:mod:`fcntl` --- The
ioctl system calls
.. module:: fcntl :platform: Unix :synopsis: The fcntl() and ioctl() system calls.
.. sectionauthor:: Jaap Vermeulen
.. index:: pair: UNIX; file control pair: UNIX; I/O control
This module performs file control and I/O control on file descriptors. It is an interface to the :c:func:`fcntl` and :c:func:`ioctl` Unix routines. For a complete description of these calls, see :manpage:`fcntl(2)` and :manpage:`ioctl(2)` Unix manual pages.
All functions in this module take a file descriptor fd as their first
argument. This can be an integer file descriptor, such as returned by
sys.stdin.fileno(), or an :class:`io.IOBase` object, such as
itself, which provides a :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` that returns a genuine file
.. versionchanged:: 3.3 Operations in this module used to raise an :exc:`IOError` where they now raise an :exc:`OSError`.
.. versionchanged:: 3.8 The fcntl module now contains ``F_ADD_SEALS``, ``F_GET_SEALS``, and ``F_SEAL_*`` constants for sealing of :func:`os.memfd_create` file descriptors.
The module defines the following functions:
.. function:: fcntl(fd, cmd, arg=0) Perform the operation *cmd* on file descriptor *fd* (file objects providing a :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` method are accepted as well). The values used for *cmd* are operating system dependent, and are available as constants in the :mod:`fcntl` module, using the same names as used in the relevant C header files. The argument *arg* can either be an integer value, or a :class:`bytes` object. With an integer value, the return value of this function is the integer return value of the C :c:func:`fcntl` call. When the argument is bytes it represents a binary structure, e.g. created by :func:`struct.pack`. The binary data is copied to a buffer whose address is passed to the C :c:func:`fcntl` call. The return value after a successful call is the contents of the buffer, converted to a :class:`bytes` object. The length of the returned object will be the same as the length of the *arg* argument. This is limited to 1024 bytes. If the information returned in the buffer by the operating system is larger than 1024 bytes, this is most likely to result in a segmentation violation or a more subtle data corruption. If the :c:func:`fcntl` fails, an :exc:`OSError` is raised.
.. function:: ioctl(fd, request, arg=0, mutate_flag=True) This function is identical to the :func:`~fcntl.fcntl` function, except that the argument handling is even more complicated. The *request* parameter is limited to values that can fit in 32-bits. Additional constants of interest for use as the *request* argument can be found in the :mod:`termios` module, under the same names as used in the relevant C header files. The parameter *arg* can be one of an integer, an object supporting the read-only buffer interface (like :class:`bytes`) or an object supporting the read-write buffer interface (like :class:`bytearray`). In all but the last case, behaviour is as for the :func:`~fcntl.fcntl` function. If a mutable buffer is passed, then the behaviour is determined by the value of the *mutate_flag* parameter. If it is false, the buffer's mutability is ignored and behaviour is as for a read-only buffer, except that the 1024 byte limit mentioned above is avoided -- so long as the buffer you pass is at least as long as what the operating system wants to put there, things should work. If *mutate_flag* is true (the default), then the buffer is (in effect) passed to the underlying :func:`ioctl` system call, the latter's return code is passed back to the calling Python, and the buffer's new contents reflect the action of the :func:`ioctl`. This is a slight simplification, because if the supplied buffer is less than 1024 bytes long it is first copied into a static buffer 1024 bytes long which is then passed to :func:`ioctl` and copied back into the supplied buffer. If the :c:func:`ioctl` fails, an :exc:`OSError` exception is raised. An example:: >>> import array, fcntl, struct, termios, os >>> os.getpgrp() 13341 >>> struct.unpack('h', fcntl.ioctl(0, termios.TIOCGPGRP, " ")) 13341 >>> buf = array.array('h', ) >>> fcntl.ioctl(0, termios.TIOCGPGRP, buf, 1) 0 >>> buf array('h', )
.. function:: flock(fd, operation) Perform the lock operation *operation* on file descriptor *fd* (file objects providing a :meth:`~io.IOBase.fileno` method are accepted as well). See the Unix manual :manpage:`flock(2)` for details. (On some systems, this function is emulated using :c:func:`fcntl`.) If the :c:func:`flock` fails, an :exc:`OSError` exception is raised.
.. function:: lockf(fd, cmd, len=0, start=0, whence=0) This is essentially a wrapper around the :func:`~fcntl.fcntl` locking calls. *fd* is the file descriptor of the file to lock or unlock, and *cmd* is one of the following values: * :const:`LOCK_UN` -- unlock * :const:`LOCK_SH` -- acquire a shared lock * :const:`LOCK_EX` -- acquire an exclusive lock When *cmd* is :const:`LOCK_SH` or :const:`LOCK_EX`, it can also be bitwise ORed with :const:`LOCK_NB` to avoid blocking on lock acquisition. If :const:`LOCK_NB` is used and the lock cannot be acquired, an :exc:`OSError` will be raised and the exception will have an *errno* attribute set to :const:`EACCES` or :const:`EAGAIN` (depending on the operating system; for portability, check for both values). On at least some systems, :const:`LOCK_EX` can only be used if the file descriptor refers to a file opened for writing. *len* is the number of bytes to lock, *start* is the byte offset at which the lock starts, relative to *whence*, and *whence* is as with :func:`io.IOBase.seek`, specifically: * :const:`0` -- relative to the start of the file (:data:`os.SEEK_SET`) * :const:`1` -- relative to the current buffer position (:data:`os.SEEK_CUR`) * :const:`2` -- relative to the end of the file (:data:`os.SEEK_END`) The default for *start* is 0, which means to start at the beginning of the file. The default for *len* is 0 which means to lock to the end of the file. The default for *whence* is also 0.
Examples (all on a SVR4 compliant system):
import struct, fcntl, os f = open(...) rv = fcntl.fcntl(f, fcntl.F_SETFL, os.O_NDELAY) lockdata = struct.pack('hhllhh', fcntl.F_WRLCK, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) rv = fcntl.fcntl(f, fcntl.F_SETLKW, lockdata)
Note that in the first example the return value variable rv will hold an integer value; in the second example it will hold a :class:`bytes` object. The structure lay-out for the lockdata variable is system dependent --- therefore using the :func:`flock` call may be better.
.. seealso:: Module :mod:`os` If the locking flags :data:`~os.O_SHLOCK` and :data:`~os.O_EXLOCK` are present in the :mod:`os` module (on BSD only), the :func:`os.open` function provides an alternative to the :func:`lockf` and :func:`flock` functions.