:mod:`gzip` --- Support for :program:`gzip` files
.. module:: gzip :synopsis: Interfaces for gzip compression and decompression using file objects.
Source code: :source:`Lib/gzip.py`
The data compression is provided by the :mod:`zlib` module.
The :mod:`gzip` module provides the :class:`GzipFile` class, as well as the :func:`.open`, :func:`compress` and :func:`decompress` convenience functions. The :class:`GzipFile` class reads and writes :program:`gzip`-format files, automatically compressing or decompressing the data so that it looks like an ordinary :term:`file object`.
Note that additional file formats which can be decompressed by the :program:`gzip` and :program:`gunzip` programs, such as those produced by :program:`compress` and :program:`pack`, are not supported by this module.
The module defines the following items:
.. function:: open(filename, mode='rb', compresslevel=9, encoding=None, errors=None, newline=None) Open a gzip-compressed file in binary or text mode, returning a :term:`file object`. The *filename* argument can be an actual filename (a :class:`str` or :class:`bytes` object), or an existing file object to read from or write to. The *mode* argument can be any of ``'r'``, ``'rb'``, ``'a'``, ``'ab'``, ``'w'``, ``'wb'``, ``'x'`` or ``'xb'`` for binary mode, or ``'rt'``, ``'at'``, ``'wt'``, or ``'xt'`` for text mode. The default is ``'rb'``. The *compresslevel* argument is an integer from 0 to 9, as for the :class:`GzipFile` constructor. For binary mode, this function is equivalent to the :class:`GzipFile` constructor: ``GzipFile(filename, mode, compresslevel)``. In this case, the *encoding*, *errors* and *newline* arguments must not be provided. For text mode, a :class:`GzipFile` object is created, and wrapped in an :class:`io.TextIOWrapper` instance with the specified encoding, error handling behavior, and line ending(s). .. versionchanged:: 3.3 Added support for *filename* being a file object, support for text mode, and the *encoding*, *errors* and *newline* arguments. .. versionchanged:: 3.4 Added support for the ``'x'``, ``'xb'`` and ``'xt'`` modes. .. versionchanged:: 3.6 Accepts a :term:`path-like object`.
Constructor for the :class:`GzipFile` class, which simulates most of the methods of a :term:`file object`, with the exception of the :meth:`truncate` method. At least one of fileobj and filename must be given a non-trivial value.
The new class instance is based on fileobj, which can be a regular file, an
:class:`io.BytesIO` object, or any other object which simulates a file. It
None, in which case filename is opened to provide a file
When fileobj is not
None, the filename argument is only used to be
included in the :program:`gzip` file header, which may include the original
filename of the uncompressed file. It defaults to the filename of fileobj, if
discernible; otherwise, it defaults to the empty string, and in this case the
original filename is not included in the header.
The mode argument can be any of
'xb', depending on whether the file will be read or
written. The default is the mode of fileobj if discernible; otherwise, the
The compresslevel argument is an integer from
the level of compression;
1 is fastest and produces the least
9 is slowest and produces the most compression.
is no compression. The default is
The mtime argument is an optional numeric timestamp to be written to
the last modification time field in the stream when compressing. It
should only be provided in compression mode. If omitted or
current time is used. See the :attr:`mtime` attribute for more details.
Calling a :class:`GzipFile` object's :meth:`close` method does not close fileobj, since you might wish to append more material after the compressed data. This also allows you to pass an :class:`io.BytesIO` object opened for writing as fileobj, and retrieve the resulting memory buffer using the :class:`io.BytesIO` object's :meth:`~io.BytesIO.getvalue` method.
:class:`GzipFile` also provides the following method and attribute:
.. method:: peek(n) Read *n* uncompressed bytes without advancing the file position. At most one single read on the compressed stream is done to satisfy the call. The number of bytes returned may be more or less than requested. .. note:: While calling :meth:`peek` does not change the file position of the :class:`GzipFile`, it may change the position of the underlying file object (e.g. if the :class:`GzipFile` was constructed with the *fileobj* parameter). .. versionadded:: 3.2
.. attribute:: mtime When decompressing, the value of the last modification time field in the most recently read header may be read from this attribute, as an integer. The initial value before reading any headers is ``None``. All :program:`gzip` compressed streams are required to contain this timestamp field. Some programs, such as :program:`gunzip`\ , make use of the timestamp. The format is the same as the return value of :func:`time.time` and the :attr:`~os.stat_result.st_mtime` attribute of the object returned by :func:`os.stat`.
.. versionchanged:: 3.1 Support for the :keyword:`with` statement was added, along with the *mtime* constructor argument and :attr:`mtime` attribute.
.. versionchanged:: 3.2 Support for zero-padded and unseekable files was added.
.. versionchanged:: 3.3 The :meth:`io.BufferedIOBase.read1` method is now implemented.
.. versionchanged:: 3.4 Added support for the ``'x'`` and ``'xb'`` modes.
.. versionchanged:: 3.5 Added support for writing arbitrary :term:`bytes-like objects <bytes-like object>`. The :meth:`~io.BufferedIOBase.read` method now accepts an argument of ``None``.
.. versionchanged:: 3.6 Accepts a :term:`path-like object`.
.. function:: compress(data, compresslevel=9) Compress the *data*, returning a :class:`bytes` object containing the compressed data. *compresslevel* has the same meaning as in the :class:`GzipFile` constructor above. .. versionadded:: 3.2
.. function:: decompress(data) Decompress the *data*, returning a :class:`bytes` object containing the uncompressed data. .. versionadded:: 3.2
Examples of usage
Example of how to read a compressed file:
import gzip with gzip.open('/home/joe/file.txt.gz', 'rb') as f: file_content = f.read()
Example of how to create a compressed GZIP file:
import gzip content = b"Lots of content here" with gzip.open('/home/joe/file.txt.gz', 'wb') as f: f.write(content)
Example of how to GZIP compress an existing file:
import gzip import shutil with open('/home/joe/file.txt', 'rb') as f_in: with gzip.open('/home/joe/file.txt.gz', 'wb') as f_out: shutil.copyfileobj(f_in, f_out)
Example of how to GZIP compress a binary string:
import gzip s_in = b"Lots of content here" s_out = gzip.compress(s_in)
.. seealso:: Module :mod:`zlib` The basic data compression module needed to support the :program:`gzip` file format.