Pipenv: Python Development Workflow for Humans
Pipenv is a Python virtualenv management tool that supports a multitude of systems and nicely bridges the gaps between pip, pyenv and virtualenv. Linux, macOS, and Windows are all first-class citizens in pipenv.
It automatically creates and manages a virtualenv for your projects, as well as adds/removes packages from your
Pipfile as you install/uninstall packages. It also generates the ever-important
Pipfile.lock, which is used to produce deterministic builds.
Pipenv is primarily meant to provide users and developers of applications with an easy method to setup a working environment.
The problems that Pipenv seeks to solve are multi-faceted:
- You no longer need to use
virtualenvseparately. They work together.
- Managing a
requirements.txtfile with package hashes can be problematic. Pipenv uses
Pipfile.lockto separate abstract dependency declarations from the last tested combination.
- Hashes are documented in the lock file, always. Security considerations are put first.
- Strongly encourage the use of the latest versions of dependencies to minimize security risks arising from outdated components.
- Gives you insight into your dependency graph (e.g.
$ pipenv graph).
- Streamline development workflow by supporting local customizations with
Table Of Contents
Pipenv can be installed with Python 3.7 and above.
If you're using Debian Buster+:
sudo apt install pipenv
Or, if you're using Fedora:
sudo dnf install pipenv
Or, if you're using FreeBSD:
pkg install py39-pipenv
Or, if you're using Gentoo:
sudo emerge pipenv
Or, if you're using Void Linux:
sudo xbps-install -S python3-pipenv
Or, if you're using Windows:
pip install --user pipenv
When none of the above is an option, it is recommended to use Pipx:
pipx install pipenv
Otherwise, refer to the documentation for instructions.
- Enables truly deterministic builds, while easily specifying only what you want.
- Generates and checks file hashes for locked dependencies.
- Automatically install required Pythons, if
- Automatically finds your project home, recursively, by looking for a
- Automatically generates a
Pipfile, if one doesn't exist.
- Automatically creates a virtualenv in a standard location.
- Automatically adds/removes packages to a
Pipfilewhen they are un/installed.
- Automatically loads
.envfiles, if they exist.
The main commands are
Pipfile.lock. These are intended to replace
$ pip install usage, as well as manual virtualenv management (to
activate a virtualenv, run
$ pipenv shell).
- A virtualenv will automatically be created, when one doesn't exist.
- When no parameters are passed to
install, all packages
[packages]specified will be installed.
- Otherwise, whatever virtualenv defaults to will be the default.
shellwill spawn a shell with the virtualenv activated.
runwill run a given command from the virtualenv, with any arguments forwarded (e.g.
$ pipenv run python).
checkasserts that PEP 508 requirements are being met by the current environment.
graphwill print a pretty graph of all your installed dependencies.
To enable completion in fish, add this to your configuration
eval (env _PIPENV_COMPLETE=fish_source pipenv)
There is also a fish plugin, which will automatically activate your subshells for you!
Alternatively, with zsh, add this to your configuration
eval "$(_PIPENV_COMPLETE=zsh_source pipenv)"
Alternatively, with bash, add this to your configuration
eval "$(_PIPENV_COMPLETE=bash_source pipenv)"
Magic shell completions are now enabled!
$ pipenv --help Usage: pipenv [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]... Options: --where Output project home information. --venv Output virtualenv information. --py Output Python interpreter information. --envs Output Environment Variable options. --rm Remove the virtualenv. --bare Minimal output. --man Display manpage. --support Output diagnostic information for use in GitHub issues. --site-packages / --no-site-packages Enable site-packages for the virtualenv. [env var: PIPENV_SITE_PACKAGES] --python TEXT Specify which version of Python virtualenv should use. --clear Clears caches (pipenv, pip). [env var: PIPENV_CLEAR] -q, --quiet Quiet mode. -v, --verbose Verbose mode. --pypi-mirror TEXT Specify a PyPI mirror. --version Show the version and exit. -h, --help Show this message and exit.
Create a new project using Python 3.7, specifically: $ pipenv --python 3.7 Remove project virtualenv (inferred from current directory): $ pipenv --rm Install all dependencies for a project (including dev): $ pipenv install --dev Create a lockfile containing pre-releases: $ pipenv lock --pre Show a graph of your installed dependencies: $ pipenv graph Check your installed dependencies for security vulnerabilities: $ pipenv check Install a local setup.py into your virtual environment/Pipfile: $ pipenv install -e . Use a lower-level pip command: $ pipenv run pip freeze
check Checks for PyUp Safety security vulnerabilities and against PEP 508 markers provided in Pipfile. clean Uninstalls all packages not specified in Pipfile.lock. graph Displays currently-installed dependency graph information. install Installs provided packages and adds them to Pipfile, or (if no packages are given), installs all packages from Pipfile. lock Generates Pipfile.lock. open View a given module in your editor. requirements Generate a requirements.txt from Pipfile.lock. run Spawns a command installed into the virtualenv. scripts Lists scripts in current environment config. shell Spawns a shell within the virtualenv. sync Installs all packages specified in Pipfile.lock. uninstall Uninstalls a provided package and removes it from Pipfile. update Runs lock, then sync. verify Verify the hash in Pipfile.lock is up-to-date.
Locate the project:
$ pipenv --where /Users/kennethreitz/Library/Mobile Documents/com~apple~CloudDocs/repos/kr/pipenv/test
Locate the virtualenv:
$ pipenv --venv /Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-Skyy4vre
Locate the Python interpreter:
$ pipenv --py /Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-Skyy4vre/bin/python
$ pipenv install Creating a virtualenv for this project... ... No package provided, installing all dependencies. Virtualenv location: /Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-EJkjoYts Installing dependencies from Pipfile.lock... ... To activate this project's virtualenv, run the following: $ pipenv shell
Installing from git:
You can install packages with pipenv from git and other version control systems using URLs formatted according to the following rule:
The only optional section is the
@<branch_or_tag> section. When using git over SSH, you may use the shorthand vcs and scheme alias
git+git@<location>:<user_or_organization>/<repository>@<branch_or_tag>#<package_name>. Note that this is translated to
git+ssh://git@<location> when parsed.
Valid values for
hg. Valid values for
file. In specific cases you also have access to other schemes:
svn may be combined with
svn as a scheme, and
bzr can be combined with
Note that it is strongly recommended that you install any version-controlled dependencies in editable mode, using
pipenv install -e, in order to ensure that dependency resolution can be performed with an up to date copy of the repository each time it is performed, and that it includes all known dependencies.
Below is an example usage which installs the git repository located at
https://github.com/requests/requests.git from tag
v2.19.1 as package name
$ pipenv install -e git+https://email@example.com#egg=requests Creating a Pipfile for this project... Installing -e git+https://firstname.lastname@example.org#egg=requests... [...snipped...] Adding -e git+https://email@example.com#egg=requests to Pipfile's [packages]... [...]
You can read more about pip's implementation of vcs support here.
Install a dev dependency:
$ pipenv install pytest --dev Installing pytest... ... Adding pytest to Pipfile's [dev-packages]...
Show a dependency graph:
$ pipenv graph requests==2.18.4 - certifi [required: >=2017.4.17, installed: 2017.7.27.1] - chardet [required: >=3.0.2,<3.1.0, installed: 3.0.4] - idna [required: >=2.5,<2.7, installed: 2.6] - urllib3 [required: <1.23,>=1.21.1, installed: 1.22]
Generate a lockfile:
$ pipenv lock Assuring all dependencies from Pipfile are installed... Locking [dev-packages] dependencies... Locking [packages] dependencies... Note: your project now has only default [packages] installed. To install [dev-packages], run: $ pipenv install --dev
Install all dev dependencies:
$ pipenv install --dev Pipfile found at /Users/kennethreitz/repos/kr/pip2/test/Pipfile. Considering this to be the project home. Pipfile.lock out of date, updating... Assuring all dependencies from Pipfile are installed... Locking [dev-packages] dependencies... Locking [packages] dependencies...
$ pipenv uninstall --all No package provided, un-installing all dependencies. Found 25 installed package(s), purging... ... Environment now purged and fresh!
Use the shell:
$ pipenv shell Loading .env environment variables... Launching subshell in virtual environment. Type 'exit' or 'Ctrl+D' to return. $ ▯
Documentation resides over at pipenv.pypa.io.