Skip to content
Permalink
Branch: master
Find file Copy path
Find file Copy path
Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
1141 lines (775 sloc) 32.8 KB

:mod:`pathlib` --- Object-oriented filesystem paths

.. module:: pathlib
   :synopsis: Object-oriented filesystem paths

.. versionadded:: 3.4

Source code: :source:`Lib/pathlib.py`

.. index:: single: path; operations


This module offers classes representing filesystem paths with semantics appropriate for different operating systems. Path classes are divided between :ref:`pure paths <pure-paths>`, which provide purely computational operations without I/O, and :ref:`concrete paths <concrete-paths>`, which inherit from pure paths but also provide I/O operations.

pathlib-inheritance.png

If you've never used this module before or just aren't sure which class is right for your task, :class:`Path` is most likely what you need. It instantiates a :ref:`concrete path <concrete-paths>` for the platform the code is running on.

Pure paths are useful in some special cases; for example:

  1. If you want to manipulate Windows paths on a Unix machine (or vice versa). You cannot instantiate a :class:`WindowsPath` when running on Unix, but you can instantiate :class:`PureWindowsPath`.
  2. You want to make sure that your code only manipulates paths without actually accessing the OS. In this case, instantiating one of the pure classes may be useful since those simply don't have any OS-accessing operations.
.. seealso::
   :pep:`428`: The pathlib module -- object-oriented filesystem paths.

.. seealso::
   For low-level path manipulation on strings, you can also use the
   :mod:`os.path` module.


Basic use

Importing the main class:

>>> from pathlib import Path

Listing subdirectories:

>>> p = Path('.')
>>> [x for x in p.iterdir() if x.is_dir()]
[PosixPath('.hg'), PosixPath('docs'), PosixPath('dist'),
 PosixPath('__pycache__'), PosixPath('build')]

Listing Python source files in this directory tree:

>>> list(p.glob('**/*.py'))
[PosixPath('test_pathlib.py'), PosixPath('setup.py'),
 PosixPath('pathlib.py'), PosixPath('docs/conf.py'),
 PosixPath('build/lib/pathlib.py')]

Navigating inside a directory tree:

>>> p = Path('/etc')
>>> q = p / 'init.d' / 'reboot'
>>> q
PosixPath('/etc/init.d/reboot')
>>> q.resolve()
PosixPath('/etc/rc.d/init.d/halt')

Querying path properties:

>>> q.exists()
True
>>> q.is_dir()
False

Opening a file:

>>> with q.open() as f: f.readline()
...
'#!/bin/bash\n'

Pure paths

Pure path objects provide path-handling operations which don't actually access a filesystem. There are three ways to access these classes, which we also call flavours:

A generic class that represents the system's path flavour (instantiating it creates either a :class:`PurePosixPath` or a :class:`PureWindowsPath`):

>>> PurePath('setup.py')      # Running on a Unix machine
PurePosixPath('setup.py')

Each element of pathsegments can be either a string representing a path segment, an object implementing the :class:`os.PathLike` interface which returns a string, or another path object:

>>> PurePath('foo', 'some/path', 'bar')
PurePosixPath('foo/some/path/bar')
>>> PurePath(Path('foo'), Path('bar'))
PurePosixPath('foo/bar')

When pathsegments is empty, the current directory is assumed:

>>> PurePath()
PurePosixPath('.')

When several absolute paths are given, the last is taken as an anchor (mimicking :func:`os.path.join`'s behaviour):

>>> PurePath('/etc', '/usr', 'lib64')
PurePosixPath('/usr/lib64')
>>> PureWindowsPath('c:/Windows', 'd:bar')
PureWindowsPath('d:bar')

However, in a Windows path, changing the local root doesn't discard the previous drive setting:

>>> PureWindowsPath('c:/Windows', '/Program Files')
PureWindowsPath('c:/Program Files')

Spurious slashes and single dots are collapsed, but double dots ('..') are not, since this would change the meaning of a path in the face of symbolic links:

>>> PurePath('foo//bar')
PurePosixPath('foo/bar')
>>> PurePath('foo/./bar')
PurePosixPath('foo/bar')
>>> PurePath('foo/../bar')
PurePosixPath('foo/../bar')

(a naïve approach would make PurePosixPath('foo/../bar') equivalent to PurePosixPath('bar'), which is wrong if foo is a symbolic link to another directory)

Pure path objects implement the :class:`os.PathLike` interface, allowing them to be used anywhere the interface is accepted.

.. versionchanged:: 3.6
   Added support for the :class:`os.PathLike` interface.

A subclass of :class:`PurePath`, this path flavour represents non-Windows filesystem paths:

>>> PurePosixPath('/etc')
PurePosixPath('/etc')

pathsegments is specified similarly to :class:`PurePath`.

A subclass of :class:`PurePath`, this path flavour represents Windows filesystem paths:

>>> PureWindowsPath('c:/Program Files/')
PureWindowsPath('c:/Program Files')

pathsegments is specified similarly to :class:`PurePath`.

Regardless of the system you're running on, you can instantiate all of these classes, since they don't provide any operation that does system calls.

General properties

Paths are immutable and hashable. Paths of a same flavour are comparable and orderable. These properties respect the flavour's case-folding semantics:

>>> PurePosixPath('foo') == PurePosixPath('FOO')
False
>>> PureWindowsPath('foo') == PureWindowsPath('FOO')
True
>>> PureWindowsPath('FOO') in { PureWindowsPath('foo') }
True
>>> PureWindowsPath('C:') < PureWindowsPath('d:')
True

Paths of a different flavour compare unequal and cannot be ordered:

>>> PureWindowsPath('foo') == PurePosixPath('foo')
False
>>> PureWindowsPath('foo') < PurePosixPath('foo')
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: '<' not supported between instances of 'PureWindowsPath' and 'PurePosixPath'

Operators

The slash operator helps create child paths, similarly to :func:`os.path.join`:

>>> p = PurePath('/etc')
>>> p
PurePosixPath('/etc')
>>> p / 'init.d' / 'apache2'
PurePosixPath('/etc/init.d/apache2')
>>> q = PurePath('bin')
>>> '/usr' / q
PurePosixPath('/usr/bin')

A path object can be used anywhere an object implementing :class:`os.PathLike` is accepted:

>>> import os
>>> p = PurePath('/etc')
>>> os.fspath(p)
'/etc'

The string representation of a path is the raw filesystem path itself (in native form, e.g. with backslashes under Windows), which you can pass to any function taking a file path as a string:

>>> p = PurePath('/etc')
>>> str(p)
'/etc'
>>> p = PureWindowsPath('c:/Program Files')
>>> str(p)
'c:\\Program Files'

Similarly, calling :class:`bytes` on a path gives the raw filesystem path as a bytes object, as encoded by :func:`os.fsencode`:

>>> bytes(p)
b'/etc'

Note

Calling :class:`bytes` is only recommended under Unix. Under Windows, the unicode form is the canonical representation of filesystem paths.

Accessing individual parts

To access the individual "parts" (components) of a path, use the following property:

.. data:: PurePath.parts

   A tuple giving access to the path's various components::

      >>> p = PurePath('/usr/bin/python3')
      >>> p.parts
      ('/', 'usr', 'bin', 'python3')

      >>> p = PureWindowsPath('c:/Program Files/PSF')
      >>> p.parts
      ('c:\\', 'Program Files', 'PSF')

   (note how the drive and local root are regrouped in a single part)


Methods and properties

.. testsetup::

   from pathlib import PurePosixPath, PureWindowsPath

Pure paths provide the following methods and properties:

.. data:: PurePath.drive

   A string representing the drive letter or name, if any::

      >>> PureWindowsPath('c:/Program Files/').drive
      'c:'
      >>> PureWindowsPath('/Program Files/').drive
      ''
      >>> PurePosixPath('/etc').drive
      ''

   UNC shares are also considered drives::

      >>> PureWindowsPath('//host/share/foo.txt').drive
      '\\\\host\\share'

.. data:: PurePath.root

   A string representing the (local or global) root, if any::

      >>> PureWindowsPath('c:/Program Files/').root
      '\\'
      >>> PureWindowsPath('c:Program Files/').root
      ''
      >>> PurePosixPath('/etc').root
      '/'

   UNC shares always have a root::

      >>> PureWindowsPath('//host/share').root
      '\\'

.. data:: PurePath.anchor

   The concatenation of the drive and root::

      >>> PureWindowsPath('c:/Program Files/').anchor
      'c:\\'
      >>> PureWindowsPath('c:Program Files/').anchor
      'c:'
      >>> PurePosixPath('/etc').anchor
      '/'
      >>> PureWindowsPath('//host/share').anchor
      '\\\\host\\share\\'


.. data:: PurePath.parents

   An immutable sequence providing access to the logical ancestors of
   the path::

      >>> p = PureWindowsPath('c:/foo/bar/setup.py')
      >>> p.parents[0]
      PureWindowsPath('c:/foo/bar')
      >>> p.parents[1]
      PureWindowsPath('c:/foo')
      >>> p.parents[2]
      PureWindowsPath('c:/')


.. data:: PurePath.parent

   The logical parent of the path::

      >>> p = PurePosixPath('/a/b/c/d')
      >>> p.parent
      PurePosixPath('/a/b/c')

   You cannot go past an anchor, or empty path::

      >>> p = PurePosixPath('/')
      >>> p.parent
      PurePosixPath('/')
      >>> p = PurePosixPath('.')
      >>> p.parent
      PurePosixPath('.')

   .. note::
      This is a purely lexical operation, hence the following behaviour::

         >>> p = PurePosixPath('foo/..')
         >>> p.parent
         PurePosixPath('foo')

      If you want to walk an arbitrary filesystem path upwards, it is
      recommended to first call :meth:`Path.resolve` so as to resolve
      symlinks and eliminate `".."` components.


.. data:: PurePath.name

   A string representing the final path component, excluding the drive and
   root, if any::

      >>> PurePosixPath('my/library/setup.py').name
      'setup.py'

   UNC drive names are not considered::

      >>> PureWindowsPath('//some/share/setup.py').name
      'setup.py'
      >>> PureWindowsPath('//some/share').name
      ''


.. data:: PurePath.suffix

   The file extension of the final component, if any::

      >>> PurePosixPath('my/library/setup.py').suffix
      '.py'
      >>> PurePosixPath('my/library.tar.gz').suffix
      '.gz'
      >>> PurePosixPath('my/library').suffix
      ''


.. data:: PurePath.suffixes

   A list of the path's file extensions::

      >>> PurePosixPath('my/library.tar.gar').suffixes
      ['.tar', '.gar']
      >>> PurePosixPath('my/library.tar.gz').suffixes
      ['.tar', '.gz']
      >>> PurePosixPath('my/library').suffixes
      []


.. data:: PurePath.stem

   The final path component, without its suffix::

      >>> PurePosixPath('my/library.tar.gz').stem
      'library.tar'
      >>> PurePosixPath('my/library.tar').stem
      'library'
      >>> PurePosixPath('my/library').stem
      'library'


.. method:: PurePath.as_posix()

   Return a string representation of the path with forward slashes (``/``)::

      >>> p = PureWindowsPath('c:\\windows')
      >>> str(p)
      'c:\\windows'
      >>> p.as_posix()
      'c:/windows'


.. method:: PurePath.as_uri()

   Represent the path as a ``file`` URI.  :exc:`ValueError` is raised if
   the path isn't absolute.

      >>> p = PurePosixPath('/etc/passwd')
      >>> p.as_uri()
      'file:///etc/passwd'
      >>> p = PureWindowsPath('c:/Windows')
      >>> p.as_uri()
      'file:///c:/Windows'


.. method:: PurePath.is_absolute()

   Return whether the path is absolute or not.  A path is considered absolute
   if it has both a root and (if the flavour allows) a drive::

      >>> PurePosixPath('/a/b').is_absolute()
      True
      >>> PurePosixPath('a/b').is_absolute()
      False

      >>> PureWindowsPath('c:/a/b').is_absolute()
      True
      >>> PureWindowsPath('/a/b').is_absolute()
      False
      >>> PureWindowsPath('c:').is_absolute()
      False
      >>> PureWindowsPath('//some/share').is_absolute()
      True


.. method:: PurePath.is_reserved()

   With :class:`PureWindowsPath`, return ``True`` if the path is considered
   reserved under Windows, ``False`` otherwise.  With :class:`PurePosixPath`,
   ``False`` is always returned.

      >>> PureWindowsPath('nul').is_reserved()
      True
      >>> PurePosixPath('nul').is_reserved()
      False

   File system calls on reserved paths can fail mysteriously or have
   unintended effects.


.. method:: PurePath.joinpath(*other)

   Calling this method is equivalent to combining the path with each of
   the *other* arguments in turn::

      >>> PurePosixPath('/etc').joinpath('passwd')
      PurePosixPath('/etc/passwd')
      >>> PurePosixPath('/etc').joinpath(PurePosixPath('passwd'))
      PurePosixPath('/etc/passwd')
      >>> PurePosixPath('/etc').joinpath('init.d', 'apache2')
      PurePosixPath('/etc/init.d/apache2')
      >>> PureWindowsPath('c:').joinpath('/Program Files')
      PureWindowsPath('c:/Program Files')


.. method:: PurePath.match(pattern)

   Match this path against the provided glob-style pattern.  Return ``True``
   if matching is successful, ``False`` otherwise.

   If *pattern* is relative, the path can be either relative or absolute,
   and matching is done from the right::

      >>> PurePath('a/b.py').match('*.py')
      True
      >>> PurePath('/a/b/c.py').match('b/*.py')
      True
      >>> PurePath('/a/b/c.py').match('a/*.py')
      False

   If *pattern* is absolute, the path must be absolute, and the whole path
   must match::

      >>> PurePath('/a.py').match('/*.py')
      True
      >>> PurePath('a/b.py').match('/*.py')
      False

   As with other methods, case-sensitivity is observed::

      >>> PureWindowsPath('b.py').match('*.PY')
      True


.. method:: PurePath.relative_to(*other)

   Compute a version of this path relative to the path represented by
   *other*.  If it's impossible, ValueError is raised::

      >>> p = PurePosixPath('/etc/passwd')
      >>> p.relative_to('/')
      PurePosixPath('etc/passwd')
      >>> p.relative_to('/etc')
      PurePosixPath('passwd')
      >>> p.relative_to('/usr')
      Traceback (most recent call last):
        File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
        File "pathlib.py", line 694, in relative_to
          .format(str(self), str(formatted)))
      ValueError: '/etc/passwd' does not start with '/usr'


.. method:: PurePath.with_name(name)

   Return a new path with the :attr:`name` changed.  If the original path
   doesn't have a name, ValueError is raised::

      >>> p = PureWindowsPath('c:/Downloads/pathlib.tar.gz')
      >>> p.with_name('setup.py')
      PureWindowsPath('c:/Downloads/setup.py')
      >>> p = PureWindowsPath('c:/')
      >>> p.with_name('setup.py')
      Traceback (most recent call last):
        File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
        File "/home/antoine/cpython/default/Lib/pathlib.py", line 751, in with_name
          raise ValueError("%r has an empty name" % (self,))
      ValueError: PureWindowsPath('c:/') has an empty name


.. method:: PurePath.with_suffix(suffix)

   Return a new path with the :attr:`suffix` changed.  If the original path
   doesn't have a suffix, the new *suffix* is appended instead.  If the
   *suffix* is an empty string, the original suffix is removed::

      >>> p = PureWindowsPath('c:/Downloads/pathlib.tar.gz')
      >>> p.with_suffix('.bz2')
      PureWindowsPath('c:/Downloads/pathlib.tar.bz2')
      >>> p = PureWindowsPath('README')
      >>> p.with_suffix('.txt')
      PureWindowsPath('README.txt')
      >>> p = PureWindowsPath('README.txt')
      >>> p.with_suffix('')
      PureWindowsPath('README')


Concrete paths

Concrete paths are subclasses of the pure path classes. In addition to operations provided by the latter, they also provide methods to do system calls on path objects. There are three ways to instantiate concrete paths:

A subclass of :class:`PurePath`, this class represents concrete paths of the system's path flavour (instantiating it creates either a :class:`PosixPath` or a :class:`WindowsPath`):

>>> Path('setup.py')
PosixPath('setup.py')

pathsegments is specified similarly to :class:`PurePath`.

A subclass of :class:`Path` and :class:`PurePosixPath`, this class represents concrete non-Windows filesystem paths:

>>> PosixPath('/etc')
PosixPath('/etc')

pathsegments is specified similarly to :class:`PurePath`.

A subclass of :class:`Path` and :class:`PureWindowsPath`, this class represents concrete Windows filesystem paths:

>>> WindowsPath('c:/Program Files/')
WindowsPath('c:/Program Files')

pathsegments is specified similarly to :class:`PurePath`.

You can only instantiate the class flavour that corresponds to your system (allowing system calls on non-compatible path flavours could lead to bugs or failures in your application):

>>> import os
>>> os.name
'posix'
>>> Path('setup.py')
PosixPath('setup.py')
>>> PosixPath('setup.py')
PosixPath('setup.py')
>>> WindowsPath('setup.py')
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "pathlib.py", line 798, in __new__
    % (cls.__name__,))
NotImplementedError: cannot instantiate 'WindowsPath' on your system

Methods

Concrete paths provide the following methods in addition to pure paths methods. Many of these methods can raise an :exc:`OSError` if a system call fails (for example because the path doesn't exist).

.. versionchanged:: 3.8

   :meth:`~Path.exists()`, :meth:`~Path.is_dir()`, :meth:`~Path.is_file()`,
   :meth:`~Path.is_mount()`, :meth:`~Path.is_symlink()`,
   :meth:`~Path.is_block_device()`, :meth:`~Path.is_char_device()`,
   :meth:`~Path.is_fifo()`, :meth:`~Path.is_socket()` now return ``False``
   instead of raising an exception for paths that contain characters
   unrepresentable at the OS level.


.. classmethod:: Path.cwd()

   Return a new path object representing the current directory (as returned
   by :func:`os.getcwd`)::

      >>> Path.cwd()
      PosixPath('/home/antoine/pathlib')


.. classmethod:: Path.home()

   Return a new path object representing the user's home directory (as
   returned by :func:`os.path.expanduser` with ``~`` construct)::

      >>> Path.home()
      PosixPath('/home/antoine')

   .. versionadded:: 3.5


.. method:: Path.stat()

   Return information about this path (similarly to :func:`os.stat`).
   The result is looked up at each call to this method.

   ::

      >>> p = Path('setup.py')
      >>> p.stat().st_size
      956
      >>> p.stat().st_mtime
      1327883547.852554


.. method:: Path.chmod(mode)

   Change the file mode and permissions, like :func:`os.chmod`::

      >>> p = Path('setup.py')
      >>> p.stat().st_mode
      33277
      >>> p.chmod(0o444)
      >>> p.stat().st_mode
      33060


.. method:: Path.exists()

   Whether the path points to an existing file or directory::

      >>> Path('.').exists()
      True
      >>> Path('setup.py').exists()
      True
      >>> Path('/etc').exists()
      True
      >>> Path('nonexistentfile').exists()
      False

   .. note::
      If the path points to a symlink, :meth:`exists` returns whether the
      symlink *points to* an existing file or directory.


.. method:: Path.expanduser()

   Return a new path with expanded ``~`` and ``~user`` constructs,
   as returned by :meth:`os.path.expanduser`::

      >>> p = PosixPath('~/films/Monty Python')
      >>> p.expanduser()
      PosixPath('/home/eric/films/Monty Python')

   .. versionadded:: 3.5


.. method:: Path.glob(pattern)

   Glob the given relative *pattern* in the directory represented by this path,
   yielding all matching files (of any kind)::

      >>> sorted(Path('.').glob('*.py'))
      [PosixPath('pathlib.py'), PosixPath('setup.py'), PosixPath('test_pathlib.py')]
      >>> sorted(Path('.').glob('*/*.py'))
      [PosixPath('docs/conf.py')]

   The "``**``" pattern means "this directory and all subdirectories,
   recursively".  In other words, it enables recursive globbing::

      >>> sorted(Path('.').glob('**/*.py'))
      [PosixPath('build/lib/pathlib.py'),
       PosixPath('docs/conf.py'),
       PosixPath('pathlib.py'),
       PosixPath('setup.py'),
       PosixPath('test_pathlib.py')]

   .. note::
      Using the "``**``" pattern in large directory trees may consume
      an inordinate amount of time.


.. method:: Path.group()

   Return the name of the group owning the file.  :exc:`KeyError` is raised
   if the file's gid isn't found in the system database.


.. method:: Path.is_dir()

   Return ``True`` if the path points to a directory (or a symbolic link
   pointing to a directory), ``False`` if it points to another kind of file.

   ``False`` is also returned if the path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink;
   other errors (such as permission errors) are propagated.


.. method:: Path.is_file()

   Return ``True`` if the path points to a regular file (or a symbolic link
   pointing to a regular file), ``False`` if it points to another kind of file.

   ``False`` is also returned if the path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink;
   other errors (such as permission errors) are propagated.


.. method:: Path.is_mount()

   Return ``True`` if the path is a :dfn:`mount point`: a point in a
   file system where a different file system has been mounted.  On POSIX, the
   function checks whether *path*'s parent, :file:`path/..`, is on a different
   device than *path*, or whether :file:`path/..` and *path* point to the same
   i-node on the same device --- this should detect mount points for all Unix
   and POSIX variants.  Not implemented on Windows.

   .. versionadded:: 3.7


.. method:: Path.is_symlink()

   Return ``True`` if the path points to a symbolic link, ``False`` otherwise.

   ``False`` is also returned if the path doesn't exist; other errors (such
   as permission errors) are propagated.


.. method:: Path.is_socket()

   Return ``True`` if the path points to a Unix socket (or a symbolic link
   pointing to a Unix socket), ``False`` if it points to another kind of file.

   ``False`` is also returned if the path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink;
   other errors (such as permission errors) are propagated.


.. method:: Path.is_fifo()

   Return ``True`` if the path points to a FIFO (or a symbolic link
   pointing to a FIFO), ``False`` if it points to another kind of file.

   ``False`` is also returned if the path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink;
   other errors (such as permission errors) are propagated.


.. method:: Path.is_block_device()

   Return ``True`` if the path points to a block device (or a symbolic link
   pointing to a block device), ``False`` if it points to another kind of file.

   ``False`` is also returned if the path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink;
   other errors (such as permission errors) are propagated.


.. method:: Path.is_char_device()

   Return ``True`` if the path points to a character device (or a symbolic link
   pointing to a character device), ``False`` if it points to another kind of file.

   ``False`` is also returned if the path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink;
   other errors (such as permission errors) are propagated.


.. method:: Path.iterdir()

   When the path points to a directory, yield path objects of the directory
   contents::

      >>> p = Path('docs')
      >>> for child in p.iterdir(): child
      ...
      PosixPath('docs/conf.py')
      PosixPath('docs/_templates')
      PosixPath('docs/make.bat')
      PosixPath('docs/index.rst')
      PosixPath('docs/_build')
      PosixPath('docs/_static')
      PosixPath('docs/Makefile')

.. method:: Path.lchmod(mode)

   Like :meth:`Path.chmod` but, if the path points to a symbolic link, the
   symbolic link's mode is changed rather than its target's.


.. method:: Path.lstat()

   Like :meth:`Path.stat` but, if the path points to a symbolic link, return
   the symbolic link's information rather than its target's.


.. method:: Path.mkdir(mode=0o777, parents=False, exist_ok=False)

   Create a new directory at this given path.  If *mode* is given, it is
   combined with the process' ``umask`` value to determine the file mode
   and access flags.  If the path already exists, :exc:`FileExistsError`
   is raised.

   If *parents* is true, any missing parents of this path are created
   as needed; they are created with the default permissions without taking
   *mode* into account (mimicking the POSIX ``mkdir -p`` command).

   If *parents* is false (the default), a missing parent raises
   :exc:`FileNotFoundError`.

   If *exist_ok* is false (the default), :exc:`FileExistsError` is
   raised if the target directory already exists.

   If *exist_ok* is true, :exc:`FileExistsError` exceptions will be
   ignored (same behavior as the POSIX ``mkdir -p`` command), but only if the
   last path component is not an existing non-directory file.

   .. versionchanged:: 3.5
      The *exist_ok* parameter was added.


.. method:: Path.open(mode='r', buffering=-1, encoding=None, errors=None, newline=None)

   Open the file pointed to by the path, like the built-in :func:`open`
   function does::

      >>> p = Path('setup.py')
      >>> with p.open() as f:
      ...     f.readline()
      ...
      '#!/usr/bin/env python3\n'


.. method:: Path.owner()

   Return the name of the user owning the file.  :exc:`KeyError` is raised
   if the file's uid isn't found in the system database.


.. method:: Path.read_bytes()

   Return the binary contents of the pointed-to file as a bytes object::

      >>> p = Path('my_binary_file')
      >>> p.write_bytes(b'Binary file contents')
      20
      >>> p.read_bytes()
      b'Binary file contents'

   .. versionadded:: 3.5


.. method:: Path.read_text(encoding=None, errors=None)

   Return the decoded contents of the pointed-to file as a string::

      >>> p = Path('my_text_file')
      >>> p.write_text('Text file contents')
      18
      >>> p.read_text()
      'Text file contents'

   The file is opened and then closed. The optional parameters have the same
   meaning as in :func:`open`.

   .. versionadded:: 3.5


.. method:: Path.rename(target)

   Rename this file or directory to the given *target*.  On Unix, if
   *target* exists and is a file, it will be replaced silently if the user
   has permission.  *target* can be either a string or another path object::

      >>> p = Path('foo')
      >>> p.open('w').write('some text')
      9
      >>> target = Path('bar')
      >>> p.rename(target)
      >>> target.open().read()
      'some text'


.. method:: Path.replace(target)

   Rename this file or directory to the given *target*.  If *target* points
   to an existing file or directory, it will be unconditionally replaced.


.. method:: Path.resolve(strict=False)

   Make the path absolute, resolving any symlinks.  A new path object is
   returned::

      >>> p = Path()
      >>> p
      PosixPath('.')
      >>> p.resolve()
      PosixPath('/home/antoine/pathlib')

   "``..``" components are also eliminated (this is the only method to do so)::

      >>> p = Path('docs/../setup.py')
      >>> p.resolve()
      PosixPath('/home/antoine/pathlib/setup.py')

   If the path doesn't exist and *strict* is ``True``, :exc:`FileNotFoundError`
   is raised.  If *strict* is ``False``, the path is resolved as far as possible
   and any remainder is appended without checking whether it exists.  If an
   infinite loop is encountered along the resolution path, :exc:`RuntimeError`
   is raised.

   .. versionadded:: 3.6
      The *strict* argument (pre-3.6 behavior is strict).

.. method:: Path.rglob(pattern)

   This is like calling :func:`Path.glob` with "``**/``" added in front of the
   given relative *pattern*::

      >>> sorted(Path().rglob("*.py"))
      [PosixPath('build/lib/pathlib.py'),
       PosixPath('docs/conf.py'),
       PosixPath('pathlib.py'),
       PosixPath('setup.py'),
       PosixPath('test_pathlib.py')]


.. method:: Path.rmdir()

   Remove this directory.  The directory must be empty.


.. method:: Path.samefile(other_path)

   Return whether this path points to the same file as *other_path*, which
   can be either a Path object, or a string.  The semantics are similar
   to :func:`os.path.samefile` and :func:`os.path.samestat`.

   An :exc:`OSError` can be raised if either file cannot be accessed for some
   reason.

   ::

      >>> p = Path('spam')
      >>> q = Path('eggs')
      >>> p.samefile(q)
      False
      >>> p.samefile('spam')
      True

   .. versionadded:: 3.5


.. method:: Path.symlink_to(target, target_is_directory=False)

   Make this path a symbolic link to *target*.  Under Windows,
   *target_is_directory* must be true (default ``False``) if the link's target
   is a directory.  Under POSIX, *target_is_directory*'s value is ignored.

   ::

      >>> p = Path('mylink')
      >>> p.symlink_to('setup.py')
      >>> p.resolve()
      PosixPath('/home/antoine/pathlib/setup.py')
      >>> p.stat().st_size
      956
      >>> p.lstat().st_size
      8

   .. note::
      The order of arguments (link, target) is the reverse
      of :func:`os.symlink`'s.


.. method:: Path.touch(mode=0o666, exist_ok=True)

   Create a file at this given path.  If *mode* is given, it is combined
   with the process' ``umask`` value to determine the file mode and access
   flags.  If the file already exists, the function succeeds if *exist_ok*
   is true (and its modification time is updated to the current time),
   otherwise :exc:`FileExistsError` is raised.


.. method:: Path.unlink(missing_ok=False)

   Remove this file or symbolic link.  If the path points to a directory,
   use :func:`Path.rmdir` instead.

   If *missing_ok* is false (the default), :exc:`FileNotFoundError` is
   raised if the path does not exist.

   If *missing_ok* is true, :exc:`FileNotFoundError` exceptions will be
   ignored (same behavior as the POSIX ``rm -f`` command).

   .. versionchanged:: 3.8
      The *missing_ok* parameter was added.


.. method:: Path.link_to(target)

   Create a hard link pointing to a path named *target*.

   .. versionchanged:: 3.8


.. method:: Path.write_bytes(data)

   Open the file pointed to in bytes mode, write *data* to it, and close the
   file::

      >>> p = Path('my_binary_file')
      >>> p.write_bytes(b'Binary file contents')
      20
      >>> p.read_bytes()
      b'Binary file contents'

   An existing file of the same name is overwritten.

   .. versionadded:: 3.5


.. method:: Path.write_text(data, encoding=None, errors=None)

   Open the file pointed to in text mode, write *data* to it, and close the
   file::

      >>> p = Path('my_text_file')
      >>> p.write_text('Text file contents')
      18
      >>> p.read_text()
      'Text file contents'

   .. versionadded:: 3.5

Correspondence to tools in the :mod:`os` module

Below is a table mapping various :mod:`os` functions to their corresponding :class:`PurePath`/:class:`Path` equivalent.

Note

Although :func:`os.path.relpath` and :meth:`PurePath.relative_to` have some overlapping use-cases, their semantics differ enough to warrant not considering them equivalent.

os and os.path pathlib
:func:`os.path.abspath` :meth:`Path.resolve`
:func:`os.chmod` :meth:`Path.chmod`
:func:`os.mkdir` :meth:`Path.mkdir`
:func:`os.rename` :meth:`Path.rename`
:func:`os.replace` :meth:`Path.replace`
:func:`os.rmdir` :meth:`Path.rmdir`
:func:`os.remove`, :func:`os.unlink` :meth:`Path.unlink`
:func:`os.getcwd` :func:`Path.cwd`
:func:`os.path.exists` :meth:`Path.exists`
:func:`os.path.expanduser` :meth:`Path.expanduser` and :meth:`Path.home`
:func:`os.path.isdir` :meth:`Path.is_dir`
:func:`os.path.isfile` :meth:`Path.is_file`
:func:`os.path.islink` :meth:`Path.is_symlink`
:func:`os.stat` :meth:`Path.stat`, :meth:`Path.owner`, :meth:`Path.group`
:func:`os.path.isabs` :meth:`PurePath.is_absolute`
:func:`os.path.join` :func:`PurePath.joinpath`
:func:`os.path.basename` :data:`PurePath.name`
:func:`os.path.dirname` :data:`PurePath.parent`
:func:`os.path.samefile` :meth:`Path.samefile`
:func:`os.path.splitext` :data:`PurePath.suffix`
You can’t perform that action at this time.