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78526bb 12596: Update INSTALL for module aliasing changes.
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1 ++++++++++++++
2 INSTALLING ZSH
3 ++++++++++++++
4
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5 This file is divided into two parts: making and installing the shell, a
6 note on the script run to set up the environment for new users, and
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7 a description of various additional configuration options. You should
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8 have a look at the items in the second and third parts before following the
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9 instructions in the first.
10
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11
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12 =====================
13 MAKING AND INSTALLING
14 =====================
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15
16 Check MACHINES File
17 -------------------
18
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19 Check the file MACHINES in the top directory to see the architectures
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20 that zsh is known to compile on, as well as any special instructions
21 for your particular architecture. Most architectures will not require any
22 special instructions.
23
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24 Pre-configuration
25 -----------------
26
27 If you are using a normal source release, skip this section.
28
29 If the `configure' script does not already exist -- e.g., if you've got
30 a snapshot of the bare sources just checked out from a CVS repository
31 -- some things need to be built before the configuration can proceed.
32 Run the script `./Util/preconfig' to do this.
33
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34 Configuring Zsh
35 ---------------
36
37 To configure zsh, from the top level directory, do the command:
38 ./configure
39
40 Configure accepts several options (explained below). To display
41 currently available options, do the command:
42 ./configure --help
43
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44 Many of the interesting configuration options can be added after running
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45 configure by editing the user configuration section of config.h and the
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46 top level Makefile. However, see the end of this file for a list of
47 features configurable on the command line.
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48
49 Dynamic loading
50 ---------------
51
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52 Zsh has support for dynamically loadable modules. This is now enabled
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53 by default; to disable it, run configure with the --disable-dynamic option.
54 Note that dynamic loading does not work on all systems. On these systems
55 this option will have no effect. When dynamic loading is enabled, major
56 parts of zsh (including the Zsh Line Editor) are compiled into modules and
57 not included into the main zsh binary. Zsh autoloads these modules when
58 they are required. This means that you have to execute make
59 install.modules before you try the newly compiled zsh executable, and hence
60 also the install paths must be correct. The installation path for modules
61 is EPREFIX/lib/zsh/<zsh-version-number>, where EPREFIX defaults to PREFIX
62 unless given explicitly, and PREFIX defaults to /usr/local. See the end of
63 this file for options to configure to change these.
64
65 Adding and removing modules
66 ---------------------------
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67
68 The zsh distribution contains several modules, in the Src/Builtins,
69 Src/Modules and Src/Zle directories. If you have any additional zsh
70 modules that you wish to compile for this version of zsh, create another
71 subdirectory of the Src directory and put them there. You can create
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72 as many extra subdirectories as you need, but currently configure will only
73 search in immediate subdirectories of Src. The subdirectories must be
74 actual directories; symbolic links will not work. You will then need to
75 rerun configure; the easiest way is to run `config.status --recheck' from
76 the top-level build directory which retains the existing configuration as
77 much as possible.
78
79 The key to the module system is the file config.modules, created in the
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80 configuration process. In the normal case that dynamic loading is
81 available, all modules relevant to your configuration will be compiled and
82 installed as separate files, so unless you want the modules to be loaded by
83 default you don't need to do anything. For a non-dynamic zsh, the default
84 is to compile the complete, compctl, zle, computil, complist, sched,
85 parameter, zleparameter and rlimits modules into the shell, and you will
86 need to edit config.modules to make any other modules available.
87
88 If you wish to change the configuration, here is how config.modules works.
89 Each module has a line in the file. Be careful to retain the (strict)
90 format for lines in the file:
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91 link - `dynamic', if the module is to be dynamically linked -- meaningless
92 if this is not available on your system.
93 `static' if the module is to be linked directly into the executable.
94 `no' if the module is not to be linked at all. In this case it will
95 not even be compiled.
96 load - `yes' if the module is to be visible to the user. This will make
97 builtins, parameters etc. visible to the user without any need
98 to use the zmodload builtin.
99 `no' if an explicit zmodload command is to be required to load the
100 utilities in the module. Note that this applies both to
101 statically and dynamically linked modules.
102 auto - `yes' if the entry is to be regenerated whenever configure is run.
103 `no' if you wish to retain your hand-edited version.
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104 Do not edit the entry for the pseudo-module zsh/main (apart from the
105 `functions=' part) as this is the main shell. After you have edited this
106 file, run `make prep' in the Src subdirectory.
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107
108 Note that the modules depending on zle or complete (e.g.: complist and
109 deltochar) cannot be loaded dynamically on systems which do not allow symbols
110 in one dynamically loaded library to be visible from another; this is true,
111 for example, of version 4 of SunOS. The most convenient workaround is to
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112 compile zle and complete into the base executable by setting their `link'
113 entries in config.modules to `static' as described above.
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114
115 Compiler Options or Using a Different Compiler
116 ----------------------------------------------
117
118 By default, configure will use the "gcc" compiler if found. You can use a
119 different compiler, or add unusual options for compiling or linking that
120 the "configure" script does not know about, by either editing the user
121 configuration section of the top level Makefile (after running configure)
122 or giving "configure" initial values for these variables by setting them
123 in the environment. Using a Bourne-compatible shell (such as sh,ksh,zsh),
124 you can do that on the command line like this:
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125 CC=c89 ./configure --enable-cflags=-O2 --enable-libs=-lposix
126 This is almost equivalent to
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127 CC=c89 CFLAGS=-O2 LIBS=-lposix ./configure
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128 but has the advantage that the CFLAGS and LIBS variables are remembered if
129 the configuration is recreated by means of `config.status --recheck' (this
130 happens automatically if certain configuration files change). You can
131 set the make variables CFLAGS, CPPFLAGS, LDFLAGS and LIBS in this way,
132 however CC must appear as shown. If you are configuring from a csh-derived
133 shell, you may need to use the "env" program:
134 env CC=c89 ./configure --enable-cflags=-O2 --enable-libs=-lposix.
135
136 You can override the variables directly when running `make':
137 make CFLAGS=-g
138 However, these will not be passed down via `config.status --recheck'.
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139
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140 Check Generated Files
141 ---------------------
142
143 Configure will probe your system and create a "config.h" header file.
144 You should check the user configuration section at the beginning of
145 this include file. You should also examine the values (determined by
146 configure) of HOSTTYPE, OSTYPE, MACHTYPE, and VENDOR to make sure they
147 are correct. The value of these #defines's is used only to initialize
148 the corresponding default shell parameters. Since these shell parameters
149 are only for informational purposes, you can change them to whatever
150 you feel is appropriate.
151
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152 Also, configure will create a Makefile in the top level directory as well
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153 as in the various subdirectories. You should check the user configuration
154 section of the top level Makefile.
155
156 Compiling Zsh
157 -------------
158
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159 After configuring, to build zsh, execute the command:
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160 make
161
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162 It's then a good idea to check that your build is working properly:
163 make check
164
165 If you have trouble with a particular test, you can run it separately:
166 make TESTNUM=C02 check
167
168 The TESTNUM value can be a single test number, as above, or a letter to
169 run an entire category of tests:
170 make TESTNUM=Y check
171
172 See Test/README for a list of test categories.
173
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174 Installing Zsh
175 --------------
176
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177 If no make/compilation errors occur, then execute the command
178 make install
179 to install all the necessary files except for the info files.
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180
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181 Alternatively, you can install the various parts in separate stages. To
182 install the zsh binary, execute the command:
183 make install.bin
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184 Any previous copy of zsh will be renamed "zsh.old"
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185
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186 To install the dynamically-loadable modules, execute the command:
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187 make install.modules
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188 Note that this is required for the shell to operate properly if dynamic
189 loading is enabled.
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190
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191 To install the zsh man page, execute the command:
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192 make install.man
193
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194 To install all the shell functions which come with the distribution,
195 execute the command:
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196 make install.fns
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197
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198 To install the zsh info files (this must be done separately), execute the
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199 command:
200 make install.info
201 If the programme install-info is available, "make install.info" will
202 insert an entry in the file "dir" in the same directory as the info
203 files. Otherwise you will have to edit the topmost node of the info
204 tree "dir" manually in order to have the zsh info files available to
205 your info reader.
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206
207 Building Zsh On Additional Architectures
208 ----------------------------------------
209
210 To build zsh on additional architectures, you can do a "make distclean".
211 This should restore the zsh source distribution back to its original
212 state. You can then configure zsh as above on other architectures in
213 which you wish to build zsh. Or alternatively, you can use a different
214 build directory for each architecture.
215
216 Using A Different Build Directory
217 ---------------------------------
218
219 You can compile the zsh in a different directory from the one containing
220 the source code. Doing so allows you to compile it on more than one
221 architecture at the same time. To do this, you must use a version of
222 "make" that supports the "VPATH" variable, such as GNU "make". "cd" to
223 the directory where you want the object files and executables to go and
224 run the "configure" script. "configure" automatically checks for the
225 source code in the directory that "configure" is in. For example,
226
227 cd /usr/local/SunOS/zsh
228 /usr/local/src/zsh-3.0/configure
229 make
230
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231 Note that this is mutually exclusive with using the source directories
232 as make can become confused by build files created in the source directories.
233
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234
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235 ================================
236 AUTOMATIC NEW USER CONFIGURATION
237 ================================
238
239 In the default configuration, the shell comes with a system based around
240 the zsh/newuser add-on module that detects when a user first starts the
241 shell interactively and has no initialisation files (.zshenv, .zshrc,
242 .zprofile or .zlogin). The shell then executes code in the file
243 scripts/newuser in the shared library area (by default
244 /usr/local/share/zsh/<VERSION>/scripts/newuser). This feature can be
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245 turned off simply by removing or renaming this script. This is the
246 recommended way of disabling the features as the function
247 zsh-newuser-install (see below) remains available for users who
248 wish to run it.
249
250 The module can be removed entirely from the configured shell by editing the
251 line starting "name=zsh/newuser" in the config.modules file, which is
252 generated in the top level distribution directory during configuration:
253 change the line to include "link=no auto=no".
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254
255 The supplied script executes the function supplied as
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256 Functions/Newuser/zsh-newuser-install, which is installed to the user's
257 function path when the module is installed. The function can be run by
258 hand after being marked for autoload. This is documented in the zshcontrib
259 manual or in the info node `User Configuration Functions'.
260
261 zsh-newuser-install is currently under development. It is probably
262 preferable for administrators who wish to customize the system their own
263 way to edit the newuser script in scripts/newuser; for example, this script
264 could copy skeleton files into place safe in the knowledge that the files
265 don't yet exist. Also, as there is currently no internationalization
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266 support, administrators of sites with users who mostly do not speak English
267 may wish not to install the zsh/newuser module.
268
269
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270 =====================
271 CONFIGURATION OPTIONS
272 =====================
273
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274 Multibyte Character Support
275 ---------------------------
276
277 Support for multibyte character sets that extend ASCII, such as UTF-8, is
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278 now reasonably close to complete, except that combining characters are not
279 handled properly (some assistance with this problem would be appreciated).
280 The configuration script should turn on multibyte support on all systems
281 where it can be compiled successfully.
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282
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283 The support can be explicitly enabled or disabled with --enable-multibyte or
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284 --disable-multibyte. The developers are not aware of any need to use
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285 --disable-multibyte and this should be reported as a bug. Currently
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286 multibyte mode is believed to work on at least the following:
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287
288 - All(?) current GNU/Linux distributions
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289 - OS X 10.4.3 (problems have been reported with multibyte characters
290 in HFS file names)
291 - NetBSD 2.0.2
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292 - Solaris 8+ (inputting multibyte characters from the keyboard doesn't
293 work in some installations).
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294 - Cygwin (though use of multibyte characters is somewhat non-standard).
295
296 The corresponding shell option MULTIBYTE is now on by default in all
297 emulation modes when multibyte support is enabled. Turning it off is not
298 recommended unless there is a particular need to examine single bytes
299 regardless of the locale. As the line editor bases its behaviour on the
300 locale regardless of the option (in order to correspond to the displayed
301 character set), the option should be left on during the execution of
302 user-defined editor and completion widgets so that the behaviour
303 corresponds to that of builtin widgets.
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304
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305 See chapter 5 in the FAQ for some notes on multibyte input.
306
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307 Terminal Handling
308 -----------------
309
310 Historically, several different libraries have provided the features the
311 shell needs to provide output to the terminal. The most common have been
312 termcap, which is now largely outmoded, and curses, which supersedes
313 termcap and typically contains the same features as well as others.
314 configure will search for an appropriate library; the default search order
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315 is "ncursesw tinfo termcap ncurses curses" except on HP-UX and Solaris
316 where it is "Hcurses ncursesw ncurses curses termcap". Note that even
317 though termcap is searched before traditional forms of curses zsh tries to
318 make features from curses available and if the curses library contains both
319 curses and termcap features, as is normal, the curses variant is used.
320 ncurses is a newer version of curses and tinfo is related to it.
321
322 The library ncursesw is a variant of ncurses that supports wide characters.
323 zsh attempts to use this to provide functions needed by the zsh/curses
324 module; depending on the configuration, the main shell may not require the
325 additional functions. As the integration of wide character support into
326 ncurses is continuing, it is possible that on some systems attempting to
327 use ncursesw may cause problems during building. If so, please report this
328 to the developers at zsh-workers@sunsite.dk and attempt to recompile with
329 --with-term-lib="tinfo termcap ncurses curses" (see below).
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330
331 On some systems a suitable development package with a name such as
332 curses-devel or ncurses-devel needs to be installed before zsh can
333 be compiled. This is likely to be contained on any installation media,
334 or available for download. It is highly unlikely that you will need to
335 compile this from scratch.
336
337 You can tell configure which libraries to search by passing an
338 argument via --with-term-lib. This takes a space-separated list
339 of libraries to try as its argument, so the default is equivalent to
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340 --with-term-lib="ncursesw tinfo termcap ncurses curses". It replaces the
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341 old option --with-curses-terminfo, which altered the search order but
342 didn't allow an explicit search list to be passed.
343
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344 Memory Routines
345 ---------------
346
347 Included in this release are alternate malloc and associated functions
348 which reduce memory usage on some systems. To use these, add the option
349 --enable-zsh-mem
350 when invoking "configure".
351
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352 You should check MACHINES to see if there are specific recommendations
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353 about using the zsh malloc routines on your particular architecture.
354
355 Debugging Routines
356 ------------------
357
358 You can turn on various debugging options when invoking "configure".
359
360 To turn on some extra checking in the memory management routines, you
361 can use the following options when invoking "configure".
362 --enable-zsh-mem-warning # turn on warnings of memory allocation errors
363 --enable-zsh-secure-free # turn on memory checking of free()
364
365 If you are using zsh's memory allocation routines (--enable-zsh-mem), you
366 can turn on debugging of this code. This enables the builtin "mem".
367 --enable-zsh-mem-debug # debug zsh's memory allocators
368
369 You can turn on some debugging information of zsh's internal hash tables.
370 This enables the builtin "hashinfo".
371 --enable-zsh-hash-debug # turn on debugging of internal hash tables
372
373 To add some sanity checks and generate debugging information for debuggers
374 you can use the following option. This also disables optimization.
375 --enable-zsh-debug # use it if you want to debug zsh
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376 In this mode, zsh may output extra information about internal errors
377 to stderr. The shell variable ZSH_DEBUG_LOG may be set to another file
378 to which errors will be appended.
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379
380 Startup/shutdown files
381 ----------------------
382
383 Zsh has several startup/shutdown files which are in /etc by default. This
384 can be overriden using one of the options below when invoking "configure".
385
386 --enable-etcdir=directory # default directory for global zsh scripts
387 --enable-zshenv=pathname # the full pathname of the global zshenv script
388 --enable-zshrc=pathname # the full pathname of the global zshrc script
389 --enable-zlogin=pathname # the full pathname of the global zlogin script
390 --enable-zprofile=pathname # the full pathname of the global zprofile script
391 --enable-zlogout=pathname # the full pathname of the global zlogout script
392
393 Any startup/shutdown script can be disabled by giving the
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394 --disable-SCRIPTNAME option to "configure". The --disable-etcdir option
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395 disables all startup/shutdown files which are not explicitly enabled.
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396
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397 Shell functions
398 ---------------
399
400 By default, the shell functions which are installed with `make install' or
401 `make install.fns' go into the directory ${datadir}/zsh/functions, which
402 unless you have specified --datadir is the same as
403 ${prefix}/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION/functions ($prefix itself defaults to
404 /usr/local, as described below). This directory will also be compiled into
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405 the shell as the default directory for the parameters $fpath and
406 $FPATH. You can override it with --enable-fndir=directory; --disable-fndir
407 or --enable-fndir=no will turn off both installation of functions and the
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408 setting of a default value for $fpath/$FPATH. Note the presence of
409 $ZSH_VERSION (e.g. `3.1.7') to avoid clashes between versions of zsh.
410 If you only run one version of zsh at once, installing into a common
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411 directory such as /usr/local/share/zsh/functions is fine --- note, however,
412 that uninstallation is more likely to create problems in this case.
413
414 The functions to be installed are controlled by config.modules. These
415 appear at the end of the line after `functions=': note that the rest of the
416 line is taken verbatim as shell command line text, i.e. no quoting is used
417 around the value as a whole and unquoted wildcards will be expanded. To
418 prevent any functions from being installed, either remove the `functions='
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419 entry or delete the rest of the line after it.
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420
421 Functions not specific to a particular module are listed on the zsh/main
422 line. None of these are crucial to shell operation, so you may choose not
423 to install them. For other modules, the functions will be installed if and
424 only if the module itself is installed. This will usually be what you
425 want; in particular, the zsh/complete and zsh/zftp modules are of much less
426 use without the associated functions. The functions listed with zsh/zle
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427 are not used by the editor unless you explicitly load them, however.
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428
429 You can also use the configure option --enable-function-subdirs to allow
430 shell functions to be installed into subdirectories of the function
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431 directory, i.e. `Base/*' files will be installed into `FNDIR/Base, and so
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432 on. This also initialises $fpath/$FPATH appropriately.
433
434 The option --enable-site-fndir controls whether to create and initialise
435 $fpath to include a directory for site-specific functions. By default this
436 is created in the location ${datadir}/zsh/site-functions, i.e. parallel to
437 the version-specific functions directory, and inserted at the start of the
438 $fpath array on shell startup. This directory will not be affected by
439 `make uninstall' or `make uninstall.fns', although the version-specific
440 directory and its contents will be deleted.
441
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442 Function depth
443 --------------
444
445 Shell functions may be called recursively. In order to detect infinite
446 recursion the shell has a limit on the depth to which functions may be
447 called: note that this is a single limit for all functions, not a limit
448 for each function called recursively. The default for the limit is 4096.
449 The limit may be altered to the value MAX by passing the option
450 --enable-max-function-depth=MAX to configure. Alternatively, the limit may
451 be disabled with --disable-max-function-depth. However, this is not
452 recommended as it is likely to cause the shell to crash on an infinite
453 recursion.
454
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455 Support for large files and integers
456 ------------------------------------
457
458 Some 32-bit systems allow special compilation modes to get around the 2GB
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459 file size barrier. This is enabled by default; use --disable-lfs to turn
460 it off. Not all systems recognize the test used by zsh (via the getconf
461 command), so flags may need to be set by hand. On HP-UX 10.20, zsh has
462 been successfully compiled with large file support by configuring with
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463 CC="cc -Ae" CPPFLAGS="-D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_FILE64" configure \
464 --enable-lfs ...
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465 You can also specify --enable-lfs together with a value, which will be
466 interpreted as the name of a 64-bit integer type, for example
467 --enable-lfs="long long" (although this type is checked for anyway).
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468
469 Furthermore, use of --enable-lfs will also enable 64-bit arithmetic for
470 shell parameters, and anywhere they are used such as in mathematical
471 formulae. This depends only on the shell finding a suitable 64-bit integer
472 type; it does not require that support for large files is actually
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473 enabled. Hence --enable-lfs is useful on many 32-bit systems
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474 with a suitable compiler such as gcc.
475
476 Also note that if `configure' finds out that either of the types off_t or
477 ino_t are 64-bit quantities, but that long integers are only 32 bits, all
478 the above will be enabled automatically. This is necessary to ensure
479 correct handling of these types.
480
481 None of this is relevant for 64-bit systems; zsh should compile and run
482 without problems if (sizeof(long) == 8).
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483
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484 Searching for additional features
485 ---------------------------------
486
487 Various additional features are turned off by default to avoid
488 compatibility problems.
489
490 --enable-pcre:
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491
492 Zsh has a module which allows the pcre regular expression library to be
493 used via shell builtins. Compiling this library into the shell with
494 dynamic loading (the default where available) produces a dependency on the
495 library libpcre.so. This is a problem on systems where zsh needs to be
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496 available at boot before the directory containing libpcre.so (for example
497 /usr/lib or /usr/local/lib) is mounted. For this reason, pcre support will
498 only be searched for if the option --enable-pcre is passed to configure.
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499
500 (Future versions of the shell may have a better fix for this problem.)
501
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502 --enable-cap:
503
504 This searches for POSIX capabilities; if found, the `cap' library
505 is available and the shell will use these to determine if the
506 shell is running in some privileged mode. This is turned off by
507 default as on some systems non-standard headers (in particular AIX) are
508 required. A direct fix for that problem would be appreciated.
509
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510 A test for the function tcsetpgrp is turned on by default. The test
511 needs to run the function to determine if the implementation is
512 usable. However, this can cause problems when configure is run without
513 a controlling terminal (eg. from cron). To avoid this, use
514 --with-tcsetpgrp or --without-tcsetpgrp to tell configure whether the
515 function should be used.
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516
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517 Options For Configure
518 ---------------------
519
520 The `configure' program accepts many options, not all of which are useful
521 or relevant to zsh. To get the complete list of configure options, run
522 "./configure --help". The following list should contain most of the
523 options of interest for configuring zsh.
524
525 Configuration:
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526 --cache-file=FILE # cache test results in FILE
527 --help # print a help message
528 --version # print the version of autoconf that create configure
529 --quiet, --silent # do not print `checking...' messages
530 --no-create # do not create output files
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531
532 Directories:
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533 --prefix=PREFIX # install host independent files in PREFIX [/usr/local]
534 --exec-prefix=EPREFIX # install host dependent files in EPREFIX [PREFIX]
535 --bindir=DIR # install user executables in DIR [EPREFIX/bin]
536 --infodir=DIR # install info documentation in DIR [PREFIX/info]
537 --mandir=DIR # install man documentation in DIR [PREFIX/man]
538 --srcdir=DIR # find the sources in DIR [configure dir or ..]
539 --datadir=DATADIR # install shared files in DATADIR [PREFIX/share]
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540
541 Features:
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542 --enable-FEATURE # enable use of this feature
543 --disable-FEATURE # disable use of this feature
544
545 Here is the list of FEATURES currently supported. Defaults are shown in
546 brackets, though a value shown as `yes' (equivalent to --enable-FEATURE)
547 will be ignored if your OS doesn't support that feature.
548
549 zsh-debug # compile debugging features into zsh [no]
550 zsh-mem # use zsh's memory allocators [no]
551 zsh-mem-debug # debug zsh's memory allocators [no]
552 zsh-mem-warning # turn on warnings of memory allocation errors [no]
553 zsh-secure-free # turn on memory checking of free() [no]
554 zsh-hash-debug # turn on debugging of internal hash tables [no]
555 etcdir=directory # default directory for global zsh scripts [/etc]
556 zshenv=pathname # the path to the global zshenv script [/etc/zshenv]
557 zshrc=pathname # the path to the global zshrc script [/etc/zshrc]
558 zlogin=pathname # the path to the global zlogin script [/etc/zlogin]
559 zprofile=pathname # the path to the global zprofile script [/etc/zprofile]
560 zlogout=pathname # the path to the global zlogout script [/etc/zlogout]
561 fndir=directory # the directory where shell functions will go
562 # [DATADIR/zsh/VERSION/functions]
563 site-fndir=directory # the directory where site-specific functions can go
564 # [DATADIR/zsh/site-functions]
565 function-subdirs # if functions will be installed into subdirectories [no]
566 dynamic # allow dynamically loaded binary modules [yes]
567 lfs # allow configure check for large files [yes]
568 locale # allow use of locale library [yes]
569
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