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r"""HTTP/1.1 client library
<intro stuff goes here>
<other stuff, too>
HTTPConnection goes through a number of "states", which define when a client
may legally make another request or fetch the response for a particular
request. This diagram details these state transitions:
| HTTPConnection()
| putrequest()
| ( putheader() )* endheaders()
| | getresponse() raises
| response = getresponse() | ConnectionError
v v
Unread-response Idle
| |
| | putrequest()
v v
Idle Req-started-unread-response
/ | | | ( putheader() )* endheaders()
v v
Request-started Req-sent-unread-response
This diagram presents the following rules:
-- a second request may not be started until {response-headers-read}
-- a response [object] cannot be retrieved until {request-sent}
-- there is no differentiation between an unread response body and a
partially read response body
Note: this enforcement is applied by the HTTPConnection class. The
HTTPResponse class does not enforce this state machine, which
implies sophisticated clients may accelerate the request/response
pipeline. Caution should be taken, though: accelerating the states
beyond the above pattern may imply knowledge of the server's
connection-close behavior for certain requests. For example, it
is impossible to tell whether the server will close the connection
UNTIL the response headers have been read; this means that further
requests cannot be placed into the pipeline until it is known that
the server will NOT be closing the connection.
Logical State __state __response
------------- ------- ----------
Idle _CS_IDLE None
Request-started _CS_REQ_STARTED None
Request-sent _CS_REQ_SENT None
Unread-response _CS_IDLE <response_class>
Req-started-unread-response _CS_REQ_STARTED <response_class>
Req-sent-unread-response _CS_REQ_SENT <response_class>
import email.parser
import email.message
import http
import io
import re
import socket
from urllib.parse import urlsplit
# HTTPMessage, parse_headers(), and the HTTP status code constants are
# intentionally omitted for simplicity
__all__ = ["HTTPResponse", "HTTPConnection",
"HTTPException", "NotConnected", "UnknownProtocol",
"UnknownTransferEncoding", "UnimplementedFileMode",
"IncompleteRead", "InvalidURL", "ImproperConnectionState",
"CannotSendRequest", "CannotSendHeader", "ResponseNotReady",
"BadStatusLine", "LineTooLong", "RemoteDisconnected", "error",
# connection states
_CS_IDLE = 'Idle'
_CS_REQ_STARTED = 'Request-started'
_CS_REQ_SENT = 'Request-sent'
# hack to maintain backwards compatibility
# another hack to maintain backwards compatibility
# Mapping status codes to official W3C names
responses = {v: v.phrase for v in http.HTTPStatus.__members__.values()}
# maximal line length when calling readline().
_MAXLINE = 65536
# Header name/value ABNF (
# VCHAR = %x21-7E
# obs-text = %x80-FF
# header-field = field-name ":" OWS field-value OWS
# field-name = token
# field-value = *( field-content / obs-fold )
# field-content = field-vchar [ 1*( SP / HTAB ) field-vchar ]
# field-vchar = VCHAR / obs-text
# obs-fold = CRLF 1*( SP / HTAB )
# ; obsolete line folding
# ; see Section 3.2.4
# token = 1*tchar
# tchar = "!" / "#" / "$" / "%" / "&" / "'" / "*"
# / "+" / "-" / "." / "^" / "_" / "`" / "|" / "~"
# ; any VCHAR, except delimiters
# VCHAR defined in
# the patterns for both name and value are more lenient than RFC
# definitions to allow for backwards compatibility
_is_legal_header_name = re.compile(rb'[^:\s][^:\r\n]*').fullmatch
_is_illegal_header_value = re.compile(rb'\n(?![ \t])|\r(?![ \t\n])').search
# These characters are not allowed within HTTP URL paths.
# See and the
# pchar definition.
# Prevents CVE-2019-9740. Includes control characters such as \r\n.
# We don't restrict chars above \x7f as putrequest() limits us to ASCII.
_contains_disallowed_url_pchar_re = re.compile('[\x00-\x20\x7f]')
# Arguably only these _should_ allowed:
# _is_allowed_url_pchars_re = re.compile(r"^[/!$&'()*+,;=:@%a-zA-Z0-9._~-]+$")
# We are more lenient for assumed real world compatibility purposes.
# We always set the Content-Length header for these methods because some
# servers will otherwise respond with a 411
def _encode(data, name='data'):
"""Call data.encode("latin-1") but show a better error message."""
return data.encode("latin-1")
except UnicodeEncodeError as err:
raise UnicodeEncodeError(
"%s (%.20r) is not valid Latin-1. Use %s.encode('utf-8') "
"if you want to send it encoded in UTF-8." %
(name.title(), data[err.start:err.end], name)) from None
class HTTPMessage(email.message.Message):
# XXX The only usage of this method is in
# http.server.CGIHTTPRequestHandler. Maybe move the code there so
# that it doesn't need to be part of the public API. The API has
# never been defined so this could cause backwards compatibility
# issues.
def getallmatchingheaders(self, name):
"""Find all header lines matching a given header name.
Look through the list of headers and find all lines matching a given
header name (and their continuation lines). A list of the lines is
returned, without interpretation. If the header does not occur, an
empty list is returned. If the header occurs multiple times, all
occurrences are returned. Case is not important in the header name.
name = name.lower() + ':'
n = len(name)
lst = []
hit = 0
for line in self.keys():
if line[:n].lower() == name:
hit = 1
elif not line[:1].isspace():
hit = 0
if hit:
return lst
def parse_headers(fp, _class=HTTPMessage):
"""Parses only RFC2822 headers from a file pointer.
email Parser wants to see strings rather than bytes.
But a TextIOWrapper around self.rfile would buffer too many bytes
from the stream, bytes which we later need to read as bytes.
So we read the correct bytes here, as bytes, for email Parser
to parse.
headers = []
while True:
line = fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
if len(line) > _MAXLINE:
raise LineTooLong("header line")
if len(headers) > _MAXHEADERS:
raise HTTPException("got more than %d headers" % _MAXHEADERS)
if line in (b'\r\n', b'\n', b''):
hstring = b''.join(headers).decode('iso-8859-1')
return email.parser.Parser(_class=_class).parsestr(hstring)
class HTTPResponse(io.BufferedIOBase):
# See RFC 2616 sec 19.6 and RFC 1945 sec 6 for details.
# The bytes from the socket object are iso-8859-1 strings.
# See RFC 2616 sec 2.2 which notes an exception for MIME-encoded
# text following RFC 2047. The basic status line parsing only
# accepts iso-8859-1.
def __init__(self, sock, debuglevel=0, method=None, url=None):
# If the response includes a content-length header, we need to
# make sure that the client doesn't read more than the
# specified number of bytes. If it does, it will block until
# the server times out and closes the connection. This will
# happen if a is done (without a size) whether
# self.fp is buffered or not. So, no by
# clients unless they know what they are doing.
self.fp = sock.makefile("rb")
self.debuglevel = debuglevel
self._method = method
# The HTTPResponse object is returned via urllib. The clients
# of http and urllib expect different attributes for the
# headers. headers is used here and supports urllib. msg is
# provided as a backwards compatibility layer for http
# clients.
self.headers = self.msg = None
# from the Status-Line of the response
self.version = _UNKNOWN # HTTP-Version
self.status = _UNKNOWN # Status-Code
self.reason = _UNKNOWN # Reason-Phrase
self.chunked = _UNKNOWN # is "chunked" being used?
self.chunk_left = _UNKNOWN # bytes left to read in current chunk
self.length = _UNKNOWN # number of bytes left in response
self.will_close = _UNKNOWN # conn will close at end of response
def _read_status(self):
line = str(self.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1), "iso-8859-1")
if len(line) > _MAXLINE:
raise LineTooLong("status line")
if self.debuglevel > 0:
print("reply:", repr(line))
if not line:
# Presumably, the server closed the connection before
# sending a valid response.
raise RemoteDisconnected("Remote end closed connection without"
" response")
version, status, reason = line.split(None, 2)
except ValueError:
version, status = line.split(None, 1)
reason = ""
except ValueError:
# empty version will cause next test to fail.
version = ""
if not version.startswith("HTTP/"):
raise BadStatusLine(line)
# The status code is a three-digit number
status = int(status)
if status < 100 or status > 999:
raise BadStatusLine(line)
except ValueError:
raise BadStatusLine(line)
return version, status, reason
def begin(self):
if self.headers is not None:
# we've already started reading the response
# read until we get a non-100 response
while True:
version, status, reason = self._read_status()
if status != CONTINUE:
# skip the header from the 100 response
while True:
skip = self.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
if len(skip) > _MAXLINE:
raise LineTooLong("header line")
skip = skip.strip()
if not skip:
if self.debuglevel > 0:
print("header:", skip)
self.code = self.status = status
self.reason = reason.strip()
if version in ("HTTP/1.0", "HTTP/0.9"):
# Some servers might still return "0.9", treat it as 1.0 anyway
self.version = 10
elif version.startswith("HTTP/1."):
self.version = 11 # use HTTP/1.1 code for HTTP/1.x where x>=1
raise UnknownProtocol(version)
self.headers = self.msg = parse_headers(self.fp)
if self.debuglevel > 0:
for hdr, val in self.headers.items():
print("header:", hdr + ":", val)
# are we using the chunked-style of transfer encoding?
tr_enc = self.headers.get("transfer-encoding")
if tr_enc and tr_enc.lower() == "chunked":
self.chunked = True
self.chunk_left = None
self.chunked = False
# will the connection close at the end of the response?
self.will_close = self._check_close()
# do we have a Content-Length?
# NOTE: RFC 2616, S4.4, #3 says we ignore this if tr_enc is "chunked"
self.length = None
length = self.headers.get("content-length")
# are we using the chunked-style of transfer encoding?
tr_enc = self.headers.get("transfer-encoding")
if length and not self.chunked:
self.length = int(length)
except ValueError:
self.length = None
if self.length < 0: # ignore nonsensical negative lengths
self.length = None
self.length = None
# does the body have a fixed length? (of zero)
if (status == NO_CONTENT or status == NOT_MODIFIED or
100 <= status < 200 or # 1xx codes
self._method == "HEAD"):
self.length = 0
# if the connection remains open, and we aren't using chunked, and
# a content-length was not provided, then assume that the connection
# WILL close.
if (not self.will_close and
not self.chunked and
self.length is None):
self.will_close = True
def _check_close(self):
conn = self.headers.get("connection")
if self.version == 11:
# An HTTP/1.1 proxy is assumed to stay open unless
# explicitly closed.
if conn and "close" in conn.lower():
return True
return False
# Some HTTP/1.0 implementations have support for persistent
# connections, using rules different than HTTP/1.1.
# For older HTTP, Keep-Alive indicates persistent connection.
if self.headers.get("keep-alive"):
return False
# At least Akamai returns a "Connection: Keep-Alive" header,
# which was supposed to be sent by the client.
if conn and "keep-alive" in conn.lower():
return False
# Proxy-Connection is a netscape hack.
pconn = self.headers.get("proxy-connection")
if pconn and "keep-alive" in pconn.lower():
return False
# otherwise, assume it will close
return True
def _close_conn(self):
fp = self.fp
self.fp = None
def close(self):
super().close() # set "closed" flag
if self.fp:
# These implementations are for the benefit of io.BufferedReader.
# XXX This class should probably be revised to act more like
# the "raw stream" that BufferedReader expects.
def flush(self):
if self.fp:
def readable(self):
"""Always returns True"""
return True
# End of "raw stream" methods
def isclosed(self):
"""True if the connection is closed."""
# NOTE: it is possible that we will not ever call self.close(). This
# case occurs when will_close is TRUE, length is None, and we
# read up to the last byte, but NOT past it.
# IMPLIES: if will_close is FALSE, then self.close() will ALWAYS be
# called, meaning self.isclosed() is meaningful.
return self.fp is None
def read(self, amt=None):
if self.fp is None:
return b""
if self._method == "HEAD":
return b""
if amt is not None:
# Amount is given, implement using readinto
b = bytearray(amt)
n = self.readinto(b)
return memoryview(b)[:n].tobytes()
# Amount is not given (unbounded read) so we must check self.length
# and self.chunked
if self.chunked:
return self._readall_chunked()
if self.length is None:
s =
s = self._safe_read(self.length)
except IncompleteRead:
self.length = 0
self._close_conn() # we read everything
return s
def readinto(self, b):
"""Read up to len(b) bytes into bytearray b and return the number
of bytes read.
if self.fp is None:
return 0
if self._method == "HEAD":
return 0
if self.chunked:
return self._readinto_chunked(b)
if self.length is not None:
if len(b) > self.length:
# clip the read to the "end of response"
b = memoryview(b)[0:self.length]
# we do not use _safe_read() here because this may be a .will_close
# connection, and the user is reading more bytes than will be provided
# (for example, reading in 1k chunks)
n = self.fp.readinto(b)
if not n and b:
# Ideally, we would raise IncompleteRead if the content-length
# wasn't satisfied, but it might break compatibility.
elif self.length is not None:
self.length -= n
if not self.length:
return n
def _read_next_chunk_size(self):
# Read the next chunk size from the file
line = self.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
if len(line) > _MAXLINE:
raise LineTooLong("chunk size")
i = line.find(b";")
if i >= 0:
line = line[:i] # strip chunk-extensions
return int(line, 16)
except ValueError:
# close the connection as protocol synchronisation is
# probably lost
def _read_and_discard_trailer(self):
# read and discard trailer up to the CRLF terminator
### note: we shouldn't have any trailers!
while True:
line = self.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
if len(line) > _MAXLINE:
raise LineTooLong("trailer line")
if not line:
# a vanishingly small number of sites EOF without
# sending the trailer
if line in (b'\r\n', b'\n', b''):
def _get_chunk_left(self):
# return self.chunk_left, reading a new chunk if necessary.
# chunk_left == 0: at the end of the current chunk, need to close it
# chunk_left == None: No current chunk, should read next.
# This function returns non-zero or None if the last chunk has
# been read.
chunk_left = self.chunk_left
if not chunk_left: # Can be 0 or None
if chunk_left is not None:
# We are at the end of chunk, discard chunk end
self._safe_read(2) # toss the CRLF at the end of the chunk
chunk_left = self._read_next_chunk_size()
except ValueError:
raise IncompleteRead(b'')
if chunk_left == 0:
# last chunk: 1*("0") [ chunk-extension ] CRLF
# we read everything; close the "file"
chunk_left = None
self.chunk_left = chunk_left
return chunk_left
def _readall_chunked(self):
assert self.chunked != _UNKNOWN
value = []
while True:
chunk_left = self._get_chunk_left()
if chunk_left is None:
self.chunk_left = 0
return b''.join(value)
except IncompleteRead:
raise IncompleteRead(b''.join(value))
def _readinto_chunked(self, b):
assert self.chunked != _UNKNOWN
total_bytes = 0
mvb = memoryview(b)
while True:
chunk_left = self._get_chunk_left()
if chunk_left is None:
return total_bytes
if len(mvb) <= chunk_left:
n = self._safe_readinto(mvb)
self.chunk_left = chunk_left - n
return total_bytes + n
temp_mvb = mvb[:chunk_left]
n = self._safe_readinto(temp_mvb)
mvb = mvb[n:]
total_bytes += n
self.chunk_left = 0
except IncompleteRead:
raise IncompleteRead(bytes(b[0:total_bytes]))
def _safe_read(self, amt):
"""Read the number of bytes requested.
This function should be used when <amt> bytes "should" be present for
reading. If the bytes are truly not available (due to EOF), then the
IncompleteRead exception can be used to detect the problem.
data =
if len(data) < amt:
raise IncompleteRead(data, amt-len(data))
return data
def _safe_readinto(self, b):
"""Same as _safe_read, but for reading into a buffer."""
amt = len(b)
n = self.fp.readinto(b)
if n < amt:
raise IncompleteRead(bytes(b[:n]), amt-n)
return n
def read1(self, n=-1):
"""Read with at most one underlying system call. If at least one
byte is buffered, return that instead.
if self.fp is None or self._method == "HEAD":
return b""
if self.chunked:
return self._read1_chunked(n)
if self.length is not None and (n < 0 or n > self.length):
n = self.length
result = self.fp.read1(n)
if not result and n:
elif self.length is not None:
self.length -= len(result)
return result
def peek(self, n=-1):
# Having this enables IOBase.readline() to read more than one
# byte at a time
if self.fp is None or self._method == "HEAD":
return b""
if self.chunked:
return self._peek_chunked(n)
return self.fp.peek(n)
def readline(self, limit=-1):
if self.fp is None or self._method == "HEAD":
return b""
if self.chunked:
# Fallback to IOBase readline which uses peek() and read()
return super().readline(limit)
if self.length is not None and (limit < 0 or limit > self.length):
limit = self.length
result = self.fp.readline(limit)
if not result and limit:
elif self.length is not None:
self.length -= len(result)
return result
def _read1_chunked(self, n):
# Strictly speaking, _get_chunk_left() may cause more than one read,
# but that is ok, since that is to satisfy the chunked protocol.
chunk_left = self._get_chunk_left()
if chunk_left is None or n == 0:
return b''
if not (0 <= n <= chunk_left):
n = chunk_left # if n is negative or larger than chunk_left
read = self.fp.read1(n)
self.chunk_left -= len(read)
if not read:
raise IncompleteRead(b"")
return read
def _peek_chunked(self, n):
# Strictly speaking, _get_chunk_left() may cause more than one read,
# but that is ok, since that is to satisfy the chunked protocol.
chunk_left = self._get_chunk_left()
except IncompleteRead:
return b'' # peek doesn't worry about protocol
if chunk_left is None:
return b'' # eof
# peek is allowed to return more than requested. Just request the
# entire chunk, and truncate what we get.
return self.fp.peek(chunk_left)[:chunk_left]
def fileno(self):
return self.fp.fileno()
def getheader(self, name, default=None):
'''Returns the value of the header matching *name*.
If there are multiple matching headers, the values are
combined into a single string separated by commas and spaces.
If no matching header is found, returns *default* or None if
the *default* is not specified.
If the headers are unknown, raises http.client.ResponseNotReady.
if self.headers is None:
raise ResponseNotReady()
headers = self.headers.get_all(name) or default
if isinstance(headers, str) or not hasattr(headers, '__iter__'):
return headers
return ', '.join(headers)
def getheaders(self):
"""Return list of (header, value) tuples."""
if self.headers is None:
raise ResponseNotReady()
return list(self.headers.items())
# We override IOBase.__iter__ so that it doesn't check for closed-ness
def __iter__(self):
return self
# For compatibility with old-style urllib responses.
def info(self):
'''Returns an instance of the class mimetools.Message containing
meta-information associated with the URL.
When the method is HTTP, these headers are those returned by
the server at the head of the retrieved HTML page (including
Content-Length and Content-Type).
When the method is FTP, a Content-Length header will be
present if (as is now usual) the server passed back a file
length in response to the FTP retrieval request. A
Content-Type header will be present if the MIME type can be
When the method is local-file, returned headers will include
a Date representing the file's last-modified time, a
Content-Length giving file size, and a Content-Type
containing a guess at the file's type. See also the
description of the mimetools module.
return self.headers
def geturl(self):
'''Return the real URL of the page.
In some cases, the HTTP server redirects a client to another
URL. The urlopen() function handles this transparently, but in
some cases the caller needs to know which URL the client was
redirected to. The geturl() method can be used to get at this
redirected URL.
return self.url
def getcode(self):
'''Return the HTTP status code that was sent with the response,
or None if the URL is not an HTTP URL.
return self.status
class HTTPConnection:
_http_vsn = 11
_http_vsn_str = 'HTTP/1.1'
response_class = HTTPResponse
default_port = HTTP_PORT
auto_open = 1
debuglevel = 0
def _is_textIO(stream):
"""Test whether a file-like object is a text or a binary stream.
return isinstance(stream, io.TextIOBase)
def _get_content_length(body, method):
"""Get the content-length based on the body.
If the body is None, we set Content-Length: 0 for methods that expect
a body (RFC 7230, Section 3.3.2). We also set the Content-Length for
any method if the body is a str or bytes-like object and not a file.
if body is None:
# do an explicit check for not None here to distinguish
# between unset and set but empty
if method.upper() in _METHODS_EXPECTING_BODY:
return 0
return None
if hasattr(body, 'read'):
# file-like object.
return None
# does it implement the buffer protocol (bytes, bytearray, array)?
mv = memoryview(body)
return mv.nbytes
except TypeError:
if isinstance(body, str):
return len(body)
return None
def __init__(self, host, port=None, timeout=socket._GLOBAL_DEFAULT_TIMEOUT,
source_address=None, blocksize=8192):
self.timeout = timeout
self.source_address = source_address
self.blocksize = blocksize
self.sock = None
self._buffer = []
self.__response = None
self.__state = _CS_IDLE
self._method = None
self._tunnel_host = None
self._tunnel_port = None
self._tunnel_headers = {}
(, self.port) = self._get_hostport(host, port)
# This is stored as an instance variable to allow unit
# tests to replace it with a suitable mockup
self._create_connection = socket.create_connection
def set_tunnel(self, host, port=None, headers=None):
"""Set up host and port for HTTP CONNECT tunnelling.
In a connection that uses HTTP CONNECT tunneling, the host passed to the
constructor is used as a proxy server that relays all communication to
the endpoint passed to `set_tunnel`. This done by sending an HTTP
CONNECT request to the proxy server when the connection is established.
This method must be called before the HTML connection has been
The headers argument should be a mapping of extra HTTP headers to send
with the CONNECT request.
if self.sock:
raise RuntimeError("Can't set up tunnel for established connection")
self._tunnel_host, self._tunnel_port = self._get_hostport(host, port)
if headers:
self._tunnel_headers = headers
def _get_hostport(self, host, port):
if port is None:
i = host.rfind(':')
j = host.rfind(']') # ipv6 addresses have [...]
if i > j:
port = int(host[i+1:])
except ValueError:
if host[i+1:] == "": # ==
port = self.default_port
raise InvalidURL("nonnumeric port: '%s'" % host[i+1:])
host = host[:i]
port = self.default_port
if host and host[0] == '[' and host[-1] == ']':
host = host[1:-1]
return (host, port)
def set_debuglevel(self, level):
self.debuglevel = level
def _tunnel(self):
connect_str = "CONNECT %s:%d HTTP/1.0\r\n" % (self._tunnel_host,
connect_bytes = connect_str.encode("ascii")
for header, value in self._tunnel_headers.items():
header_str = "%s: %s\r\n" % (header, value)
header_bytes = header_str.encode("latin-1")
response = self.response_class(self.sock, method=self._method)
(version, code, message) = response._read_status()
if code != http.HTTPStatus.OK:
raise OSError("Tunnel connection failed: %d %s" % (code,
while True:
line = response.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
if len(line) > _MAXLINE:
raise LineTooLong("header line")
if not line:
# for sites which EOF without sending a trailer
if line in (b'\r\n', b'\n', b''):
if self.debuglevel > 0:
print('header:', line.decode())
def connect(self):
"""Connect to the host and port specified in __init__."""
self.sock = self._create_connection(
(,self.port), self.timeout, self.source_address)
self.sock.setsockopt(socket.IPPROTO_TCP, socket.TCP_NODELAY, 1)
if self._tunnel_host:
def close(self):
"""Close the connection to the HTTP server."""
self.__state = _CS_IDLE
sock = self.sock
if sock:
self.sock = None
sock.close() # close it manually... there may be other refs
response = self.__response
if response:
self.__response = None
def send(self, data):
"""Send `data' to the server.
``data`` can be a string object, a bytes object, an array object, a
file-like object that supports a .read() method, or an iterable object.
if self.sock is None:
if self.auto_open:
raise NotConnected()
if self.debuglevel > 0:
print("send:", repr(data))
if hasattr(data, "read") :
if self.debuglevel > 0:
print("sendIng a read()able")
encode = self._is_textIO(data)
if encode and self.debuglevel > 0:
print("encoding file using iso-8859-1")
while 1:
datablock =
if not datablock:
if encode:
datablock = datablock.encode("iso-8859-1")
except TypeError:
if isinstance(data,
for d in data:
raise TypeError("data should be a bytes-like object "
"or an iterable, got %r" % type(data))
def _output(self, s):
"""Add a line of output to the current request buffer.
Assumes that the line does *not* end with \\r\\n.
def _read_readable(self, readable):
if self.debuglevel > 0:
print("sendIng a read()able")
encode = self._is_textIO(readable)
if encode and self.debuglevel > 0:
print("encoding file using iso-8859-1")
while True:
datablock =
if not datablock:
if encode:
datablock = datablock.encode("iso-8859-1")
yield datablock
def _send_output(self, message_body=None, encode_chunked=False):
"""Send the currently buffered request and clear the buffer.
Appends an extra \\r\\n to the buffer.
A message_body may be specified, to be appended to the request.
self._buffer.extend((b"", b""))
msg = b"\r\n".join(self._buffer)
del self._buffer[:]
if message_body is not None:
# create a consistent interface to message_body
if hasattr(message_body, 'read'):
# Let file-like take precedence over byte-like. This
# is needed to allow the current position of mmap'ed
# files to be taken into account.
chunks = self._read_readable(message_body)
# this is solely to check to see if message_body
# implements the buffer API. it /would/ be easier
# to capture if PyObject_CheckBuffer was exposed
# to Python.
except TypeError:
chunks = iter(message_body)
except TypeError:
raise TypeError("message_body should be a bytes-like "
"object or an iterable, got %r"
% type(message_body))
# the object implements the buffer interface and
# can be passed directly into socket methods
chunks = (message_body,)
for chunk in chunks:
if not chunk:
if self.debuglevel > 0:
print('Zero length chunk ignored')
if encode_chunked and self._http_vsn == 11:
# chunked encoding
chunk = f'{len(chunk):X}\r\n'.encode('ascii') + chunk \
+ b'\r\n'
if encode_chunked and self._http_vsn == 11:
# end chunked transfer
def putrequest(self, method, url, skip_host=False,
"""Send a request to the server.
`method' specifies an HTTP request method, e.g. 'GET'.
`url' specifies the object being requested, e.g. '/index.html'.
`skip_host' if True does not add automatically a 'Host:' header
`skip_accept_encoding' if True does not add automatically an
'Accept-Encoding:' header
# if a prior response has been completed, then forget about it.
if self.__response and self.__response.isclosed():
self.__response = None
# in certain cases, we cannot issue another request on this connection.
# this occurs when:
# 1) we are in the process of sending a request. (_CS_REQ_STARTED)
# 2) a response to a previous request has signalled that it is going
# to close the connection upon completion.
# 3) the headers for the previous response have not been read, thus
# we cannot determine whether point (2) is true. (_CS_REQ_SENT)
# if there is no prior response, then we can request at will.
# if point (2) is true, then we will have passed the socket to the
# response (effectively meaning, "there is no prior response"), and
# will open a new one when a new request is made.
# Note: if a prior response exists, then we *can* start a new request.
# We are not allowed to begin fetching the response to this new
# request, however, until that prior response is complete.
if self.__state == _CS_IDLE:
self.__state = _CS_REQ_STARTED
raise CannotSendRequest(self.__state)
# Save the method we use, we need it later in the response phase
self._method = method
if not url:
url = '/'
# Prevent CVE-2019-9740.
if match :=
raise InvalidURL(f"URL can't contain control characters. {url!r} "
f"(found at least {!r})")
request = '%s %s %s' % (method, url, self._http_vsn_str)
# Non-ASCII characters should have been eliminated earlier
if self._http_vsn == 11:
# Issue some standard headers for better HTTP/1.1 compliance
if not skip_host:
# this header is issued *only* for HTTP/1.1
# connections. more specifically, this means it is
# only issued when the client uses the new
# HTTPConnection() class. backwards-compat clients
# will be using HTTP/1.0 and those clients may be
# issuing this header themselves. we should NOT issue
# it twice; some web servers (such as Apache) barf
# when they see two Host: headers
# If we need a non-standard port,include it in the
# header. If the request is going through a proxy,
# but the host of the actual URL, not the host of the
# proxy.
netloc = ''
if url.startswith('http'):
nil, netloc, nil, nil, nil = urlsplit(url)
if netloc:
netloc_enc = netloc.encode("ascii")
except UnicodeEncodeError:
netloc_enc = netloc.encode("idna")
self.putheader('Host', netloc_enc)
if self._tunnel_host:
host = self._tunnel_host
port = self._tunnel_port
host =
port = self.port
host_enc = host.encode("ascii")
except UnicodeEncodeError:
host_enc = host.encode("idna")
# As per RFC 273, IPv6 address should be wrapped with []
# when used as Host header
if host.find(':') >= 0:
host_enc = b'[' + host_enc + b']'
if port == self.default_port:
self.putheader('Host', host_enc)
host_enc = host_enc.decode("ascii")
self.putheader('Host', "%s:%s" % (host_enc, port))
# note: we are assuming that clients will not attempt to set these
# headers since *this* library must deal with the
# consequences. this also means that when the supporting
# libraries are updated to recognize other forms, then this
# code should be changed (removed or updated).
# we only want a Content-Encoding of "identity" since we don't
# support encodings such as x-gzip or x-deflate.
if not skip_accept_encoding:
self.putheader('Accept-Encoding', 'identity')
# we can accept "chunked" Transfer-Encodings, but no others
# NOTE: no TE header implies *only* "chunked"
#self.putheader('TE', 'chunked')
# if TE is supplied in the header, then it must appear in a
# Connection header.
#self.putheader('Connection', 'TE')
# For HTTP/1.0, the server will assume "not chunked"
def putheader(self, header, *values):
"""Send a request header line to the server.
For example: h.putheader('Accept', 'text/html')
if self.__state != _CS_REQ_STARTED:
raise CannotSendHeader()
if hasattr(header, 'encode'):
header = header.encode('ascii')
if not _is_legal_header_name(header):
raise ValueError('Invalid header name %r' % (header,))
values = list(values)
for i, one_value in enumerate(values):
if hasattr(one_value, 'encode'):
values[i] = one_value.encode('latin-1')
elif isinstance(one_value, int):
values[i] = str(one_value).encode('ascii')
if _is_illegal_header_value(values[i]):
raise ValueError('Invalid header value %r' % (values[i],))
value = b'\r\n\t'.join(values)
header = header + b': ' + value
def endheaders(self, message_body=None, *, encode_chunked=False):
"""Indicate that the last header line has been sent to the server.
This method sends the request to the server. The optional message_body
argument can be used to pass a message body associated with the
if self.__state == _CS_REQ_STARTED:
self.__state = _CS_REQ_SENT
raise CannotSendHeader()
self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
def request(self, method, url, body=None, headers={}, *,
"""Send a complete request to the server."""
self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
def _send_request(self, method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked):
# Honor explicitly requested Host: and Accept-Encoding: headers.
header_names = frozenset(k.lower() for k in headers)
skips = {}
if 'host' in header_names:
skips['skip_host'] = 1
if 'accept-encoding' in header_names:
skips['skip_accept_encoding'] = 1
self.putrequest(method, url, **skips)
# chunked encoding will happen if HTTP/1.1 is used and either
# the caller passes encode_chunked=True or the following
# conditions hold:
# 1. content-length has not been explicitly set
# 2. the body is a file or iterable, but not a str or bytes-like
# 3. Transfer-Encoding has NOT been explicitly set by the caller
if 'content-length' not in header_names:
# only chunk body if not explicitly set for backwards
# compatibility, assuming the client code is already handling the
# chunking
if 'transfer-encoding' not in header_names:
# if content-length cannot be automatically determined, fall
# back to chunked encoding
encode_chunked = False
content_length = self._get_content_length(body, method)
if content_length is None:
if body is not None:
if self.debuglevel > 0:
print('Unable to determine size of %r' % body)
encode_chunked = True
self.putheader('Transfer-Encoding', 'chunked')
self.putheader('Content-Length', str(content_length))
encode_chunked = False
for hdr, value in headers.items():
self.putheader(hdr, value)
if isinstance(body, str):
# RFC 2616 Section 3.7.1 says that text default has a
# default charset of iso-8859-1.
body = _encode(body, 'body')
self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
def getresponse(self):
"""Get the response from the server.
If the HTTPConnection is in the correct state, returns an
instance of HTTPResponse or of whatever object is returned by
the response_class variable.
If a request has not been sent or if a previous response has
not be handled, ResponseNotReady is raised. If the HTTP
response indicates that the connection should be closed, then
it will be closed before the response is returned. When the
connection is closed, the underlying socket is closed.
# if a prior response has been completed, then forget about it.
if self.__response and self.__response.isclosed():
self.__response = None
# if a prior response exists, then it must be completed (otherwise, we
# cannot read this response's header to determine the connection-close
# behavior)
# note: if a prior response existed, but was connection-close, then the
# socket and response were made independent of this HTTPConnection
# object since a new request requires that we open a whole new
# connection
# this means the prior response had one of two states:
# 1) will_close: this connection was reset and the prior socket and
# response operate independently
# 2) persistent: the response was retained and we await its
# isclosed() status to become true.
if self.__state != _CS_REQ_SENT or self.__response:
raise ResponseNotReady(self.__state)
if self.debuglevel > 0:
response = self.response_class(self.sock, self.debuglevel,
response = self.response_class(self.sock, method=self._method)
except ConnectionError:
assert response.will_close != _UNKNOWN
self.__state = _CS_IDLE
if response.will_close:
# this effectively passes the connection to the response
# remember this, so we can tell when it is complete
self.__response = response
return response
import ssl
except ImportError:
class HTTPSConnection(HTTPConnection):
"This class allows communication via SSL."
default_port = HTTPS_PORT
# XXX Should key_file and cert_file be deprecated in favour of context?
def __init__(self, host, port=None, key_file=None, cert_file=None,
source_address=None, *, context=None,
check_hostname=None, blocksize=8192):
super(HTTPSConnection, self).__init__(host, port, timeout,
if (key_file is not None or cert_file is not None or
check_hostname is not None):
import warnings
warnings.warn("key_file, cert_file and check_hostname are "
"deprecated, use a custom context instead.",
DeprecationWarning, 2)
self.key_file = key_file
self.cert_file = cert_file
if context is None:
context = ssl._create_default_https_context()
will_verify = context.verify_mode != ssl.CERT_NONE
if check_hostname is None:
check_hostname = context.check_hostname
if check_hostname and not will_verify:
raise ValueError("check_hostname needs a SSL context with "
if key_file or cert_file:
context.load_cert_chain(cert_file, key_file)
self._context = context
if check_hostname is not None:
self._context.check_hostname = check_hostname
def connect(self):
"Connect to a host on a given (SSL) port."
if self._tunnel_host:
server_hostname = self._tunnel_host
server_hostname =
self.sock = self._context.wrap_socket(self.sock,
class HTTPException(Exception):
# Subclasses that define an __init__ must call Exception.__init__
# or define self.args. Otherwise, str() will fail.
class NotConnected(HTTPException):
class InvalidURL(HTTPException):
class UnknownProtocol(HTTPException):
def __init__(self, version):
self.args = version,
self.version = version
class UnknownTransferEncoding(HTTPException):
class UnimplementedFileMode(HTTPException):
class IncompleteRead(HTTPException):
def __init__(self, partial, expected=None):
self.args = partial,
self.partial = partial
self.expected = expected
def __repr__(self):
if self.expected is not None:
e = ', %i more expected' % self.expected
e = ''
return '%s(%i bytes read%s)' % (self.__class__.__name__,
len(self.partial), e)
__str__ = object.__str__
class ImproperConnectionState(HTTPException):
class CannotSendRequest(ImproperConnectionState):
class CannotSendHeader(ImproperConnectionState):
class ResponseNotReady(ImproperConnectionState):
class BadStatusLine(HTTPException):
def __init__(self, line):
if not line:
line = repr(line)
self.args = line,
self.line = line
class LineTooLong(HTTPException):
def __init__(self, line_type):
HTTPException.__init__(self, "got more than %d bytes when reading %s"
% (_MAXLINE, line_type))
class RemoteDisconnected(ConnectionResetError, BadStatusLine):
def __init__(self, *pos, **kw):
BadStatusLine.__init__(self, "")
ConnectionResetError.__init__(self, *pos, **kw)
# for backwards compatibility
error = HTTPException
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