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# frozen_string_literal: true
require 'stringio'
require 'puma/thread_pool'
require 'puma/const'
require 'puma/events'
require 'puma/null_io'
require 'puma/reactor'
require 'puma/client'
require 'puma/binder'
require 'puma/delegation'
require 'puma/accept_nonblock'
require 'puma/util'
require 'puma/puma_http11'
require 'socket'
module Puma
# The HTTP Server itself. Serves out a single Rack app.
#
# This class is used by the `Puma::Single` and `Puma::Cluster` classes
# to generate one or more `Puma::Server` instances capable of handling requests.
# Each Puma process will contain one `Puma::Server` instance.
#
# The `Puma::Server` instance pulls requests from the socket, adds them to a
# `Puma::Reactor` where they get eventually passed to a `Puma::ThreadPool`.
#
# Each `Puma::Server` will have one reactor and one thread pool.
class Server
include Puma::Const
extend Puma::Delegation
attr_reader :thread
attr_reader :events
attr_accessor :app
attr_accessor :min_threads
attr_accessor :max_threads
attr_accessor :persistent_timeout
attr_accessor :auto_trim_time
attr_accessor :reaping_time
attr_accessor :first_data_timeout
# Create a server for the rack app +app+.
#
# +events+ is an object which will be called when certain error events occur
# to be handled. See Puma::Events for the list of current methods to implement.
#
# Server#run returns a thread that you can join on to wait for the server
# to do its work.
#
def initialize(app, events=Events.stdio, options={})
@app = app
@events = events
@check, @notify = Puma::Util.pipe
@status = :stop
@min_threads = 0
@max_threads = 16
@auto_trim_time = 30
@reaping_time = 1
@thread = nil
@thread_pool = nil
@early_hints = nil
@persistent_timeout = options.fetch(:persistent_timeout, PERSISTENT_TIMEOUT)
@first_data_timeout = options.fetch(:first_data_timeout, FIRST_DATA_TIMEOUT)
@binder = Binder.new(events)
@leak_stack_on_error = true
@options = options
@queue_requests = options[:queue_requests].nil? ? true : options[:queue_requests]
ENV['RACK_ENV'] ||= "development"
@mode = :http
@precheck_closing = true
end
attr_accessor :binder, :leak_stack_on_error, :early_hints
forward :add_tcp_listener, :@binder
forward :add_ssl_listener, :@binder
forward :add_unix_listener, :@binder
forward :connected_port, :@binder
def inherit_binder(bind)
@binder = bind
end
def tcp_mode!
@mode = :tcp
end
# On Linux, use TCP_CORK to better control how the TCP stack
# packetizes our stream. This improves both latency and throughput.
#
if RUBY_PLATFORM =~ /linux/
UNPACK_TCP_STATE_FROM_TCP_INFO = "C".freeze
# 6 == Socket::IPPROTO_TCP
# 3 == TCP_CORK
# 1/0 == turn on/off
def cork_socket(socket)
begin
socket.setsockopt(6, 3, 1) if socket.kind_of? TCPSocket
rescue IOError, SystemCallError
Thread.current.purge_interrupt_queue if Thread.current.respond_to? :purge_interrupt_queue
end
end
def uncork_socket(socket)
begin
socket.setsockopt(6, 3, 0) if socket.kind_of? TCPSocket
rescue IOError, SystemCallError
Thread.current.purge_interrupt_queue if Thread.current.respond_to? :purge_interrupt_queue
end
end
def closed_socket?(socket)
return false unless socket.kind_of? TCPSocket
return false unless @precheck_closing
begin
tcp_info = socket.getsockopt(Socket::SOL_TCP, Socket::TCP_INFO)
rescue IOError, SystemCallError
Thread.current.purge_interrupt_queue if Thread.current.respond_to? :purge_interrupt_queue
@precheck_closing = false
false
else
state = tcp_info.unpack(UNPACK_TCP_STATE_FROM_TCP_INFO)[0]
# TIME_WAIT: 6, CLOSE: 7, CLOSE_WAIT: 8, LAST_ACK: 9, CLOSING: 11
(state >= 6 && state <= 9) || state == 11
end
end
else
def cork_socket(socket)
end
def uncork_socket(socket)
end
def closed_socket?(socket)
false
end
end
def backlog
@thread_pool and @thread_pool.backlog
end
def running
@thread_pool and @thread_pool.spawned
end
# This number represents the number of requests that
# the server is capable of taking right now.
#
# For example if the number is 5 then it means
# there are 5 threads sitting idle ready to take
# a request. If one request comes in, then the
# value would be 4 until it finishes processing.
def pool_capacity
@thread_pool and @thread_pool.pool_capacity
end
# Lopez Mode == raw tcp apps
def run_lopez_mode(background=true)
@thread_pool = ThreadPool.new(@min_threads,
@max_threads,
Hash) do |client, tl|
io = client.to_io
addr = io.peeraddr.last
if addr.empty?
# Set unix socket addrs to localhost
addr = "127.0.0.1:0"
else
addr = "#{addr}:#{io.peeraddr[1]}"
end
env = { 'thread' => tl, REMOTE_ADDR => addr }
begin
@app.call env, client.to_io
rescue Object => e
STDERR.puts "! Detected exception at toplevel: #{e.message} (#{e.class})"
STDERR.puts e.backtrace
end
client.close unless env['detach']
end
@events.fire :state, :running
if background
@thread = Thread.new { handle_servers_lopez_mode }
return @thread
else
handle_servers_lopez_mode
end
end
def handle_servers_lopez_mode
begin
check = @check
sockets = [check] + @binder.ios
pool = @thread_pool
while @status == :run
begin
ios = IO.select sockets
ios.first.each do |sock|
if sock == check
break if handle_check
else
begin
if io = sock.accept_nonblock
client = Client.new io, nil
pool << client
end
rescue SystemCallError
# nothing
rescue Errno::ECONNABORTED
# client closed the socket even before accept
begin
io.close
rescue
Thread.current.purge_interrupt_queue if Thread.current.respond_to? :purge_interrupt_queue
end
end
end
end
rescue Object => e
@events.unknown_error self, e, "Listen loop"
end
end
@events.fire :state, @status
graceful_shutdown if @status == :stop || @status == :restart
rescue Exception => e
STDERR.puts "Exception handling servers: #{e.message} (#{e.class})"
STDERR.puts e.backtrace
ensure
begin
@check.close
rescue
Thread.current.purge_interrupt_queue if Thread.current.respond_to? :purge_interrupt_queue
end
# Prevent can't modify frozen IOError (RuntimeError)
begin
@notify.close
rescue IOError
# no biggy
end
end
@events.fire :state, :done
end
# Runs the server.
#
# If +background+ is true (the default) then a thread is spun
# up in the background to handle requests. Otherwise requests
# are handled synchronously.
#
def run(background=true)
BasicSocket.do_not_reverse_lookup = true
@events.fire :state, :booting
@status = :run
if @mode == :tcp
return run_lopez_mode(background)
end
queue_requests = @queue_requests
@thread_pool = ThreadPool.new(@min_threads,
@max_threads,
IOBuffer) do |client, buffer|
# Advertise this server into the thread
Thread.current[ThreadLocalKey] = self
process_now = false
begin
if queue_requests
process_now = client.eagerly_finish
else
client.finish
process_now = true
end
rescue MiniSSL::SSLError => e
ssl_socket = client.io
addr = ssl_socket.peeraddr.last
cert = ssl_socket.peercert
client.close
@events.ssl_error self, addr, cert, e
rescue HttpParserError => e
client.write_400
client.close
@events.parse_error self, client.env, e
rescue ConnectionError, EOFError
client.close
else
if process_now
process_client client, buffer
else
client.set_timeout @first_data_timeout
@reactor.add client
end
end
end
@thread_pool.clean_thread_locals = @options[:clean_thread_locals]
if queue_requests
@reactor = Reactor.new self, @thread_pool
@reactor.run_in_thread
end
if @reaping_time
@thread_pool.auto_reap!(@reaping_time)
end
if @auto_trim_time
@thread_pool.auto_trim!(@auto_trim_time)
end
@events.fire :state, :running
if background
@thread = Thread.new { handle_servers }
return @thread
else
handle_servers
end
end
def handle_servers
begin
check = @check
sockets = [check] + @binder.ios
pool = @thread_pool
queue_requests = @queue_requests
remote_addr_value = nil
remote_addr_header = nil
case @options[:remote_address]
when :value
remote_addr_value = @options[:remote_address_value]
when :header
remote_addr_header = @options[:remote_address_header]
end
while @status == :run
begin
ios = IO.select sockets
ios.first.each do |sock|
if sock == check
break if handle_check
else
begin
if io = sock.accept_nonblock
client = Client.new io, @binder.env(sock)
if remote_addr_value
client.peerip = remote_addr_value
elsif remote_addr_header
client.remote_addr_header = remote_addr_header
end
pool << client
busy_threads = pool.wait_until_not_full
if busy_threads == 0
@options[:out_of_band].each(&:call) if @options[:out_of_band]
end
end
rescue SystemCallError
# nothing
rescue Errno::ECONNABORTED
# client closed the socket even before accept
begin
io.close
rescue
Thread.current.purge_interrupt_queue if Thread.current.respond_to? :purge_interrupt_queue
end
end
end
end
rescue Object => e
@events.unknown_error self, e, "Listen loop"
end
end
@events.fire :state, @status
graceful_shutdown if @status == :stop || @status == :restart
if queue_requests
@reactor.clear!
@reactor.shutdown
end
rescue Exception => e
STDERR.puts "Exception handling servers: #{e.message} (#{e.class})"
STDERR.puts e.backtrace
ensure
@check.close
@notify.close
end
@events.fire :state, :done
end
# :nodoc:
def handle_check
cmd = @check.read(1)
case cmd
when STOP_COMMAND
@status = :stop
return true
when HALT_COMMAND
@status = :halt
return true
when RESTART_COMMAND
@status = :restart
return true
end
return false
end
# Given a connection on +client+, handle the incoming requests.
#
# This method support HTTP Keep-Alive so it may, depending on if the client
# indicates that it supports keep alive, wait for another request before
# returning.
#
def process_client(client, buffer)
begin
clean_thread_locals = @options[:clean_thread_locals]
close_socket = true
while true
case handle_request(client, buffer)
when false
return
when :async
close_socket = false
return
when true
return unless @queue_requests
buffer.reset
ThreadPool.clean_thread_locals if clean_thread_locals
unless client.reset(@status == :run)
close_socket = false
client.set_timeout @persistent_timeout
@reactor.add client
return
end
end
end
# The client disconnected while we were reading data
rescue ConnectionError
# Swallow them. The ensure tries to close +client+ down
# SSL handshake error
rescue MiniSSL::SSLError => e
lowlevel_error(e, client.env)
ssl_socket = client.io
addr = ssl_socket.peeraddr.last
cert = ssl_socket.peercert
close_socket = true
@events.ssl_error self, addr, cert, e
# The client doesn't know HTTP well
rescue HttpParserError => e
lowlevel_error(e, client.env)
client.write_400
@events.parse_error self, client.env, e
# Server error
rescue StandardError => e
lowlevel_error(e, client.env)
client.write_500
@events.unknown_error self, e, "Read"
ensure
buffer.reset
begin
client.close if close_socket
rescue IOError, SystemCallError
Thread.current.purge_interrupt_queue if Thread.current.respond_to? :purge_interrupt_queue
# Already closed
rescue StandardError => e
@events.unknown_error self, e, "Client"
end
end
end
# Given a Hash +env+ for the request read from +client+, add
# and fixup keys to comply with Rack's env guidelines.
#
def normalize_env(env, client)
if host = env[HTTP_HOST]
if colon = host.index(":")
env[SERVER_NAME] = host[0, colon]
env[SERVER_PORT] = host[colon+1, host.bytesize]
else
env[SERVER_NAME] = host
env[SERVER_PORT] = default_server_port(env)
end
else
env[SERVER_NAME] = LOCALHOST
env[SERVER_PORT] = default_server_port(env)
end
unless env[REQUEST_PATH]
# it might be a dumbass full host request header
uri = URI.parse(env[REQUEST_URI])
env[REQUEST_PATH] = uri.path
raise "No REQUEST PATH" unless env[REQUEST_PATH]
# A nil env value will cause a LintError (and fatal errors elsewhere),
# so only set the env value if there actually is a value.
env[QUERY_STRING] = uri.query if uri.query
end
env[PATH_INFO] = env[REQUEST_PATH]
# From http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3875 :
# "Script authors should be aware that the REMOTE_ADDR and
# REMOTE_HOST meta-variables (see sections 4.1.8 and 4.1.9)
# may not identify the ultimate source of the request.
# They identify the client for the immediate request to the
# server; that client may be a proxy, gateway, or other
# intermediary acting on behalf of the actual source client."
#
unless env.key?(REMOTE_ADDR)
begin
addr = client.peerip
rescue Errno::ENOTCONN
# Client disconnects can result in an inability to get the
# peeraddr from the socket; default to localhost.
addr = LOCALHOST_IP
end
# Set unix socket addrs to localhost
addr = LOCALHOST_IP if addr.empty?
env[REMOTE_ADDR] = addr
end
end
def default_server_port(env)
if ['on', HTTPS].include?(env[HTTPS_KEY]) || env[HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO].to_s[0...5] == HTTPS || env[HTTP_X_FORWARDED_SCHEME] == HTTPS || env[HTTP_X_FORWARDED_SSL] == "on"
PORT_443
else
PORT_80
end
end
# Takes the request +req+, invokes the Rack application to construct
# the response and writes it back to +req.io+.
#
# The second parameter +lines+ is a IO-like object unique to this thread.
# This is normally an instance of Puma::IOBuffer.
#
# It'll return +false+ when the connection is closed, this doesn't mean
# that the response wasn't successful.
#
# It'll return +:async+ if the connection remains open but will be handled
# elsewhere, i.e. the connection has been hijacked by the Rack application.
#
# Finally, it'll return +true+ on keep-alive connections.
def handle_request(req, lines)
env = req.env
client = req.io
return false if closed_socket?(client)
normalize_env env, req
env[PUMA_SOCKET] = client
if env[HTTPS_KEY] && client.peercert
env[PUMA_PEERCERT] = client.peercert
end
env[HIJACK_P] = true
env[HIJACK] = req
body = req.body
head = env[REQUEST_METHOD] == HEAD
env[RACK_INPUT] = body
env[RACK_URL_SCHEME] = default_server_port(env) == PORT_443 ? HTTPS : HTTP
if @early_hints
env[EARLY_HINTS] = lambda { |headers|
begin
fast_write client, "HTTP/1.1 103 Early Hints\r\n".freeze
headers.each_pair do |k, vs|
if vs.respond_to?(:to_s) && !vs.to_s.empty?
vs.to_s.split(NEWLINE).each do |v|
fast_write client, "#{k}: #{v}\r\n"
end
else
fast_write client, "#{k}: #{vs}\r\n"
end
end
fast_write client, "\r\n".freeze
rescue ConnectionError
# noop, if we lost the socket we just won't send the early hints
end
}
end
# A rack extension. If the app writes #call'ables to this
# array, we will invoke them when the request is done.
#
after_reply = env[RACK_AFTER_REPLY] = []
begin
begin
status, headers, res_body = @app.call(env)
return :async if req.hijacked
status = status.to_i
if status == -1
unless headers.empty? and res_body == []
raise "async response must have empty headers and body"
end
return :async
end
rescue ThreadPool::ForceShutdown => e
@events.log "Detected force shutdown of a thread, returning 503"
@events.unknown_error self, e, "Rack app"
status = 503
headers = {}
res_body = ["Request was internally terminated early\n"]
rescue Exception => e
@events.unknown_error self, e, "Rack app", env
status, headers, res_body = lowlevel_error(e, env)
end
content_length = nil
no_body = head
if res_body.kind_of? Array and res_body.size == 1
content_length = res_body[0].bytesize
end
cork_socket client
line_ending = LINE_END
colon = COLON
http_11 = if env[HTTP_VERSION] == HTTP_11
allow_chunked = true
keep_alive = env.fetch(HTTP_CONNECTION, "").downcase != CLOSE
include_keepalive_header = false
# An optimization. The most common response is 200, so we can
# reply with the proper 200 status without having to compute
# the response header.
#
if status == 200
lines << HTTP_11_200
else
lines.append "HTTP/1.1 ", status.to_s, " ",
fetch_status_code(status), line_ending
no_body ||= status < 200 || STATUS_WITH_NO_ENTITY_BODY[status]
end
true
else
allow_chunked = false
keep_alive = env.fetch(HTTP_CONNECTION, "").downcase == KEEP_ALIVE
include_keepalive_header = keep_alive
# Same optimization as above for HTTP/1.1
#
if status == 200
lines << HTTP_10_200
else
lines.append "HTTP/1.0 ", status.to_s, " ",
fetch_status_code(status), line_ending
no_body ||= status < 200 || STATUS_WITH_NO_ENTITY_BODY[status]
end
false
end
response_hijack = nil
headers.each do |k, vs|
case k.downcase
when CONTENT_LENGTH2
content_length = vs
next
when TRANSFER_ENCODING
allow_chunked = false
content_length = nil
when HIJACK
response_hijack = vs
next
end
if vs.respond_to?(:to_s) && !vs.to_s.empty?
vs.to_s.split(NEWLINE).each do |v|
lines.append k, colon, v, line_ending
end
else
lines.append k, colon, line_ending
end
end
if include_keepalive_header
lines << CONNECTION_KEEP_ALIVE
elsif http_11 && !keep_alive
lines << CONNECTION_CLOSE
end
if no_body
if content_length and status != 204
lines.append CONTENT_LENGTH_S, content_length.to_s, line_ending
end
lines << line_ending
fast_write client, lines.to_s
return keep_alive
end
if content_length
lines.append CONTENT_LENGTH_S, content_length.to_s, line_ending
chunked = false
elsif !response_hijack and allow_chunked
lines << TRANSFER_ENCODING_CHUNKED
chunked = true
end
lines << line_ending
fast_write client, lines.to_s
if response_hijack
response_hijack.call client
return :async
end
begin
res_body.each do |part|
next if part.bytesize.zero?
if chunked
fast_write client, part.bytesize.to_s(16)
fast_write client, line_ending
fast_write client, part
fast_write client, line_ending
else
fast_write client, part
end
client.flush
end
if chunked
fast_write client, CLOSE_CHUNKED
client.flush
end
rescue SystemCallError, IOError
raise ConnectionError, "Connection error detected during write"
end
ensure
uncork_socket client
body.close
req.tempfile.unlink if req.tempfile
res_body.close if res_body.respond_to? :close
after_reply.each { |o| o.call }
end
return keep_alive
end
def fetch_status_code(status)
HTTP_STATUS_CODES.fetch(status) { 'CUSTOM' }
end
private :fetch_status_code
# Given the request +env+ from +client+ and the partial body +body+
# plus a potential Content-Length value +cl+, finish reading
# the body and return it.
#
# If the body is larger than MAX_BODY, a Tempfile object is used
# for the body, otherwise a StringIO is used.
#
def read_body(env, client, body, cl)
content_length = cl.to_i
remain = content_length - body.bytesize
return StringIO.new(body) if remain <= 0
# Use a Tempfile if there is a lot of data left
if remain > MAX_BODY
stream = Tempfile.new(Const::PUMA_TMP_BASE)
stream.binmode
else
# The body[0,0] trick is to get an empty string in the same
# encoding as body.
stream = StringIO.new body[0,0]
end
stream.write body
# Read an odd sized chunk so we can read even sized ones
# after this
chunk = client.readpartial(remain % CHUNK_SIZE)
# No chunk means a closed socket
unless chunk
stream.close
return nil
end
remain -= stream.write(chunk)
# Raed the rest of the chunks
while remain > 0
chunk = client.readpartial(CHUNK_SIZE)
unless chunk
stream.close
return nil
end
remain -= stream.write(chunk)
end
stream.rewind
return stream
end
# A fallback rack response if +@app+ raises as exception.
#
def lowlevel_error(e, env)
if handler = @options[:lowlevel_error_handler]
if handler.arity == 1
return handler.call(e)
else
return handler.call(e, env)
end
end
if @leak_stack_on_error
[500, {}, ["Puma caught this error: #{e.message} (#{e.class})\n#{e.backtrace.join("\n")}"]]
else
[500, {}, ["An unhandled lowlevel error occurred. The application logs may have details.\n"]]
end
end
# Wait for all outstanding requests to finish.
#
def graceful_shutdown
if @options[:shutdown_debug]
threads = Thread.list
total = threads.size
pid = Process.pid
$stdout.syswrite "#{pid}: === Begin thread backtrace dump ===\n"
threads.each_with_index do |t,i|
$stdout.syswrite "#{pid}: Thread #{i+1}/#{total}: #{t.inspect}\n"
$stdout.syswrite "#{pid}: #{t.backtrace.join("\n#{pid}: ")}\n\n"
end
$stdout.syswrite "#{pid}: === End thread backtrace dump ===\n"
end
if @options[:drain_on_shutdown]
count = 0
while true
ios = IO.select @binder.ios, nil, nil, 0
break unless ios
ios.first.each do |sock|
begin
if io = sock.accept_nonblock
count += 1
client = Client.new io, @binder.env(sock)
@thread_pool << client
end
rescue SystemCallError
end
end
end
@events.debug "Drained #{count} additional connections."
end
if @status != :restart
@binder.close
end
if @thread_pool
if timeout = @options[:force_shutdown_after]
@thread_pool.shutdown timeout.to_i
else
@thread_pool.shutdown
end
end
end
def notify_safely(message)
begin
@notify << message
rescue IOError
# The server, in another thread, is shutting down
Thread.current.purge_interrupt_queue if Thread.current.respond_to? :purge_interrupt_queue
rescue RuntimeError => e
# Temporary workaround for https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/13239
if e.message.include?('IOError')
Thread.current.purge_interrupt_queue if Thread.current.respond_to? :purge_interrupt_queue
else
raise e
end
end
end
private :notify_safely
# Stops the acceptor thread and then causes the worker threads to finish
# off the request queue before finally exiting.
def stop(sync=false)
notify_safely(STOP_COMMAND)
@thread.join if @thread && sync
end
def halt(sync=false)
notify_safely(HALT_COMMAND)
@thread.join if @thread && sync
end
def begin_restart
notify_safely(RESTART_COMMAND)
end
def fast_write(io, str)
n = 0
while true
begin
n = io.syswrite str
rescue Errno::EAGAIN, Errno::EWOULDBLOCK
if !IO.select(nil, [io], nil, WRITE_TIMEOUT)
raise ConnectionError, "Socket timeout writing data"
end
retry
rescue Errno::EPIPE, SystemCallError, IOError
raise ConnectionError, "Socket timeout writing data"
end
return if n == str.bytesize
str = str.byteslice(n..-1)
end
end
private :fast_write
ThreadLocalKey = :puma_server
def self.current
Thread.current[ThreadLocalKey]
end
def shutting_down?
@status == :stop || @status == :restart
end
end
end
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