Pipenv: Python Development Workflow for Humans
Pipenv is a tool that aims to bring the best of all packaging worlds (bundler, composer, npm, cargo, yarn, etc.) to the Python world. Windows is a first--class citizen, in our world.
It automatically creates and manages a virtualenv for your projects, as
well as adds/removes packages from your
Pipfile as you
install/uninstall packages. It also generates the ever--important
Pipfile.lock, which is used to produce deterministic builds.
The problems that Pipenv seeks to solve are multi-faceted:
- You no longer need to use
virtualenvseparately. They work together.
- Managing a
requirements.txtfile can be problematic, so Pipenv uses the upcoming
Pipfile.lockinstead, which is superior for basic use cases.
- Hashes are used everywhere, always. Security. Automatically expose security vulnerabilities.
- Give you insight into your dependency graph (e.g.
$ pipenv graph).
- Streamline development workflow by loading
If you're on MacOS, you can install Pipenv easily with Homebrew:
$ brew install pipenv
Or, if you're using Fedora 28:
$ sudo dnf install pipenv
Otherwise, refer to the documentation for instructions.
☤ User Testimonials
Jannis Leidel, former pip maintainer---
: Pipenv is the porcelain I always wanted to build for pip. It fits my brain and mostly replaces virtualenvwrapper and manual pip calls for me. Use it.
: This package manager is really awesome. For the first time I know exactly what my dependencies are which I installed and what the transitive dependencies are. Combined with the fact that installs are deterministic, makes this package manager first class, like cargo.
Justin Myles Holmes---
: Pipenv is finally an abstraction meant to engage the mind instead of merely the filesystem.
- Enables truly deterministic builds, while easily specifying only what you want.
- Generates and checks file hashes for locked dependencies.
- Automatically install required Pythons, if
- Automatically finds your project home, recursively, by looking for a
- Automatically generates a
Pipfile, if one doesn't exist.
- Automatically creates a virtualenv in a standard location.
- Automatically adds/removes packages to a
Pipfilewhen they are un/installed.
- Automatically loads
.envfiles, if they exist.
The main commands are
Pipfile.lock. These are intended to replace
$ pip install usage, as well as manual virtualenv management (to
activate a virtualenv, run
$ pipenv shell).
- A virtualenv will automatically be created, when one doesn't exist.
- When no parameters are passed to
install, all packages
[packages]specified will be installed.
- To initialize a Python 3 virtual environment, run
$ pipenv --three.
- To initialize a Python 2 virtual environment, run
$ pipenv --two.
- Otherwise, whatever virtualenv defaults to will be the default.
shellwill spawn a shell with the virtualenv activated.
runwill run a given command from the virtualenv, with any arguments forwarded (e.g.
$ pipenv run python).
checkasserts that PEP 508 requirements are being met by the current environment.
graphwill print a pretty graph of all your installed dependencies.
For example, with fish, put this in your
eval (pipenv --completion)
Alternatively, with bash, put this in your
eval "$(pipenv --completion)"
Magic shell completions are now enabled! There is also a fish plugin, which will automatically activate your subshells for you!
Fish is the best shell. You should use it.
$ pipenv Usage: pipenv [OPTIONS] COMMAND [ARGS]... Options: --where Output project home information. --venv Output virtualenv information. --py Output Python interpreter information. --envs Output Environment Variable options. --rm Remove the virtualenv. --bare Minimal output. --completion Output completion (to be eval'd). --man Display manpage. --three / --two Use Python 3/2 when creating virtualenv. --python TEXT Specify which version of Python virtualenv should use. --site-packages Enable site-packages for the virtualenv. --version Show the version and exit. -h, --help Show this message and exit. Usage Examples: Create a new project using Python 3.7, specifically: $ pipenv --python 3.7 Remove project virtualenv (inferred from current directory): $ pipenv --rm Install all dependencies for a project (including dev): $ pipenv install --dev Create a lockfile containing pre-releases: $ pipenv lock --pre Show a graph of your installed dependencies: $ pipenv graph Check your installed dependencies for security vulnerabilities: $ pipenv check Install a local setup.py into your virtual environment/Pipfile: $ pipenv install -e . Use a lower-level pip command: $ pipenv run pip freeze Commands: check Checks for security vulnerabilities and against PEP 508 markers provided in Pipfile. clean Uninstalls all packages not specified in Pipfile.lock. graph Displays currently–installed dependency graph information. install Installs provided packages and adds them to Pipfile, or (if no packages are given), installs all packages from Pipfile. lock Generates Pipfile.lock. open View a given module in your editor. run Spawns a command installed into the virtualenv. shell Spawns a shell within the virtualenv. sync Installs all packages specified in Pipfile.lock. uninstall Un-installs a provided package and removes it from Pipfile.
Locate the project:
$ pipenv --where /Users/kennethreitz/Library/Mobile Documents/com~apple~CloudDocs/repos/kr/pipenv/test
Locate the virtualenv:
$ pipenv --venv /Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-Skyy4vre
Locate the Python interpreter:
$ pipenv --py /Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-Skyy4vre/bin/python
$ pipenv install Creating a virtualenv for this project... ... No package provided, installing all dependencies. Virtualenv location: /Users/kennethreitz/.local/share/virtualenvs/test-EJkjoYts Installing dependencies from Pipfile.lock... ... To activate this project's virtualenv, run the following: $ pipenv shell
Installing from git:
You can install packages with pipenv from git and other version control systems using URLs formatted according to the following rule:
The only optional section is the
@<branch_or_tag> section. When using git over SSH, you may use the shorthand vcs and scheme alias
git+git@<location>:<user_or_organization>/<repository>@<branch_or_tag>#<package_name>. Note that this is translated to
git+ssh://git@<location> when parsed.
Valid values for
hg. Valid values for
file. In specific cases you also have access to other schemes:
svn may be combined with
svn as a scheme, and
bzr can be combined with
Note that it is strongly recommended that you install any version-controlled dependencies in editable mode, using
pipenv install -e, in order to ensure that dependency resolution can be performed with an up to date copy of the repository each time it is performed, and that it includes all known dependencies.
Below is an example usage which installs the git repository located at
https://github.com/requests/requests.git from tag
v2.19.1 as package name
$ pipenv install -e git+https://email@example.com#egg=requests Creating a Pipfile for this project... Installing -e git+https://firstname.lastname@example.org#egg=requests... [...snipped...] Adding -e git+https://email@example.com#egg=requests to Pipfile's [packages]... [...]
You can read more about pip's implementation of vcs support here.
Install a dev dependency:
$ pipenv install pytest --dev Installing pytest... ... Adding pytest to Pipfile's [dev-packages]...
Show a dependency graph:
$ pipenv graph requests==2.18.4 - certifi [required: >=2017.4.17, installed: 2017.7.27.1] - chardet [required: >=3.0.2,<3.1.0, installed: 3.0.4] - idna [required: >=2.5,<2.7, installed: 2.6] - urllib3 [required: <1.23,>=1.21.1, installed: 1.22]
Generate a lockfile:
$ pipenv lock Assuring all dependencies from Pipfile are installed... Locking [dev-packages] dependencies... Locking [packages] dependencies... Note: your project now has only default [packages] installed. To install [dev-packages], run: $ pipenv install --dev
Install all dev dependencies:
$ pipenv install --dev Pipfile found at /Users/kennethreitz/repos/kr/pip2/test/Pipfile. Considering this to be the project home. Pipfile.lock out of date, updating... Assuring all dependencies from Pipfile are installed... Locking [dev-packages] dependencies... Locking [packages] dependencies...
$ pipenv uninstall --all No package provided, un-installing all dependencies. Found 25 installed package(s), purging... ... Environment now purged and fresh!
Use the shell:
$ pipenv shell Loading .env environment variables… Launching subshell in virtual environment. Type 'exit' or 'Ctrl+D' to return. $ ▯
Documentation resides over at pipenv.org.