Permalink
1506 lines (1297 sloc) 48.7 KB
import fnmatch
import functools
import io
import ntpath
import os
import posixpath
import re
import sys
from _collections_abc import Sequence
from errno import EINVAL, ENOENT, ENOTDIR, EBADF
from operator import attrgetter
from stat import S_ISDIR, S_ISLNK, S_ISREG, S_ISSOCK, S_ISBLK, S_ISCHR, S_ISFIFO
from urllib.parse import quote_from_bytes as urlquote_from_bytes
supports_symlinks = True
if os.name == 'nt':
import nt
if sys.getwindowsversion()[:2] >= (6, 0):
from nt import _getfinalpathname
else:
supports_symlinks = False
_getfinalpathname = None
else:
nt = None
__all__ = [
"PurePath", "PurePosixPath", "PureWindowsPath",
"Path", "PosixPath", "WindowsPath",
]
#
# Internals
#
# EBADF - guard agains macOS `stat` throwing EBADF
_IGNORED_ERROS = (ENOENT, ENOTDIR, EBADF)
def _is_wildcard_pattern(pat):
# Whether this pattern needs actual matching using fnmatch, or can
# be looked up directly as a file.
return "*" in pat or "?" in pat or "[" in pat
class _Flavour(object):
"""A flavour implements a particular (platform-specific) set of path
semantics."""
def __init__(self):
self.join = self.sep.join
def parse_parts(self, parts):
parsed = []
sep = self.sep
altsep = self.altsep
drv = root = ''
it = reversed(parts)
for part in it:
if not part:
continue
if altsep:
part = part.replace(altsep, sep)
drv, root, rel = self.splitroot(part)
if sep in rel:
for x in reversed(rel.split(sep)):
if x and x != '.':
parsed.append(sys.intern(x))
else:
if rel and rel != '.':
parsed.append(sys.intern(rel))
if drv or root:
if not drv:
# If no drive is present, try to find one in the previous
# parts. This makes the result of parsing e.g.
# ("C:", "/", "a") reasonably intuitive.
for part in it:
if not part:
continue
if altsep:
part = part.replace(altsep, sep)
drv = self.splitroot(part)[0]
if drv:
break
break
if drv or root:
parsed.append(drv + root)
parsed.reverse()
return drv, root, parsed
def join_parsed_parts(self, drv, root, parts, drv2, root2, parts2):
"""
Join the two paths represented by the respective
(drive, root, parts) tuples. Return a new (drive, root, parts) tuple.
"""
if root2:
if not drv2 and drv:
return drv, root2, [drv + root2] + parts2[1:]
elif drv2:
if drv2 == drv or self.casefold(drv2) == self.casefold(drv):
# Same drive => second path is relative to the first
return drv, root, parts + parts2[1:]
else:
# Second path is non-anchored (common case)
return drv, root, parts + parts2
return drv2, root2, parts2
class _WindowsFlavour(_Flavour):
# Reference for Windows paths can be found at
# http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa365247%28v=vs.85%29.aspx
sep = '\\'
altsep = '/'
has_drv = True
pathmod = ntpath
is_supported = (os.name == 'nt')
drive_letters = set('abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ')
ext_namespace_prefix = '\\\\?\\'
reserved_names = (
{'CON', 'PRN', 'AUX', 'NUL'} |
{'COM%d' % i for i in range(1, 10)} |
{'LPT%d' % i for i in range(1, 10)}
)
# Interesting findings about extended paths:
# - '\\?\c:\a', '//?/c:\a' and '//?/c:/a' are all supported
# but '\\?\c:/a' is not
# - extended paths are always absolute; "relative" extended paths will
# fail.
def splitroot(self, part, sep=sep):
first = part[0:1]
second = part[1:2]
if (second == sep and first == sep):
# XXX extended paths should also disable the collapsing of "."
# components (according to MSDN docs).
prefix, part = self._split_extended_path(part)
first = part[0:1]
second = part[1:2]
else:
prefix = ''
third = part[2:3]
if (second == sep and first == sep and third != sep):
# is a UNC path:
# vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv root
# \\machine\mountpoint\directory\etc\...
# directory ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
index = part.find(sep, 2)
if index != -1:
index2 = part.find(sep, index + 1)
# a UNC path can't have two slashes in a row
# (after the initial two)
if index2 != index + 1:
if index2 == -1:
index2 = len(part)
if prefix:
return prefix + part[1:index2], sep, part[index2+1:]
else:
return part[:index2], sep, part[index2+1:]
drv = root = ''
if second == ':' and first in self.drive_letters:
drv = part[:2]
part = part[2:]
first = third
if first == sep:
root = first
part = part.lstrip(sep)
return prefix + drv, root, part
def casefold(self, s):
return s.lower()
def casefold_parts(self, parts):
return [p.lower() for p in parts]
def resolve(self, path, strict=False):
s = str(path)
if not s:
return os.getcwd()
previous_s = None
if _getfinalpathname is not None:
if strict:
return self._ext_to_normal(_getfinalpathname(s))
else:
tail_parts = [] # End of the path after the first one not found
while True:
try:
s = self._ext_to_normal(_getfinalpathname(s))
except FileNotFoundError:
previous_s = s
s, tail = os.path.split(s)
tail_parts.append(tail)
if previous_s == s:
return path
else:
return os.path.join(s, *reversed(tail_parts))
# Means fallback on absolute
return None
def _split_extended_path(self, s, ext_prefix=ext_namespace_prefix):
prefix = ''
if s.startswith(ext_prefix):
prefix = s[:4]
s = s[4:]
if s.startswith('UNC\\'):
prefix += s[:3]
s = '\\' + s[3:]
return prefix, s
def _ext_to_normal(self, s):
# Turn back an extended path into a normal DOS-like path
return self._split_extended_path(s)[1]
def is_reserved(self, parts):
# NOTE: the rules for reserved names seem somewhat complicated
# (e.g. r"..\NUL" is reserved but not r"foo\NUL").
# We err on the side of caution and return True for paths which are
# not considered reserved by Windows.
if not parts:
return False
if parts[0].startswith('\\\\'):
# UNC paths are never reserved
return False
return parts[-1].partition('.')[0].upper() in self.reserved_names
def make_uri(self, path):
# Under Windows, file URIs use the UTF-8 encoding.
drive = path.drive
if len(drive) == 2 and drive[1] == ':':
# It's a path on a local drive => 'file:///c:/a/b'
rest = path.as_posix()[2:].lstrip('/')
return 'file:///%s/%s' % (
drive, urlquote_from_bytes(rest.encode('utf-8')))
else:
# It's a path on a network drive => 'file://host/share/a/b'
return 'file:' + urlquote_from_bytes(path.as_posix().encode('utf-8'))
def gethomedir(self, username):
if 'HOME' in os.environ:
userhome = os.environ['HOME']
elif 'USERPROFILE' in os.environ:
userhome = os.environ['USERPROFILE']
elif 'HOMEPATH' in os.environ:
try:
drv = os.environ['HOMEDRIVE']
except KeyError:
drv = ''
userhome = drv + os.environ['HOMEPATH']
else:
raise RuntimeError("Can't determine home directory")
if username:
# Try to guess user home directory. By default all users
# directories are located in the same place and are named by
# corresponding usernames. If current user home directory points
# to nonstandard place, this guess is likely wrong.
if os.environ['USERNAME'] != username:
drv, root, parts = self.parse_parts((userhome,))
if parts[-1] != os.environ['USERNAME']:
raise RuntimeError("Can't determine home directory "
"for %r" % username)
parts[-1] = username
if drv or root:
userhome = drv + root + self.join(parts[1:])
else:
userhome = self.join(parts)
return userhome
class _PosixFlavour(_Flavour):
sep = '/'
altsep = ''
has_drv = False
pathmod = posixpath
is_supported = (os.name != 'nt')
def splitroot(self, part, sep=sep):
if part and part[0] == sep:
stripped_part = part.lstrip(sep)
# According to POSIX path resolution:
# http://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/basedefs/xbd_chap04.html#tag_04_11
# "A pathname that begins with two successive slashes may be
# interpreted in an implementation-defined manner, although more
# than two leading slashes shall be treated as a single slash".
if len(part) - len(stripped_part) == 2:
return '', sep * 2, stripped_part
else:
return '', sep, stripped_part
else:
return '', '', part
def casefold(self, s):
return s
def casefold_parts(self, parts):
return parts
def resolve(self, path, strict=False):
sep = self.sep
accessor = path._accessor
seen = {}
def _resolve(path, rest):
if rest.startswith(sep):
path = ''
for name in rest.split(sep):
if not name or name == '.':
# current dir
continue
if name == '..':
# parent dir
path, _, _ = path.rpartition(sep)
continue
newpath = path + sep + name
if newpath in seen:
# Already seen this path
path = seen[newpath]
if path is not None:
# use cached value
continue
# The symlink is not resolved, so we must have a symlink loop.
raise RuntimeError("Symlink loop from %r" % newpath)
# Resolve the symbolic link
try:
target = accessor.readlink(newpath)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno != EINVAL and strict:
raise
# Not a symlink, or non-strict mode. We just leave the path
# untouched.
path = newpath
else:
seen[newpath] = None # not resolved symlink
path = _resolve(path, target)
seen[newpath] = path # resolved symlink
return path
# NOTE: according to POSIX, getcwd() cannot contain path components
# which are symlinks.
base = '' if path.is_absolute() else os.getcwd()
return _resolve(base, str(path)) or sep
def is_reserved(self, parts):
return False
def make_uri(self, path):
# We represent the path using the local filesystem encoding,
# for portability to other applications.
bpath = bytes(path)
return 'file://' + urlquote_from_bytes(bpath)
def gethomedir(self, username):
if not username:
try:
return os.environ['HOME']
except KeyError:
import pwd
return pwd.getpwuid(os.getuid()).pw_dir
else:
import pwd
try:
return pwd.getpwnam(username).pw_dir
except KeyError:
raise RuntimeError("Can't determine home directory "
"for %r" % username)
_windows_flavour = _WindowsFlavour()
_posix_flavour = _PosixFlavour()
class _Accessor:
"""An accessor implements a particular (system-specific or not) way of
accessing paths on the filesystem."""
class _NormalAccessor(_Accessor):
stat = os.stat
lstat = os.lstat
open = os.open
listdir = os.listdir
scandir = os.scandir
chmod = os.chmod
if hasattr(os, "lchmod"):
lchmod = os.lchmod
else:
def lchmod(self, pathobj, mode):
raise NotImplementedError("lchmod() not available on this system")
mkdir = os.mkdir
unlink = os.unlink
rmdir = os.rmdir
rename = os.rename
replace = os.replace
if nt:
if supports_symlinks:
symlink = os.symlink
else:
def symlink(a, b, target_is_directory):
raise NotImplementedError("symlink() not available on this system")
else:
# Under POSIX, os.symlink() takes two args
@staticmethod
def symlink(a, b, target_is_directory):
return os.symlink(a, b)
utime = os.utime
# Helper for resolve()
def readlink(self, path):
return os.readlink(path)
_normal_accessor = _NormalAccessor()
#
# Globbing helpers
#
def _make_selector(pattern_parts):
pat = pattern_parts[0]
child_parts = pattern_parts[1:]
if pat == '**':
cls = _RecursiveWildcardSelector
elif '**' in pat:
raise ValueError("Invalid pattern: '**' can only be an entire path component")
elif _is_wildcard_pattern(pat):
cls = _WildcardSelector
else:
cls = _PreciseSelector
return cls(pat, child_parts)
if hasattr(functools, "lru_cache"):
_make_selector = functools.lru_cache()(_make_selector)
class _Selector:
"""A selector matches a specific glob pattern part against the children
of a given path."""
def __init__(self, child_parts):
self.child_parts = child_parts
if child_parts:
self.successor = _make_selector(child_parts)
self.dironly = True
else:
self.successor = _TerminatingSelector()
self.dironly = False
def select_from(self, parent_path):
"""Iterate over all child paths of `parent_path` matched by this
selector. This can contain parent_path itself."""
path_cls = type(parent_path)
is_dir = path_cls.is_dir
exists = path_cls.exists
scandir = parent_path._accessor.scandir
if not is_dir(parent_path):
return iter([])
return self._select_from(parent_path, is_dir, exists, scandir)
class _TerminatingSelector:
def _select_from(self, parent_path, is_dir, exists, scandir):
yield parent_path
class _PreciseSelector(_Selector):
def __init__(self, name, child_parts):
self.name = name
_Selector.__init__(self, child_parts)
def _select_from(self, parent_path, is_dir, exists, scandir):
try:
path = parent_path._make_child_relpath(self.name)
if (is_dir if self.dironly else exists)(path):
for p in self.successor._select_from(path, is_dir, exists, scandir):
yield p
except PermissionError:
return
class _WildcardSelector(_Selector):
def __init__(self, pat, child_parts):
self.pat = re.compile(fnmatch.translate(pat))
_Selector.__init__(self, child_parts)
def _select_from(self, parent_path, is_dir, exists, scandir):
try:
cf = parent_path._flavour.casefold
entries = list(scandir(parent_path))
for entry in entries:
if not self.dironly or entry.is_dir():
name = entry.name
casefolded = cf(name)
if self.pat.match(casefolded):
path = parent_path._make_child_relpath(name)
for p in self.successor._select_from(path, is_dir, exists, scandir):
yield p
except PermissionError:
return
class _RecursiveWildcardSelector(_Selector):
def __init__(self, pat, child_parts):
_Selector.__init__(self, child_parts)
def _iterate_directories(self, parent_path, is_dir, scandir):
yield parent_path
try:
entries = list(scandir(parent_path))
for entry in entries:
entry_is_dir = False
try:
entry_is_dir = entry.is_dir()
except OSError as e:
if e.errno not in _IGNORED_ERROS:
raise
if entry_is_dir and not entry.is_symlink():
path = parent_path._make_child_relpath(entry.name)
for p in self._iterate_directories(path, is_dir, scandir):
yield p
except PermissionError:
return
def _select_from(self, parent_path, is_dir, exists, scandir):
try:
yielded = set()
try:
successor_select = self.successor._select_from
for starting_point in self._iterate_directories(parent_path, is_dir, scandir):
for p in successor_select(starting_point, is_dir, exists, scandir):
if p not in yielded:
yield p
yielded.add(p)
finally:
yielded.clear()
except PermissionError:
return
#
# Public API
#
class _PathParents(Sequence):
"""This object provides sequence-like access to the logical ancestors
of a path. Don't try to construct it yourself."""
__slots__ = ('_pathcls', '_drv', '_root', '_parts')
def __init__(self, path):
# We don't store the instance to avoid reference cycles
self._pathcls = type(path)
self._drv = path._drv
self._root = path._root
self._parts = path._parts
def __len__(self):
if self._drv or self._root:
return len(self._parts) - 1
else:
return len(self._parts)
def __getitem__(self, idx):
if idx < 0 or idx >= len(self):
raise IndexError(idx)
return self._pathcls._from_parsed_parts(self._drv, self._root,
self._parts[:-idx - 1])
def __repr__(self):
return "<{}.parents>".format(self._pathcls.__name__)
class PurePath(object):
"""Base class for manipulating paths without I/O.
PurePath represents a filesystem path and offers operations which
don't imply any actual filesystem I/O. Depending on your system,
instantiating a PurePath will return either a PurePosixPath or a
PureWindowsPath object. You can also instantiate either of these classes
directly, regardless of your system.
"""
__slots__ = (
'_drv', '_root', '_parts',
'_str', '_hash', '_pparts', '_cached_cparts',
)
def __new__(cls, *args):
"""Construct a PurePath from one or several strings and or existing
PurePath objects. The strings and path objects are combined so as
to yield a canonicalized path, which is incorporated into the
new PurePath object.
"""
if cls is PurePath:
cls = PureWindowsPath if os.name == 'nt' else PurePosixPath
return cls._from_parts(args)
def __reduce__(self):
# Using the parts tuple helps share interned path parts
# when pickling related paths.
return (self.__class__, tuple(self._parts))
@classmethod
def _parse_args(cls, args):
# This is useful when you don't want to create an instance, just
# canonicalize some constructor arguments.
parts = []
for a in args:
if isinstance(a, PurePath):
parts += a._parts
else:
a = os.fspath(a)
if isinstance(a, str):
# Force-cast str subclasses to str (issue #21127)
parts.append(str(a))
else:
raise TypeError(
"argument should be a str object or an os.PathLike "
"object returning str, not %r"
% type(a))
return cls._flavour.parse_parts(parts)
@classmethod
def _from_parts(cls, args, init=True):
# We need to call _parse_args on the instance, so as to get the
# right flavour.
self = object.__new__(cls)
drv, root, parts = self._parse_args(args)
self._drv = drv
self._root = root
self._parts = parts
if init:
self._init()
return self
@classmethod
def _from_parsed_parts(cls, drv, root, parts, init=True):
self = object.__new__(cls)
self._drv = drv
self._root = root
self._parts = parts
if init:
self._init()
return self
@classmethod
def _format_parsed_parts(cls, drv, root, parts):
if drv or root:
return drv + root + cls._flavour.join(parts[1:])
else:
return cls._flavour.join(parts)
def _init(self):
# Overridden in concrete Path
pass
def _make_child(self, args):
drv, root, parts = self._parse_args(args)
drv, root, parts = self._flavour.join_parsed_parts(
self._drv, self._root, self._parts, drv, root, parts)
return self._from_parsed_parts(drv, root, parts)
def __str__(self):
"""Return the string representation of the path, suitable for
passing to system calls."""
try:
return self._str
except AttributeError:
self._str = self._format_parsed_parts(self._drv, self._root,
self._parts) or '.'
return self._str
def __fspath__(self):
return str(self)
def as_posix(self):
"""Return the string representation of the path with forward (/)
slashes."""
f = self._flavour
return str(self).replace(f.sep, '/')
def __bytes__(self):
"""Return the bytes representation of the path. This is only
recommended to use under Unix."""
return os.fsencode(self)
def __repr__(self):
return "{}({!r})".format(self.__class__.__name__, self.as_posix())
def as_uri(self):
"""Return the path as a 'file' URI."""
if not self.is_absolute():
raise ValueError("relative path can't be expressed as a file URI")
return self._flavour.make_uri(self)
@property
def _cparts(self):
# Cached casefolded parts, for hashing and comparison
try:
return self._cached_cparts
except AttributeError:
self._cached_cparts = self._flavour.casefold_parts(self._parts)
return self._cached_cparts
def __eq__(self, other):
if not isinstance(other, PurePath):
return NotImplemented
return self._cparts == other._cparts and self._flavour is other._flavour
def __hash__(self):
try:
return self._hash
except AttributeError:
self._hash = hash(tuple(self._cparts))
return self._hash
def __lt__(self, other):
if not isinstance(other, PurePath) or self._flavour is not other._flavour:
return NotImplemented
return self._cparts < other._cparts
def __le__(self, other):
if not isinstance(other, PurePath) or self._flavour is not other._flavour:
return NotImplemented
return self._cparts <= other._cparts
def __gt__(self, other):
if not isinstance(other, PurePath) or self._flavour is not other._flavour:
return NotImplemented
return self._cparts > other._cparts
def __ge__(self, other):
if not isinstance(other, PurePath) or self._flavour is not other._flavour:
return NotImplemented
return self._cparts >= other._cparts
drive = property(attrgetter('_drv'),
doc="""The drive prefix (letter or UNC path), if any.""")
root = property(attrgetter('_root'),
doc="""The root of the path, if any.""")
@property
def anchor(self):
"""The concatenation of the drive and root, or ''."""
anchor = self._drv + self._root
return anchor
@property
def name(self):
"""The final path component, if any."""
parts = self._parts
if len(parts) == (1 if (self._drv or self._root) else 0):
return ''
return parts[-1]
@property
def suffix(self):
"""The final component's last suffix, if any."""
name = self.name
i = name.rfind('.')
if 0 < i < len(name) - 1:
return name[i:]
else:
return ''
@property
def suffixes(self):
"""A list of the final component's suffixes, if any."""
name = self.name
if name.endswith('.'):
return []
name = name.lstrip('.')
return ['.' + suffix for suffix in name.split('.')[1:]]
@property
def stem(self):
"""The final path component, minus its last suffix."""
name = self.name
i = name.rfind('.')
if 0 < i < len(name) - 1:
return name[:i]
else:
return name
def with_name(self, name):
"""Return a new path with the file name changed."""
if not self.name:
raise ValueError("%r has an empty name" % (self,))
drv, root, parts = self._flavour.parse_parts((name,))
if (not name or name[-1] in [self._flavour.sep, self._flavour.altsep]
or drv or root or len(parts) != 1):
raise ValueError("Invalid name %r" % (name))
return self._from_parsed_parts(self._drv, self._root,
self._parts[:-1] + [name])
def with_suffix(self, suffix):
"""Return a new path with the file suffix changed. If the path
has no suffix, add given suffix. If the given suffix is an empty
string, remove the suffix from the path.
"""
f = self._flavour
if f.sep in suffix or f.altsep and f.altsep in suffix:
raise ValueError("Invalid suffix %r" % (suffix,))
if suffix and not suffix.startswith('.') or suffix == '.':
raise ValueError("Invalid suffix %r" % (suffix))
name = self.name
if not name:
raise ValueError("%r has an empty name" % (self,))
old_suffix = self.suffix
if not old_suffix:
name = name + suffix
else:
name = name[:-len(old_suffix)] + suffix
return self._from_parsed_parts(self._drv, self._root,
self._parts[:-1] + [name])
def relative_to(self, *other):
"""Return the relative path to another path identified by the passed
arguments. If the operation is not possible (because this is not
a subpath of the other path), raise ValueError.
"""
# For the purpose of this method, drive and root are considered
# separate parts, i.e.:
# Path('c:/').relative_to('c:') gives Path('/')
# Path('c:/').relative_to('/') raise ValueError
if not other:
raise TypeError("need at least one argument")
parts = self._parts
drv = self._drv
root = self._root
if root:
abs_parts = [drv, root] + parts[1:]
else:
abs_parts = parts
to_drv, to_root, to_parts = self._parse_args(other)
if to_root:
to_abs_parts = [to_drv, to_root] + to_parts[1:]
else:
to_abs_parts = to_parts
n = len(to_abs_parts)
cf = self._flavour.casefold_parts
if (root or drv) if n == 0 else cf(abs_parts[:n]) != cf(to_abs_parts):
formatted = self._format_parsed_parts(to_drv, to_root, to_parts)
raise ValueError("{!r} does not start with {!r}"
.format(str(self), str(formatted)))
return self._from_parsed_parts('', root if n == 1 else '',
abs_parts[n:])
@property
def parts(self):
"""An object providing sequence-like access to the
components in the filesystem path."""
# We cache the tuple to avoid building a new one each time .parts
# is accessed. XXX is this necessary?
try:
return self._pparts
except AttributeError:
self._pparts = tuple(self._parts)
return self._pparts
def joinpath(self, *args):
"""Combine this path with one or several arguments, and return a
new path representing either a subpath (if all arguments are relative
paths) or a totally different path (if one of the arguments is
anchored).
"""
return self._make_child(args)
def __truediv__(self, key):
return self._make_child((key,))
def __rtruediv__(self, key):
return self._from_parts([key] + self._parts)
@property
def parent(self):
"""The logical parent of the path."""
drv = self._drv
root = self._root
parts = self._parts
if len(parts) == 1 and (drv or root):
return self
return self._from_parsed_parts(drv, root, parts[:-1])
@property
def parents(self):
"""A sequence of this path's logical parents."""
return _PathParents(self)
def is_absolute(self):
"""True if the path is absolute (has both a root and, if applicable,
a drive)."""
if not self._root:
return False
return not self._flavour.has_drv or bool(self._drv)
def is_reserved(self):
"""Return True if the path contains one of the special names reserved
by the system, if any."""
return self._flavour.is_reserved(self._parts)
def match(self, path_pattern):
"""
Return True if this path matches the given pattern.
"""
cf = self._flavour.casefold
path_pattern = cf(path_pattern)
drv, root, pat_parts = self._flavour.parse_parts((path_pattern,))
if not pat_parts:
raise ValueError("empty pattern")
if drv and drv != cf(self._drv):
return False
if root and root != cf(self._root):
return False
parts = self._cparts
if drv or root:
if len(pat_parts) != len(parts):
return False
pat_parts = pat_parts[1:]
elif len(pat_parts) > len(parts):
return False
for part, pat in zip(reversed(parts), reversed(pat_parts)):
if not fnmatch.fnmatchcase(part, pat):
return False
return True
# Can't subclass os.PathLike from PurePath and keep the constructor
# optimizations in PurePath._parse_args().
os.PathLike.register(PurePath)
class PurePosixPath(PurePath):
"""PurePath subclass for non-Windows systems.
On a POSIX system, instantiating a PurePath should return this object.
However, you can also instantiate it directly on any system.
"""
_flavour = _posix_flavour
__slots__ = ()
class PureWindowsPath(PurePath):
"""PurePath subclass for Windows systems.
On a Windows system, instantiating a PurePath should return this object.
However, you can also instantiate it directly on any system.
"""
_flavour = _windows_flavour
__slots__ = ()
# Filesystem-accessing classes
class Path(PurePath):
"""PurePath subclass that can make system calls.
Path represents a filesystem path but unlike PurePath, also offers
methods to do system calls on path objects. Depending on your system,
instantiating a Path will return either a PosixPath or a WindowsPath
object. You can also instantiate a PosixPath or WindowsPath directly,
but cannot instantiate a WindowsPath on a POSIX system or vice versa.
"""
__slots__ = (
'_accessor',
'_closed',
)
def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
if cls is Path:
cls = WindowsPath if os.name == 'nt' else PosixPath
self = cls._from_parts(args, init=False)
if not self._flavour.is_supported:
raise NotImplementedError("cannot instantiate %r on your system"
% (cls.__name__,))
self._init()
return self
def _init(self,
# Private non-constructor arguments
template=None,
):
self._closed = False
if template is not None:
self._accessor = template._accessor
else:
self._accessor = _normal_accessor
def _make_child_relpath(self, part):
# This is an optimization used for dir walking. `part` must be
# a single part relative to this path.
parts = self._parts + [part]
return self._from_parsed_parts(self._drv, self._root, parts)
def __enter__(self):
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
return self
def __exit__(self, t, v, tb):
self._closed = True
def _raise_closed(self):
raise ValueError("I/O operation on closed path")
def _opener(self, name, flags, mode=0o666):
# A stub for the opener argument to built-in open()
return self._accessor.open(self, flags, mode)
def _raw_open(self, flags, mode=0o777):
"""
Open the file pointed by this path and return a file descriptor,
as os.open() does.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
return self._accessor.open(self, flags, mode)
# Public API
@classmethod
def cwd(cls):
"""Return a new path pointing to the current working directory
(as returned by os.getcwd()).
"""
return cls(os.getcwd())
@classmethod
def home(cls):
"""Return a new path pointing to the user's home directory (as
returned by os.path.expanduser('~')).
"""
return cls(cls()._flavour.gethomedir(None))
def samefile(self, other_path):
"""Return whether other_path is the same or not as this file
(as returned by os.path.samefile()).
"""
st = self.stat()
try:
other_st = other_path.stat()
except AttributeError:
other_st = os.stat(other_path)
return os.path.samestat(st, other_st)
def iterdir(self):
"""Iterate over the files in this directory. Does not yield any
result for the special paths '.' and '..'.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
for name in self._accessor.listdir(self):
if name in {'.', '..'}:
# Yielding a path object for these makes little sense
continue
yield self._make_child_relpath(name)
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
def glob(self, pattern):
"""Iterate over this subtree and yield all existing files (of any
kind, including directories) matching the given pattern.
"""
if not pattern:
raise ValueError("Unacceptable pattern: {!r}".format(pattern))
pattern = self._flavour.casefold(pattern)
drv, root, pattern_parts = self._flavour.parse_parts((pattern,))
if drv or root:
raise NotImplementedError("Non-relative patterns are unsupported")
selector = _make_selector(tuple(pattern_parts))
for p in selector.select_from(self):
yield p
def rglob(self, pattern):
"""Recursively yield all existing files (of any kind, including
directories) matching the given pattern, anywhere in this subtree.
"""
pattern = self._flavour.casefold(pattern)
drv, root, pattern_parts = self._flavour.parse_parts((pattern,))
if drv or root:
raise NotImplementedError("Non-relative patterns are unsupported")
selector = _make_selector(("**",) + tuple(pattern_parts))
for p in selector.select_from(self):
yield p
def absolute(self):
"""Return an absolute version of this path. This function works
even if the path doesn't point to anything.
No normalization is done, i.e. all '.' and '..' will be kept along.
Use resolve() to get the canonical path to a file.
"""
# XXX untested yet!
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
if self.is_absolute():
return self
# FIXME this must defer to the specific flavour (and, under Windows,
# use nt._getfullpathname())
obj = self._from_parts([os.getcwd()] + self._parts, init=False)
obj._init(template=self)
return obj
def resolve(self, strict=False):
"""
Make the path absolute, resolving all symlinks on the way and also
normalizing it (for example turning slashes into backslashes under
Windows).
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
s = self._flavour.resolve(self, strict=strict)
if s is None:
# No symlink resolution => for consistency, raise an error if
# the path doesn't exist or is forbidden
self.stat()
s = str(self.absolute())
# Now we have no symlinks in the path, it's safe to normalize it.
normed = self._flavour.pathmod.normpath(s)
obj = self._from_parts((normed,), init=False)
obj._init(template=self)
return obj
def stat(self):
"""
Return the result of the stat() system call on this path, like
os.stat() does.
"""
return self._accessor.stat(self)
def owner(self):
"""
Return the login name of the file owner.
"""
import pwd
return pwd.getpwuid(self.stat().st_uid).pw_name
def group(self):
"""
Return the group name of the file gid.
"""
import grp
return grp.getgrgid(self.stat().st_gid).gr_name
def open(self, mode='r', buffering=-1, encoding=None,
errors=None, newline=None):
"""
Open the file pointed by this path and return a file object, as
the built-in open() function does.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
return io.open(self, mode, buffering, encoding, errors, newline,
opener=self._opener)
def read_bytes(self):
"""
Open the file in bytes mode, read it, and close the file.
"""
with self.open(mode='rb') as f:
return f.read()
def read_text(self, encoding=None, errors=None):
"""
Open the file in text mode, read it, and close the file.
"""
with self.open(mode='r', encoding=encoding, errors=errors) as f:
return f.read()
def write_bytes(self, data):
"""
Open the file in bytes mode, write to it, and close the file.
"""
# type-check for the buffer interface before truncating the file
view = memoryview(data)
with self.open(mode='wb') as f:
return f.write(view)
def write_text(self, data, encoding=None, errors=None):
"""
Open the file in text mode, write to it, and close the file.
"""
if not isinstance(data, str):
raise TypeError('data must be str, not %s' %
data.__class__.__name__)
with self.open(mode='w', encoding=encoding, errors=errors) as f:
return f.write(data)
def touch(self, mode=0o666, exist_ok=True):
"""
Create this file with the given access mode, if it doesn't exist.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
if exist_ok:
# First try to bump modification time
# Implementation note: GNU touch uses the UTIME_NOW option of
# the utimensat() / futimens() functions.
try:
self._accessor.utime(self, None)
except OSError:
# Avoid exception chaining
pass
else:
return
flags = os.O_CREAT | os.O_WRONLY
if not exist_ok:
flags |= os.O_EXCL
fd = self._raw_open(flags, mode)
os.close(fd)
def mkdir(self, mode=0o777, parents=False, exist_ok=False):
"""
Create a new directory at this given path.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
try:
self._accessor.mkdir(self, mode)
except FileNotFoundError:
if not parents or self.parent == self:
raise
self.parent.mkdir(parents=True, exist_ok=True)
self.mkdir(mode, parents=False, exist_ok=exist_ok)
except OSError:
# Cannot rely on checking for EEXIST, since the operating system
# could give priority to other errors like EACCES or EROFS
if not exist_ok or not self.is_dir():
raise
def chmod(self, mode):
"""
Change the permissions of the path, like os.chmod().
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
self._accessor.chmod(self, mode)
def lchmod(self, mode):
"""
Like chmod(), except if the path points to a symlink, the symlink's
permissions are changed, rather than its target's.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
self._accessor.lchmod(self, mode)
def unlink(self):
"""
Remove this file or link.
If the path is a directory, use rmdir() instead.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
self._accessor.unlink(self)
def rmdir(self):
"""
Remove this directory. The directory must be empty.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
self._accessor.rmdir(self)
def lstat(self):
"""
Like stat(), except if the path points to a symlink, the symlink's
status information is returned, rather than its target's.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
return self._accessor.lstat(self)
def rename(self, target):
"""
Rename this path to the given path.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
self._accessor.rename(self, target)
def replace(self, target):
"""
Rename this path to the given path, clobbering the existing
destination if it exists.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
self._accessor.replace(self, target)
def symlink_to(self, target, target_is_directory=False):
"""
Make this path a symlink pointing to the given path.
Note the order of arguments (self, target) is the reverse of os.symlink's.
"""
if self._closed:
self._raise_closed()
self._accessor.symlink(target, self, target_is_directory)
# Convenience functions for querying the stat results
def exists(self):
"""
Whether this path exists.
"""
try:
self.stat()
except OSError as e:
if e.errno not in _IGNORED_ERROS:
raise
return False
except ValueError:
# Non-encodable path
return False
return True
def is_dir(self):
"""
Whether this path is a directory.
"""
try:
return S_ISDIR(self.stat().st_mode)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno not in _IGNORED_ERROS:
raise
# Path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink
# (see https://bitbucket.org/pitrou/pathlib/issue/12/)
return False
except ValueError:
# Non-encodable path
return False
def is_file(self):
"""
Whether this path is a regular file (also True for symlinks pointing
to regular files).
"""
try:
return S_ISREG(self.stat().st_mode)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno not in _IGNORED_ERROS:
raise
# Path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink
# (see https://bitbucket.org/pitrou/pathlib/issue/12/)
return False
except ValueError:
# Non-encodable path
return False
def is_mount(self):
"""
Check if this path is a POSIX mount point
"""
# Need to exist and be a dir
if not self.exists() or not self.is_dir():
return False
parent = Path(self.parent)
try:
parent_dev = parent.stat().st_dev
except OSError:
return False
dev = self.stat().st_dev
if dev != parent_dev:
return True
ino = self.stat().st_ino
parent_ino = parent.stat().st_ino
return ino == parent_ino
def is_symlink(self):
"""
Whether this path is a symbolic link.
"""
try:
return S_ISLNK(self.lstat().st_mode)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno not in _IGNORED_ERROS:
raise
# Path doesn't exist
return False
except ValueError:
# Non-encodable path
return False
def is_block_device(self):
"""
Whether this path is a block device.
"""
try:
return S_ISBLK(self.stat().st_mode)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno not in _IGNORED_ERROS:
raise
# Path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink
# (see https://bitbucket.org/pitrou/pathlib/issue/12/)
return False
except ValueError:
# Non-encodable path
return False
def is_char_device(self):
"""
Whether this path is a character device.
"""
try:
return S_ISCHR(self.stat().st_mode)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno not in _IGNORED_ERROS:
raise
# Path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink
# (see https://bitbucket.org/pitrou/pathlib/issue/12/)
return False
except ValueError:
# Non-encodable path
return False
def is_fifo(self):
"""
Whether this path is a FIFO.
"""
try:
return S_ISFIFO(self.stat().st_mode)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno not in _IGNORED_ERROS:
raise
# Path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink
# (see https://bitbucket.org/pitrou/pathlib/issue/12/)
return False
except ValueError:
# Non-encodable path
return False
def is_socket(self):
"""
Whether this path is a socket.
"""
try:
return S_ISSOCK(self.stat().st_mode)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno not in _IGNORED_ERROS:
raise
# Path doesn't exist or is a broken symlink
# (see https://bitbucket.org/pitrou/pathlib/issue/12/)
return False
except ValueError:
# Non-encodable path
return False
def expanduser(self):
""" Return a new path with expanded ~ and ~user constructs
(as returned by os.path.expanduser)
"""
if (not (self._drv or self._root) and
self._parts and self._parts[0][:1] == '~'):
homedir = self._flavour.gethomedir(self._parts[0][1:])
return self._from_parts([homedir] + self._parts[1:])
return self
class PosixPath(Path, PurePosixPath):
"""Path subclass for non-Windows systems.
On a POSIX system, instantiating a Path should return this object.
"""
__slots__ = ()
class WindowsPath(Path, PureWindowsPath):
"""Path subclass for Windows systems.
On a Windows system, instantiating a Path should return this object.
"""
__slots__ = ()
def owner(self):
raise NotImplementedError("Path.owner() is unsupported on this system")
def group(self):
raise NotImplementedError("Path.group() is unsupported on this system")
def is_mount(self):
raise NotImplementedError("Path.is_mount() is unsupported on this system")