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Latest commit 3e8d6cb Feb 21, 2017 @methane methane committed on GitHub bpo-29509: skip redundant intern (GH-197)
PyObject_GetAttrString intern temporary key string.
It's completely redudant.
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.github Add Travis CI and Codecov badges to README (#70) Feb 13, 2017
Doc doc: fix compile error on "shoddy" example extension (GH-215) Feb 21, 2017
Grammar remove comment about updating the parser module; we do not need to do… Jan 26, 2017
Include bpo-29524: Add Objects/call.c file (#12) Feb 12, 2017
Lib bpo-29554: Improve docs for pstat module and profile. (#88) Feb 21, 2017
Mac merge 3.5 Jan 2, 2017
Misc bpo-29607: Fix stack_effect computation for CALL_FUNCTION_EX (#202) Feb 21, 2017
Modules bpo-29532: Altering a kwarg dictionary passed to functools.partial() (#… Feb 20, 2017
Objects bpo-29509: skip redundant intern (GH-197) Feb 21, 2017
PC Issue #29326: Ignores blank lines in ._pth files (Patch by Alexey Izb… Feb 4, 2017
PCbuild bpo-29524: Add Objects/call.c file (#12) Feb 12, 2017
Parser Issue #28489: Merge from 3.6 Feb 5, 2017
Programs Issue #24932: Use proper command line parsing in _testembed Jan 2, 2017
Python bpo-29607: Fix stack_effect computation for CALL_FUNCTION_EX (#202) Feb 21, 2017
Tools bpo-29579: Removes readme.txt from the installer. (#160) Feb 19, 2017
.bzrignore Issue #25899: Fixed typo in .bzrignore. Dec 18, 2015
.codecov.yml Tweak .codedoc.yml to make it more useful (#71) Feb 14, 2017
.gitattributes .gitattribute -> .gitattributes (GH-213) Feb 21, 2017
.gitignore pgen lives in Parser, not Programs. Oct 1, 2016
.hgeol add Modules/zlib/ to .hgeol Jan 31, 2017
.hgignore pgen lives in Parser, not Programs. Oct 1, 2016
.hgtags Merge from 3.5. Jan 17, 2017
.hgtouch Issue #18093: Factor out the programs that embed the runtime Jul 25, 2014
.travis.yml Doc/Makefile: set PYTHON to python3 (#124) Feb 15, 2017
LICENSE ring in 2017 for Python Jan 2, 2017 bpo-29524: Add Objects/call.c file (#12) Feb 12, 2017
README.rst README: OS X -> macOS (GH-55) Feb 20, 2017
aclocal.m4 Write configure message to AS_MESSAGE_FD Sep 24, 2016
config.guess Revert unintended merge Dec 3, 2016
config.sub Revert unintended merge Dec 3, 2016
configure Prohibit implicit C function declarations Feb 6, 2017 Prohibit implicit C function declarations Feb 6, 2017
install-sh Patch #746366: Update to current automake install-sh. Will backport t… Jun 14, 2003 Issue #28762: Merge 3.6. Dec 22, 2016 Merge 3.6. Feb 4, 2017


This is Python version 3.7.0 alpha 1

CPython build status on Travis CI CPython code coverage on Codecov

Copyright (c) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Python Software Foundation. All rights reserved.

See the end of this file for further copyright and license information.

Contributing to CPython

For more complete instructions on contributing to CPython development, see the Developer Guide.

Using Python

Installable Python kits, and information about using Python, are available at

Build Instructions

On Unix, Linux, BSD, macOS, and Cygwin:

make test
sudo make install

This will install Python as python3.

You can pass many options to the configure script; run ./configure --help to find out more. On macOS and Cygwin, the executable is called python.exe; elsewhere it's just python.

On macOS, if you have configured Python with --enable-framework, you should use make frameworkinstall to do the installation. Note that this installs the Python executable in a place that is not normally on your PATH, you may want to set up a symlink in /usr/local/bin.

On Windows, see PCbuild/readme.txt.

If you wish, you can create a subdirectory and invoke configure from there. For example:

mkdir debug
cd debug
../configure --with-pydebug
make test

(This will fail if you also built at the top-level directory. You should do a make clean at the toplevel first.)

To get an optimized build of Python, configure --enable-optimizations before you run make. This sets the default make targets up to enable Profile Guided Optimization (PGO) and may be used to auto-enable Link Time Optimization (LTO) on some platforms. For more details, see the sections below.

Profile Guided Optimization

PGO takes advantage of recent versions of the GCC or Clang compilers. If ran, make profile-opt will do several steps.

First, the entire Python directory is cleaned of temporary files that may have resulted in a previous compilation.

Then, an instrumented version of the interpreter is built, using suitable compiler flags for each flavour. Note that this is just an intermediary step and the binary resulted after this step is not good for real life workloads, as it has profiling instructions embedded inside.

After this instrumented version of the interpreter is built, the Makefile will automatically run a training workload. This is necessary in order to profile the interpreter execution. Note also that any output, both stdout and stderr, that may appear at this step is suppressed.

Finally, the last step is to rebuild the interpreter, using the information collected in the previous one. The end result will be a Python binary that is optimized and suitable for distribution or production installation.

Link Time Optimization

Enabled via configure's --with-lto flag. LTO takes advantage of the ability of recent compiler toolchains to optimize across the otherwise arbitrary .o file boundary when building final executables or shared libraries for additional performance gains.

What's New

We have a comprehensive overview of the changes in the What's New in Python 3.7 document. For a more detailed change log, read Misc/NEWS, but a full accounting of changes can only be gleaned from the commit history.

If you want to install multiple versions of Python see the section below entitled "Installing multiple versions".


Documentation for Python 3.7 is online, updated daily.

It can also be downloaded in many formats for faster access. The documentation is downloadable in HTML, PDF, and reStructuredText formats; the latter version is primarily for documentation authors, translators, and people with special formatting requirements.

For information about building Python's documentation, refer to Doc/README.rst.

Converting From Python 2.x to 3.x

Significant backward incompatible changes were made for the release of Python 3.0, which may cause programs written for Python 2 to fail when run with Python 3. For more information about porting your code from Python 2 to Python 3, see the Porting HOWTO.


To test the interpreter, type make test in the top-level directory. The test set produces some output. You can generally ignore the messages about skipped tests due to optional features which can't be imported. If a message is printed about a failed test or a traceback or core dump is produced, something is wrong.

By default, tests are prevented from overusing resources like disk space and memory. To enable these tests, run make testall.

If any tests fail, you can re-run the failing test(s) in verbose mode:

make test TESTOPTS="-v test_that_failed"

If the failure persists and appears to be a problem with Python rather than your environment, you can file a bug report and include relevant output from that command to show the issue.

Installing multiple versions

On Unix and Mac systems if you intend to install multiple versions of Python using the same installation prefix (--prefix argument to the configure script) you must take care that your primary python executable is not overwritten by the installation of a different version. All files and directories installed using make altinstall contain the major and minor version and can thus live side-by-side. make install also creates ${prefix}/bin/python3 which refers to ${prefix}/bin/pythonX.Y. If you intend to install multiple versions using the same prefix you must decide which version (if any) is your "primary" version. Install that version using make install. Install all other versions using make altinstall.

For example, if you want to install Python 2.7, 3.6, and 3.7 with 3.7 being the primary version, you would execute make install in your 3.7 build directory and make altinstall in the others.

Issue Tracker and Mailing List

Bug reports are welcome! You can use the issue tracker to report bugs, and/or submit pull requests on GitHub.

You can also follow development discussion on the python-dev mailing list.

Proposals for enhancement

If you have a proposal to change Python, you may want to send an email to the comp.lang.python or python-ideas mailing lists for initial feedback. A Python Enhancement Proposal (PEP) may be submitted if your idea gains ground. All current PEPs, as well as guidelines for submitting a new PEP, are listed at

Release Schedule

See PEP 537 for Python 3.7 release details.

Copyright and License Information

Copyright (c) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 Python Software Foundation. All rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 2000 All rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 1995-2001 Corporation for National Research Initiatives. All rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 1991-1995 Stichting Mathematisch Centrum. All rights reserved.

See the file "LICENSE" for information on the history of this software, terms & conditions for usage, and a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.

This Python distribution contains no GNU General Public License (GPL) code, so it may be used in proprietary projects. There are interfaces to some GNU code but these are entirely optional.

All trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective holders.