Minimal PyPI server for uploading & downloading packages with pip/easy_install
Python Shell HTML
Latest commit c6c634b Sep 24, 2016 @ankostis ankostis FIX #162: upf CHANGES.



pypiserver - minimal PyPI server for use with pip/easy_install

Latest Version in PyPI Travis build status Dependencies up-to-date? Downloads Supported Python versions Project License

Maintainers:Kostis Anagnostopoulos <>, Matthew Planchard <>
License:zlib/libpng + MIT

pypiserver is a minimal PyPI compatible server for pip or easy_install. It is based on bottle and serves packages from regular directories. Wheels, bdists, eggs and accompanying PGP-signatures can be uploaded either with pip, setuptools, twine, pypi-uploader, or simply copied with scp.

Quickstart: Installation and Usage

pypiserver > 1.2.x works with python 2.7 and 3.3+ or pypy. Older python-versions may still work, but they are not tested. For legacy python versions, use pypiserver-1.1.x series.


The commands below work on a unix-like operating system with a posix shell. The '~' character expands to user's home directory.

If you're using Windows, you'll have to use their "Windows counterparts". The same is true for the rest of this documentation.

  1. Install pypiserver with this command:

    pip install pypiserver                ## Or: pypiserver[passlib,watchdog]
    mkdir ~/packages                      ## Copy packages into this directory.

    See also Alternative Installation methods.

  2. Copy some packages into your ~/packages folder and then get your pypiserver up and running:

    pypi-server -p 8080 ~/packages &      ## Will listen to all IPs.
  3. From the client computer, type this:

    ## Download and Install hosted packages.
    pip install  --extra-index-url http://localhost:8080/simple/ ...
    ## Search hosted packages
    pip search --index http://localhost:8080/simple/ ...

    See also Client-side configurations for avoiding tedious typing.

  4. Enter pypi-server -h in the cmd-line to print a detailed usage message:

    pypi-server [OPTIONS] [PACKAGES_DIRECTORY...]
      start PyPI compatible package server serving packages from
      command line, it uses the default ~/packages.  pypiserver scans this
      directory recursively for packages. It skips packages and
      directories starting with a dot. Multiple package directories can be
    pypi-server understands the following options:
      -p, --port PORT
        listen on port PORT (default: 8080)
      -i, --interface INTERFACE
        listen on interface INTERFACE (default:, any interface)
      -a, --authenticate (UPDATE|download|list), ...
        comma-separated list of (case-insensitive) actions to authenticate
        Use '.' or '' for empty. Requires to have set the password (-P option).
        For example to password-protect package downloads (in addition to uploads)
        while leaving listings public, give:
          -P foo/htpasswd.txt  -a update,download
        To drop all authentications, use:
          -P .  -a .
        Note that when uploads are not protected, the `register` command
        is not necessary, but `~/.pypirc` still need username and password fields,
        even if bogus.
        By default, only 'update' is password-protected.
      -P, --passwords PASSWORD_FILE
        use apache htpasswd file PASSWORD_FILE to set usernames & passwords when
        authenticating certain actions (see -a option).
        If you want to allow un-authorized access, set this option and -a
        explicitly to empty (either '.' or'').
        disable redirect to real PyPI index for packages not found in the
        local index
      --fallback-url FALLBACK_URL
        for packages not found in the local index, this URL will be used to
        redirect to (default:
      --server METHOD
        use METHOD to run the server. Valid values include paste,
        cherrypy, twisted, gunicorn, gevent, wsgiref, auto. The
        default is to use "auto" which chooses one of paste, cherrypy,
        twisted or wsgiref.
      -r, --root PACKAGES_DIRECTORY
        [deprecated] serve packages from PACKAGES_DIRECTORY
      -o, --overwrite
        allow overwriting existing package files
      --hash-algo ALGO
        any `hashlib` available algo used as fragments on package links.
        Set one of (0, no, off, false) to disabled it. (default: md5)
      --welcome HTML_FILE
        uses the ASCII contents of HTML_FILE as welcome message response.
        enable INFO logging;  repeat for more verbosity.
      --log-conf <FILE>
        read logging configuration from FILE.
        By default, configuration is read from `log.conf` if found in server's dir.
      --log-file <FILE>
        write logging info into this FILE.
      --log-frmt <FILE>
        the logging format-string.  (see `logging.LogRecord` class from standard python library)
        [Default: %(asctime)s|%(name)s|%(levelname)s|%(thread)d|%(message)s]
      --log-req-frmt FORMAT
        a format-string selecting Http-Request properties to log; set to  '%s' to see them all.
        [Default: %(bottle.request)s]
      --log-res-frmt FORMAT
        a format-string selecting Http-Response properties to log; set to  '%s' to see them all.
        [Default: %(status)s]
      --log-err-frmt FORMAT
        a format-string selecting Http-Error properties to log; set to  '%s' to see them all.
        [Default: %(body)s: %(exception)s \n%(traceback)s]
    pypi-server -h
    pypi-server --help
      show this help message
    pypi-server --version
      show pypi-server's version
    pypi-server -U [OPTIONS] [PACKAGES_DIRECTORY...]
      update packages in PACKAGES_DIRECTORY. This command searches for updates and shows a pip command line which
      updates the package.
    The following additional options can be specified with -U:
        execute the pip commands instead of only showing them
        download package updates to this directory. The default is to use
        the directory which contains the latest version of the package to
        be updated.
        allow updating to unstable version (alpha, beta, rc, dev versions)
    Visit for more information.

Client-side Configurations

Always specifying the the pypi url on the command line is a bit cumbersome. Since pypiserver redirects pip/easy_install to the index if it doesn't have a requested package, it's a good idea to configure them to always use your local pypi index.

Configuring pip

For pip command this can be done by setting the environment variable PIP_EXTRA_INDEX_URL in your .bashr/.profile/.zshrc:

export PIP_EXTRA_INDEX_URL=http://localhost:8080/simple/

or by adding the following lines to ~/.pip/pip.conf:

extra-index-url = http://localhost:8080/simple/


If you have installed pypiserver on a remote url without https you wil receive an "untrusted" warning from pip, urging you to append the --trusted-host option. You can also include this option permanently in your configuration-files or environment variables.

Configuring easy_install

For easy_install command you may set the following configuration in ~/.pydistutils.cfg:

index_url = http://localhost:8080/simple/

Uploading Packages Remotely

Instead of copying packages directly to the server's folder (i.e. with scp), you may use python tools for the task, e.g. python upload. In that case, pypiserver is responsible for authenticating the upload-requests.


We strongly advise to password-protected your uploads!

It is possible to disable authentication for uploads (e.g. in intranets). To avoid lazy security decisions, read help for -P and -a options.

Apache-like authentication (htpasswd)

  1. First make sure you have the passlib module installed (note that passlib>=1.6 is required), which is needed for parsing the Apache htpasswd file specified by the -P, --passwords option (see next steps):

    pip install passlib
  2. Create the Apache htpasswd file with at least one user/password pair with this command (you'll be prompted for a password):

    htpasswd -sc htpasswd.txt <some_username>


    Read this SO question for running htpasswd cmd under Windows:

    or if you have bogus passwords that you don't care because they are for an internal service (which is still "bad", from a security prespective...) you may use this public service:


    When accessing pypiserver via the api, alternate authentication methods are available via the auther config flag. Any callable returning a boolean can be passed through to the pypiserver config in order to provide custom authentication. For example, to configure pypiserver to authenticate using the python-pam:

    import pam

    Please see Using Ad-hoc authentication providers for more information.

  3. You need to restart the server with the -P option only once (but user/password pairs can later be added or updated on the fly):

    ./pypi-server -p 8080 -P htpasswd.txt ~/packages &

Upload with setuptools

  1. On client-side, edit or create a ~/.pypirc file with a similar content:

    index-servers =
    repository: http://localhost:8080
    username: <some_username>
    password: <some_passwd>
  2. Then from within the directory of the python-project you wish to upload, issue this command:

    python sdist upload -r local

Upload with twine

To avoid storing you passwords on disk, in clear text, you may either:

  • use the register setuptools's command with the -r option, like that:

    python sdist register -r local upload -r local
  • use twine library, which breaks the procedure in two steps. In addition, it supports signing your files with PGP-Signatures and uploading the generated .asc files to pypiserver:

    twine upload -r local --sign -identity user_name ./

Upload with pypi-uploader

You can also upload packages using pypi-uploader, which obviates the need to download packages locally prior to uploading them to pypiserver. You can install it with pip install pypi-uploader, and assuming you have a pypi_local source set up in your ~/.pypirc, use it like this:

pypiupload packages mock==1.0.1 requests==2.2.1 -i pypi_local
pypiupload requirements requirements.txt -i pypi_local

Alternative Installation methods

When trying the methods below, first use the following command to check whether previous versions of pypiserver already exist, and (optionally) uninstall them:

## VERSION-CHECK: Fails if not installed.
pypi-server --version

## UNINSTALL: Invoke again untill it fails.
pip uninstall pypiserver

Installing the very latest version

In case the latest version in pypi is a pre-release, you have to use pip's --pre option. And to update an existing installation combine it with --ignore-installed:

pip install pypiserver --pre -I

You can even install the latest pypiserver directly from github with the following command, assuming you have git installed on your PATH:

pip install git+git://

Installing it as standalone script

The git repository contains a script, which is a single python file that can be executed without any other dependencies.

Run the following commands to download the script with wget:

chmod +x

or with curl:

curl -O
chmod +x

You can then start-up the server with:


Feel free to rename the script and move it into your $PATH.

Running on heroku/dotcloud contains instructions on how to run pypiserver on one of the supported cloud service providers.


Managing the package directory

The pypi-server command has the -U option that searches for updates of available packages. It scans the package directory for available packages and searches on for updates. Without further options pypi-server -U will just print a list of commands which must be run in order to get the latest version of each package. Output looks like:

$ ./pypi-server -U
checking 106 packages for newer version


no releases found on pypi for PyXML, Pymacs, mercurial, setuptools

# update raven from 1.4.3 to 1.4.4
pip -q install --no-deps  --extra-index-url -d /home/ralf/packages/mirror raven==1.4.4

# update greenlet from 0.3.3 to 0.3.4
pip -q install --no-deps  --extra-index-url -d /home/ralf/packages/mirror greenlet==0.3.4

It first prints for each package a single character after checking the available versions on pypi. A dot(.) means the package is up-to-date, 'u' means the package can be updated and 'e' means the list of releases on pypi is empty. After that it shows a pip command line which can be used to update a one package. Either copy and paste that or run pypi-server -Ux in order to really execute those commands. You need to have pip installed for that to work however.

Specifying an additional -u option will also allow alpha, beta and release candidates to be downloaded. Without this option these releases won't be considered.

Serving thousands of packages

By default, pypiserver scans the entire packages directory each time an incoming HTTP request occurs. This isn't a problem for a small number of packages, but causes noticeable slow-downs when serving thousands of packages.

If you run into this problem, significant speedups can be gained by enabling pypiserver's directory caching functionality. The only requirement is to install the watchdog package, or it can be installed during pypiserver installation, by specifying the cache extras option:

pip install pypiserver[cache]

If you are using a static webserver such as Apache or nginx as a reverse-proxy for pypiserver, additional speedup can be gained by directly serving the packages directory:

For instance, in nginx you may adding the following config to serve packages-directly directly (take care not to expose "sensitive" files):

location /packages/ {
  root /path/to/packages/parentdir;

If you have packages that are very large, you may find it helpful to disable hashing of files (set --hash-algo=off, or hash_algo=None when using wsgi).

Managing Automated Startup

There are a variety of options for handling the automated starting of pypiserver upon system startup. Two of the most common are systemd and supervisor.

Running as a systemd service

systemd is installed by default on most modern Linux systems and as such, it is an excellent option for managing the pypiserver process. An example config file for systemd can be seen below:

Description=A minimal PyPI server for use with pip/easy_install.

# systemd requires absolute path here too.

ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/pypi-server -p 8080 -a update,download --log-file /var/log/pypiserver.log --P /etc/nginx/.htpasswd /var/www/pypi
ExecStop=/bin/kill -TERM $MAINPID
ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID




Adjusting the paths and adding this file as pypiserver.service into your systemd/system directory will allow management of the pypiserver process with systemctl, e.g. systemctl start pypiserver.

More useful information about systemd can be found at

Launching through supervisor

supervisor has the benefit of being a pure python package and as such, it provides excellent cross-platform support for process management. An example configuration file for supervisor is given below:

command=/home/pypi/pypi-venv/bin/pypi-server -p 7001 -P /home/pypi/.htaccess /home/pypi/packages

From there, the process can be managed via supervisord using supervisorctl.

Using a different WSGI-server

  • The bottle web-server which supports many WSGI-servers, among others, paste, cherrypy, twisted and wsgiref (part of python); you select them using the --server flag.

  • You may view all supported WSGI servers using the following interactive code:

    >>> from pypiserver import bottle
    >>> list(bottle.server_names.keys())
    ['cgi', 'gunicorn', 'cherrypy', 'eventlet', 'tornado', 'geventSocketIO',
    'rocket', 'diesel', 'twisted', 'wsgiref', 'fapws3', 'bjoern', 'gevent',
    'meinheld', 'auto', 'aiohttp', 'flup', 'gae', 'paste', 'waitress']
  • If none of the above servers matches your needs, invoke just the pypiserver:app() method which returns the internal WSGI-app WITHOUT starting-up a server - you may then send it to any WSGI-server you like. Read also the Utilizing the API section.

  • Some examples are given below - you may find more details in bottle site.

Apache (mod_wsgi)

To use your Apache2 with pypiserver, prefer to utilize mod_wsgi as explained in bottle's documentation.


If you choose instead to go with mod_proxy, mind that you may bump into problems with the prefix-path (see #155).

  1. Adapt and place the following Apache configuration either into top-level scope, or inside some <VirtualHost> (contributed by Thomas Waldmann):

    WSGIScriptAlias   /     /yoursite/wsgi/
    WSGIDaemonProcess       pypisrv user=pypisrv group=pypisrv umask=0007 \
                            processes=1 threads=5 maximum-requests=500 \
                            display-name=wsgi-pypisrv inactivity-timeout=300
    WSGIProcessGroup        pypisrv
    WSGIPassAuthorization On    ## (Optional) Use also apache's authentication.
    <Directory /yoursite/wsgi >
        Require all granted

    or if using older Apache < 2.4, substitute the last part with this:

    <Directory /yoursite/wsgi >
        Order deny,allow
        Allow from all
  2. Then create the /yoursite/cfg/pypiserver.wsgi file and make sure that the user and group of the WSGIDaemonProcess directive (pypisrv:pypisrv in the example) have the read permission on it:

    import pypiserver
    conf = pypiserver.default_config(
        root =          "/yoursite/packages",
        password_file = "/yoursite/htpasswd", )
    application =**conf)


    If you have installed pypiserver in a virtualenv, follow mod_wsgi's instructions and prepend the python code above with the following:

    import site


For security reasons, notice that the Directory directive grants access to a directory holding the wsgi start-up script, alone; nothing else.


The following command uses gunicorn to start pypiserver:

gunicorn -w4 'pypiserver:app(root="/home/ralf/packages")'

or when using multiple roots:

gunicorn -w4 'pypiserver:app(root=["/home/ralf/packages", "/home/ralf/experimental"])'

paste allows to run multiple WSGI applications under different URL paths. Therefore it's possible to serve different set of packages on different paths.

The following example paste.ini could be used to serve stable and unstable packages on different paths:

use = egg:Paste#urlmap
/unstable/ = unstable
/ = stable

use = egg:pypiserver#main
root = ~/stable-packages

use = egg:pypiserver#main
root = ~/stable-packages

use = egg:gunicorn#main
host =
port = 9000
workers = 5
accesslog = -


You need to install some more dependencies for this to work, like:

pip install paste pastedeploy gunicorn pypiserver

The server can then start with:

gunicorn_paster paste.ini

Utilizing the API

In order to enable ad-hoc authentication-providers or to use WSGI-servers not supported by bottle out-of-the-box, you needed to launch pypiserver via its API.

  • The main entry-point for configuring pypiserver is the pypiserver:app() function. This function returns the internal WSGI-app that you my then send to any WSGI-server you like.
  • To get all pypiserver:app() keywords and their explanations, read the function pypiserver:default_config().
  • Finally, to fire-up a WSGI-server with the configured app, invoke the bottle:run(app, host, port, server) function. Note that pypiserver ships with it's own copy of bottle; to use it, import it like that: from pypiserver import bottle
Using ad-hoc authentication providers

The auther keyword of pypiserver:app() function maybe set only using the API. This can be any callable that returns a boolean when passed the username and the password for a given request.

For example, to authenticate users based on the /etc/passwd file under Unix, you may delegate such decisions to the python-pam library by following these steps:

  1. Ensure python-pam module is installed:

    pip install python-pam
  2. Create a python-script along these lines:

    $ cat >
    import pypiserver
    from pypiserver import bottle
    import pam
    app ='./packages', auther=pam.authenticate), host='', port=80, server='auto')
    [Ctrl+ D]
  3. Invoke the python-script to start-up pypiserver:

    $ python


The python-pam module, requires read access to /etc/shadow file; you may add the user under which pypiserver runs into the shadow group, with a command like this: sudo usermod -a -G shadow pypy-user.


To create a copy of the repository, use:

git clone
cd pypiserver

To receive any later changes, in the above folder use:

git pull

Known Limitations

pypiserver does not implement the full API as seen on PyPI. It implements just enough to make easy_install and pip install to work.

The following limitations are known:

  • Command pypi -U that compares uploaded packages with pypi to see if they are outdated, does not respect a http-proxy environment variable (see #19).
  • It accepts documentation uploads but does not save them to disk (see #47 for a discussion)
  • It does not handle misspelled packages as pypi-repo does, therefore it is suggested to use it with --extra-index-url instead of --index-url (see #38).
  • It does not support changing the prefix of the path of the url (see #155 for workarounds).

Please use Github's bugtracker for other bugs you find.

Similar Projects

There are lots of other projects, which allow you to run your own PyPI server. If pypiserver doesn't work for you, the following are among the most popular alternatives:


pypiserver contains a copy of bottle which is available under the MIT license, and the remaining part is distributed under the zlib/libpng license. See the LICENSE.txt file.