | jq '.Digest'
"sha256:905b4846938c8aef94f52f3e41a11398ae5b40f5855fb0e40ed9c157e721d7f8"

Copying images

skopeo can copy container images between various storage mechanisms, e.g. Docker registries (including the Docker Hub), the Atomic Registry, local directories, and local OCI-layout directories:

$ skopeo copy docker://busybox:1-glibc atomic:myns/unsigned:streaming
$ skopeo copy docker://busybox:latest dir:existingemptydirectory
$ skopeo copy docker://busybox:latest oci:busybox_ocilayout

Deleting images

For example,

$ skopeo delete docker://localhost:5000/imagename:latest

Private registries with authentication

When interacting with private registries, skopeo first looks for --creds (for skopeo inspect|delete) or --src-creds|--dest-creds (for skopeo copy) flags. If those aren't provided, it looks for the Docker's cli config file (usually located at $HOME/.docker/config.json) to get the credentials needed to authenticate. The ultimate fallback, as Docker does, is to provide an empty authentication when interacting with those registries.

Examples:

$ cat /home/runcom/.docker/config.json
{
    "auths": {
        "myregistrydomain.com:5000": {
            "auth": "dGVzdHVzZXI6dGVzdHBhc3N3b3Jk",
            "email": "stuf@ex.cm"
        }
    }
}

# we can see I'm already authenticated via docker login so everything will be fine
$ skopeo inspect docker://myregistrydomain.com:5000/busybox
{"Tag":"latest","Digest":"sha256:473bb2189d7b913ed7187a33d11e743fdc2f88931122a44d91a301b64419f092","RepoTags":["latest"],"Comment":"","Created":"2016-01-15T18:06:41.282540103Z","ContainerConfig":{"Hostname":"aded96b43f48","Domainname":"","User":"","AttachStdin":false,"AttachStdout":false,"AttachStderr":false,"Tty":false,"OpenStdin":false,"StdinOnce":false,"Env":null,"Cmd":["/bin/sh","-c","#(nop) CMD [\"sh\"]"],"Image":"9e77fef7a1c9f989988c06620dabc4020c607885b959a2cbd7c2283c91da3e33","Volumes":null,"WorkingDir":"","Entrypoint":null,"OnBuild":null,"Labels":null},"DockerVersion":"1.8.3","Author":"","Config":{"Hostname":"aded96b43f48","Domainname":"","User":"","AttachStdin":false,"AttachStdout":false,"AttachStderr":false,"Tty":false,"OpenStdin":false,"StdinOnce":false,"Env":null,"Cmd":["sh"],"Image":"9e77fef7a1c9f989988c06620dabc4020c607885b959a2cbd7c2283c91da3e33","Volumes":null,"WorkingDir":"","Entrypoint":null,"OnBuild":null,"Labels":null},"Architecture":"amd64","Os":"linux"}

# let's try now to fake a non existent Docker's config file
$ cat /home/runcom/.docker/config.json
{}

$ skopeo inspect docker://myregistrydomain.com:5000/busybox
FATA[0000] unauthorized: authentication required

# passing --creds - we can see that everything goes fine
$ skopeo inspect --creds=testuser:testpassword docker://myregistrydomain.com:5000/busybox
{"Tag":"latest","Digest":"sha256:473bb2189d7b913ed7187a33d11e743fdc2f88931122a44d91a301b64419f092","RepoTags":["latest"],"Comment":"","Created":"2016-01-15T18:06:41.282540103Z","ContainerConfig":{"Hostname":"aded96b43f48","Domainname":"","User":"","AttachStdin":false,"AttachStdout":false,"AttachStderr":false,"Tty":false,"OpenStdin":false,"StdinOnce":false,"Env":null,"Cmd":["/bin/sh","-c","#(nop) CMD [\"sh\"]"],"Image":"9e77fef7a1c9f989988c06620dabc4020c607885b959a2cbd7c2283c91da3e33","Volumes":null,"WorkingDir":"","Entrypoint":null,"OnBuild":null,"Labels":null},"DockerVersion":"1.8.3","Author":"","Config":{"Hostname":"aded96b43f48","Domainname":"","User":"","AttachStdin":false,"AttachStdout":false,"AttachStderr":false,"Tty":false,"OpenStdin":false,"StdinOnce":false,"Env":null,"Cmd":["sh"],"Image":"9e77fef7a1c9f989988c06620dabc4020c607885b959a2cbd7c2283c91da3e33","Volumes":null,"WorkingDir":"","Entrypoint":null,"OnBuild":null,"Labels":null},"Architecture":"amd64","Os":"linux"}

# skopeo copy example:
$ skopeo copy --src-creds=testuser:testpassword docker://myregistrydomain.com:5000/private oci:local_oci_image

If your cli config is found but it doesn't contain the necessary credentials for the queried registry you'll get an error. You can fix this by either logging in (via docker login) or providing --creds or --src-creds|--dest-creds.

Building

To build the manual you will need go-md2man.

$ sudo apt-get install go-md2man

To build the skopeo binary you need at least Go 1.5 because it uses the latest GO15VENDOREXPERIMENT flag. Also, make sure to clone the repository in your GOPATH - otherwise compilation fails.

$ git clone https://github.com/projectatomic/skopeo $GOPATH/src/github.com/projectatomic/skopeo
$ cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/projectatomic/skopeo && make all

To build localy on OSX:

$ brew install gpgme
$ make binary-local

You may need to install additional development packages: gpgme-devel and libassuan-devel

$ dnf install gpgme-devel libassuan-devel

Installing

If you built from source:

$ sudo make install

skopeo is also available from Fedora 23:

sudo dnf install skopeo

TODO

  • list all images on registry?
  • registry v2 search?
  • support output to docker load tar(s)
  • show repo tags via flag or when reference isn't tagged or digested
  • add tests (integration with deployed registries in container - Docker-like)
  • support rkt/appc image spec

NOT TODO

  • provide a format flag - just use the awesome jq

CONTRIBUTING

Dependencies management

skopeo uses vndr for dependencies management.

In order to add a new dependency to this project:

  • add a new line to vendor.conf according to vndr rules (e.g. github.com/pkg/errors master)
  • run vndr github.com/pkg/errors

In order to update an existing dependency:

  • update the relevant dependency line in vendor.conf
  • run vndr github.com/pkg/errors

In order to test out new PRs from containers/image to not break skopeo:

  • update vendor.conf. Find out the containers/image dependency; update it to vendor from your own branch and your own repository fork (e.g. github.com/containers/image my-branch https://github.com/runcom/image)
  • run vndr github.com/containers/image

License

skopeo is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. See LICENSE for the full license text.