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PyPI publish GitHub Action

This action allows you to upload your Python distribution packages in the dist/ directory to PyPI. This text suggests a minimalistic usage overview. For more detailed walkthrough check out the PyPA guide.

If you have any feedback regarding specific action versions, please leave comments in the corresponding per-release announcement discussions.

🌇 master branch sunset ❗

The master branch version has been sunset. Please, change the GitHub Action version you use from master to release/v1 or use an exact tag, or opt-in to use a full Git commit SHA and Dependabot.


Trusted publishing


Trusted publishing cannot be used from within a reusable workflow at this time. It is recommended to instead create a non-reusable workflow that contains a job calling your reusable workflow, and then do the trusted publishing step from a separate job within that non-reusable workflow. Alternatively, you can still use a username/token inside the reusable workflow.


Trusted publishing is sometimes referred to by its underlying technology -- OpenID Connect, or OIDC for short. If you see references to "OIDC publishing" in the context of PyPI, this is what they're referring to.

This example jumps right into the current best practice. If you want to use API tokens directly or a less secure username and password, check out how to specify username and password.

This action supports PyPI's trusted publishing implementation, which allows authentication to PyPI without a manually configured API token or username/password combination. To perform trusted publishing with this action, your project's publisher must already be configured on PyPI.

To enter the trusted publishing flow, configure this action's job with the id-token: write permission and without an explicit username or password:

# .github/workflows/ci-cd.yml
    name: Upload release to PyPI
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
      name: pypi
      id-token: write  # IMPORTANT: this permission is mandatory for trusted publishing
    # retrieve your distributions here

    - name: Publish package distributions to PyPI
      uses: pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish@release/v1


Pro tip: instead of using branch pointers, like unstable/v1, pin versions of Actions that you use to tagged versions or sha1 commit identifiers. This will make your workflows more secure and better reproducible, saving you from sudden and unpleasant surprises.

Other indices that support trusted publishing can also be used, like TestPyPI:

- name: Publish package distributions to TestPyPI
  uses: pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish@release/v1

(don't forget to update the environment name to testpypi or similar!)


Pro tip: only set the id-token: write permission in the job that does publishing, not globally. Also, try to separate building from publishing — this makes sure that any scripts maliciously injected into the build or test environment won't be able to elevate privileges while flying under the radar.

A common use case is to upload packages only on a tagged commit, to do so add a filter to the job:

    if: github.event_name == 'push' && startsWith(github.ref, 'refs/tags')


This GitHub Action has nothing to do with building package distributions. Users are responsible for preparing dists for upload by putting them into the dist/ folder prior to running this Action.


Since this GitHub Action is docker-based, it can only be used from within GNU/Linux based jobs in GitHub Actions CI/CD workflows. This is by design and is unlikely to change due to a number of considerations we rely on.

This should not stop one from publishing platform-specific distribution packages, though. It is strongly advised to separate jobs for building the OS-specific wheels from the publish job. This allows one to (1) test exactly the same artifacts that are about to be uploaded to PyPI, (2) prevent parallel unsynchronized jobs from publishing only part of the dists asynchronously (in case when part of the jobs fail and others succeed ending up with an incomplete release on PyPI) and (3) make an atomic upload to PyPI (when part of the dists appear on PyPI, installers like pip will use that version for the dependency resolution but this may cause some environments to use sdists while the wheel for their runtime is not yet available).

To implement this sort of orchestration, please use actions/upload-artifact and actions/download-artifact actions for sharing the built dists across stages and jobs. Then, use the needs setting to order the build, test and publish stages.

Advanced release management

For best results, figure out what kind of workflow fits your project's specific needs.

For example, you could implement a parallel job that pushes every commit to TestPyPI or your own index server, like devpi. For this, you'd need to (1) specify a custom repository-url value and (2) generate a unique version number for each upload so that they'd not create a conflict. The latter is possible if you use setuptools_scm package but you could also invent your own solution based on the distance to the latest tagged commit.

You'll need to create another token for a separate host and then save it as a GitHub repo secret under an environment used in your job. Though, passing a password would disable the secretless trusted publishing so it's better to configure it instead, when publishing to TestPyPI and not something custom.

The action invocation in this case would look like:

- name: Publish package to TestPyPI
  uses: pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish@release/v1
    password: ${{ secrets.TEST_PYPI_API_TOKEN }}

Customizing target package dists directory

You can change the default target directory of dist/ to any directory of your liking. The action invocation would now look like:

- name: Publish package to PyPI
  uses: pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish@release/v1
    packages-dir: custom-dir/

Disabling metadata verification

It is recommended that you run twine check just after producing your files, but this also runs twine check before upload. You can also disable the twine check with:

     verify-metadata: false

Tolerating release package file duplicates

Sometimes, when you publish releases from multiple places, your workflow may hit race conditions. For example, when publishing from multiple CIs or even having workflows with the same steps triggered within GitHub Actions CI/CD for different events concerning the same high-level act.

To facilitate this use-case, you may use skip-existing (disabled by default) setting as follows:

     skip-existing: true


Pro tip: try to avoid enabling this setting where possible. If you have steps for publishing to both PyPI and TestPyPI, consider only using it for the latter, having the former fail loudly on duplicates.

For Debugging

Sometimes, twine upload can fail and to debug use the verbose setting as follows:

     verbose: true

Showing hash values of files to be uploaded

You may want to verify whether the files on PyPI were automatically uploaded by CI script. It will show SHA256, MD5, BLAKE2-256 values of files to be uploaded.

    print-hash: true

Specifying a different username

The default username value is __token__. If you publish to a custom registry that does not provide API tokens, like devpi, you may need to specify a custom username and password pair. This is how it's done.

    user: guido
    password: ${{ secrets.DEVPI_PASSWORD }}

The secret used in ${{ secrets.DEVPI_PASSWORD }} needs to be created on the environment page under the settings of your project on GitHub. See Creating & using secrets.

In the past, when publishing to PyPI, the most secure way of the access scoping for automatic publishing was to use the API tokens feature of PyPI. One would make it project-scoped and save as an environment-bound secret in their GitHub repository settings, naming it ${{ secrets.PYPI_API_TOKEN }}, for example. See Creating & using secrets. While still secure, trusted publishing is now encouraged over API tokens as a best practice on supported platforms (like GitHub).


The Dockerfile and associated scripts and documentation in this project are released under the BSD 3-clause license.