RSpec tests for your Puppet manifests
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RSpec tests for your Puppet manifests & modules


gem install rspec-puppet

Naming conventions

For clarity and consistency, I recommend that you use the following directory structure and naming convention.

  +-- manifests
  +-- lib
  +-- spec
       +-- spec_helper.rb
       +-- classes
       |     |
       |     +-- <class_name>_spec.rb
       +-- defines
       |     |
       |     +-- <define_name>_spec.rb
       +-- functions
       |     |
       |     +-- <function_name>_spec.rb
       +-- hosts
             +-- <host_name>_spec.rb

Example groups

If you use the above directory structure, your examples will automatically be placed in the correct groups and have access to the custom matchers. If you choose not to, you can force the examples into the required groups as follows.

describe 'myclass', :type => :class do

describe 'mydefine', :type => :define do

describe 'myfunction', :type => :puppet_function do

describe '', :type => :host do

Defined Types & Classes


Checking if a class has been included

You can test if a class has been included in the catalogue with the include_class matcher. It takes the class name as a string as its only argument

it { should include_class('foo') }

Checking if a resource exists

You can test if a resource exists in the catalogue with the generic contain_<resource type> matcher.

it { should contain_augeas('bleh') }

If your resource type includes :: (e.g. foo::bar simply replace the :: with __ (two underscores).

it { should contain_foo__bar('baz') }

You can further test the parameters that have been passed to the resources with the generic with_<parameter> chains.

it { should contain_package('mysql-server').with_ensure('present') }

If you want to specify that the given parameters should be the only ones passed to the resource, use the only_with_<parameter> chains.

it { should contain_package('httpd').only_with_ensure('latest') }

You can use the with method to verify the value of multiple parameters.

it do should contain_service('keystone').with(
  'ensure'     => 'running',
  'enable'     => 'true',
  'hasstatus'  => 'true',
  'hasrestart' => 'true'
) end

The same holds for the only_with method, which in addition verifies the exact set of parameters and values for the resource in the catalogue.

it do should contain_user('luke').only_with(
  'ensure'    => 'present',
  'uid'    => '501'
) end

You can also test that specific parameters have been left undefined with the generic without_<parameter> chains.

it { should contain_file('/foo/bar').without_mode }

You can use the without method to verify that a list of parameters have not been defined

it { should contain_service('keystone').without(
  ['restart', 'status']

Checking the number of resources

You can test the number of resources in the catalogue with the have_resource_count matcher.

it { should have_resource_count(2) }

The number of classes in the catalogue can be checked with the have_class_count matcher.

it { should have_class_count(2) }

You can also test the number of a specific resource type, by using the generic have_<resource type>_resource_count matcher.

it { should have_exec_resource_count(1) }

This last matcher also works for defined types. If the resource type contains ::, you can replace it with __ (two underscores).

it { should have_logrotate__rule_resource_count(3) }

NOTE: when testing a class, the catalogue generated will always contain at least one class, the class under test. The same holds for defined types, the catalogue generated when testing a defined type will have at least one resource (the defined type itself).

Writing tests

Basic test structure

To test that

sysctl { 'baz'
  value => 'foo',

Will cause the following resource to be in included in catalogue for a host

exec { 'sysctl/reload':
  command => '/sbin/sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.conf',

We can write the following testcase (in spec/defines/sysctl_spec.rb)

describe 'sysctl' do
  let(:title) { 'baz' }
  let(:params) { { :value => 'foo' } }

  it { should contain_exec('sysctl/reload').with_command("/sbin/sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.conf") }

Specifying the title of a resource

let(:title) { 'foo' }

Specifying the parameters to pass to a resources or parametised class

let(:params) { {:ensure => 'present', ...} }

Specifying the FQDN of the test node

If the manifest you're testing expects to run on host with a particular name, you can specify this as follows

let(:node) { '' }

Specifying the facts that should be available to your manifest

By default, the test environment contains no facts for your manifest to use. You can set them with a hash

let(:facts) { {:operatingsystem => 'Debian', :kernel => 'Linux', ...} }

Specifying the path to find your modules

I recommend setting a default module path by adding the following code to your spec_helper.rb

RSpec.configure do |c|
  c.module_path = '/path/to/your/module/dir'

However, if you want to specify it in each example, you can do so

let(:module_path) { '/path/to/your/module/dir' }



All of the standard RSpec matchers are available for you to use when testing Puppet functions.

it 'should be able to do something' do['foo']) == 'bar'

For your convenience though, a run matcher exists to provide easier to understand test cases.

it { should run.with_params('foo').and_return('bar') }

Writing tests

Basic test structure

require 'spec_helper'

describe '<function name>' do

Specifying the name of the function to test

The name of the function must be provided in the top level description, e.g.

describe 'split' do

Specifying the arguments to pass to the function

You can specify the arguments to pass to your function during the test(s) using either the with_params chain method in the run matcher

it { should run.with_params('foo', 'bar', ['baz']) }

Or by using the call method on the subject directly

it 'something' do['foo', 'bar', ['baz']])

Testing the results of the function

You can test the result of a function (if it produces one) using either the and_returns chain method in the run matcher

it { should run.with_params('foo').and_return('bar') }

Or by using any of the existing RSpec matchers on the subject directly

it 'something' do['foo']) == 'bar'['baz']).should be_an Array

Testing the errors thrown by the function

You can test whether the function throws an exception using either the and_raises_error chain method in the run matcher

it { should run.with_params('a', 'b').and_raise_error(Puppet::ParseError) }
it { should_not run.with_params('a').and_raise_error(Puppet::ParseError) }

Or by using the existing raises_error RSpec matcher

it 'something' do
  expect {['a', 'b']) }.should raise_error(Puppet::ParseError)
  expect {['a']) }.should_not raise_error(Puppet::ParseError)