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executable file 697 lines (581 sloc) 22.9 KB
#! /usr/bin/env python3
"""Interfaces for launching and remotely controlling Web browsers."""
# Maintained by Georg Brandl.
import os
import shlex
import shutil
import sys
import subprocess
import threading
__all__ = ["Error", "open", "open_new", "open_new_tab", "get", "register"]
class Error(Exception):
pass
_lock = threading.RLock()
_browsers = {} # Dictionary of available browser controllers
_tryorder = None # Preference order of available browsers
_os_preferred_browser = None # The preferred browser
def register(name, klass, instance=None, *, preferred=False):
"""Register a browser connector."""
with _lock:
if _tryorder is None:
register_standard_browsers()
_browsers[name.lower()] = [klass, instance]
# Preferred browsers go to the front of the list.
# Need to match to the default browser returned by xdg-settings, which
# may be of the form e.g. "firefox.desktop".
if preferred or (_os_preferred_browser and name in _os_preferred_browser):
_tryorder.insert(0, name)
else:
_tryorder.append(name)
def get(using=None):
"""Return a browser launcher instance appropriate for the environment."""
if _tryorder is None:
with _lock:
if _tryorder is None:
register_standard_browsers()
if using is not None:
alternatives = [using]
else:
alternatives = _tryorder
for browser in alternatives:
if '%s' in browser:
# User gave us a command line, split it into name and args
browser = shlex.split(browser)
if browser[-1] == '&':
return BackgroundBrowser(browser[:-1])
else:
return GenericBrowser(browser)
else:
# User gave us a browser name or path.
try:
command = _browsers[browser.lower()]
except KeyError:
command = _synthesize(browser)
if command[1] is not None:
return command[1]
elif command[0] is not None:
return command[0]()
raise Error("could not locate runnable browser")
# Please note: the following definition hides a builtin function.
# It is recommended one does "import webbrowser" and uses webbrowser.open(url)
# instead of "from webbrowser import *".
def open(url, new=0, autoraise=True):
if _tryorder is None:
with _lock:
if _tryorder is None:
register_standard_browsers()
for name in _tryorder:
browser = get(name)
if browser.open(url, new, autoraise):
return True
return False
def open_new(url):
return open(url, 1)
def open_new_tab(url):
return open(url, 2)
def _synthesize(browser, *, preferred=False):
"""Attempt to synthesize a controller based on existing controllers.
This is useful to create a controller when a user specifies a path to
an entry in the BROWSER environment variable -- we can copy a general
controller to operate using a specific installation of the desired
browser in this way.
If we can't create a controller in this way, or if there is no
executable for the requested browser, return [None, None].
"""
cmd = browser.split()[0]
if not shutil.which(cmd):
return [None, None]
name = os.path.basename(cmd)
try:
command = _browsers[name.lower()]
except KeyError:
return [None, None]
# now attempt to clone to fit the new name:
controller = command[1]
if controller and name.lower() == controller.basename:
import copy
controller = copy.copy(controller)
controller.name = browser
controller.basename = os.path.basename(browser)
register(browser, None, instance=controller, preferred=preferred)
return [None, controller]
return [None, None]
# General parent classes
class BaseBrowser(object):
"""Parent class for all browsers. Do not use directly."""
args = ['%s']
def __init__(self, name=""):
self.name = name
self.basename = name
def open(self, url, new=0, autoraise=True):
raise NotImplementedError
def open_new(self, url):
return self.open(url, 1)
def open_new_tab(self, url):
return self.open(url, 2)
class GenericBrowser(BaseBrowser):
"""Class for all browsers started with a command
and without remote functionality."""
def __init__(self, name):
if isinstance(name, str):
self.name = name
self.args = ["%s"]
else:
# name should be a list with arguments
self.name = name[0]
self.args = name[1:]
self.basename = os.path.basename(self.name)
def open(self, url, new=0, autoraise=True):
sys.audit("webbrowser.open", url)
cmdline = [self.name] + [arg.replace("%s", url)
for arg in self.args]
try:
if sys.platform[:3] == 'win':
p = subprocess.Popen(cmdline)
else:
p = subprocess.Popen(cmdline, close_fds=True)
return not p.wait()
except OSError:
return False
class BackgroundBrowser(GenericBrowser):
"""Class for all browsers which are to be started in the
background."""
def open(self, url, new=0, autoraise=True):
cmdline = [self.name] + [arg.replace("%s", url)
for arg in self.args]
sys.audit("webbrowser.open", url)
try:
if sys.platform[:3] == 'win':
p = subprocess.Popen(cmdline)
else:
p = subprocess.Popen(cmdline, close_fds=True,
start_new_session=True)
return (p.poll() is None)
except OSError:
return False
class UnixBrowser(BaseBrowser):
"""Parent class for all Unix browsers with remote functionality."""
raise_opts = None
background = False
redirect_stdout = True
# In remote_args, %s will be replaced with the requested URL. %action will
# be replaced depending on the value of 'new' passed to open.
# remote_action is used for new=0 (open). If newwin is not None, it is
# used for new=1 (open_new). If newtab is not None, it is used for
# new=3 (open_new_tab). After both substitutions are made, any empty
# strings in the transformed remote_args list will be removed.
remote_args = ['%action', '%s']
remote_action = None
remote_action_newwin = None
remote_action_newtab = None
def _invoke(self, args, remote, autoraise, url=None):
raise_opt = []
if remote and self.raise_opts:
# use autoraise argument only for remote invocation
autoraise = int(autoraise)
opt = self.raise_opts[autoraise]
if opt: raise_opt = [opt]
cmdline = [self.name] + raise_opt + args
if remote or self.background:
inout = subprocess.DEVNULL
else:
# for TTY browsers, we need stdin/out
inout = None
p = subprocess.Popen(cmdline, close_fds=True, stdin=inout,
stdout=(self.redirect_stdout and inout or None),
stderr=inout, start_new_session=True)
if remote:
# wait at most five seconds. If the subprocess is not finished, the
# remote invocation has (hopefully) started a new instance.
try:
rc = p.wait(5)
# if remote call failed, open() will try direct invocation
return not rc
except subprocess.TimeoutExpired:
return True
elif self.background:
if p.poll() is None:
return True
else:
return False
else:
return not p.wait()
def open(self, url, new=0, autoraise=True):
sys.audit("webbrowser.open", url)
if new == 0:
action = self.remote_action
elif new == 1:
action = self.remote_action_newwin
elif new == 2:
if self.remote_action_newtab is None:
action = self.remote_action_newwin
else:
action = self.remote_action_newtab
else:
raise Error("Bad 'new' parameter to open(); " +
"expected 0, 1, or 2, got %s" % new)
args = [arg.replace("%s", url).replace("%action", action)
for arg in self.remote_args]
args = [arg for arg in args if arg]
success = self._invoke(args, True, autoraise, url)
if not success:
# remote invocation failed, try straight way
args = [arg.replace("%s", url) for arg in self.args]
return self._invoke(args, False, False)
else:
return True
class Mozilla(UnixBrowser):
"""Launcher class for Mozilla browsers."""
remote_args = ['%action', '%s']
remote_action = ""
remote_action_newwin = "-new-window"
remote_action_newtab = "-new-tab"
background = True
class Netscape(UnixBrowser):
"""Launcher class for Netscape browser."""
raise_opts = ["-noraise", "-raise"]
remote_args = ['-remote', 'openURL(%s%action)']
remote_action = ""
remote_action_newwin = ",new-window"
remote_action_newtab = ",new-tab"
background = True
class Galeon(UnixBrowser):
"""Launcher class for Galeon/Epiphany browsers."""
raise_opts = ["-noraise", ""]
remote_args = ['%action', '%s']
remote_action = "-n"
remote_action_newwin = "-w"
background = True
class Chrome(UnixBrowser):
"Launcher class for Google Chrome browser."
remote_args = ['%action', '%s']
remote_action = ""
remote_action_newwin = "--new-window"
remote_action_newtab = ""
background = True
Chromium = Chrome
class Opera(UnixBrowser):
"Launcher class for Opera browser."
remote_args = ['%action', '%s']
remote_action = ""
remote_action_newwin = "--new-window"
remote_action_newtab = ""
background = True
class Elinks(UnixBrowser):
"Launcher class for Elinks browsers."
remote_args = ['-remote', 'openURL(%s%action)']
remote_action = ""
remote_action_newwin = ",new-window"
remote_action_newtab = ",new-tab"
background = False
# elinks doesn't like its stdout to be redirected -
# it uses redirected stdout as a signal to do -dump
redirect_stdout = False
class Konqueror(BaseBrowser):
"""Controller for the KDE File Manager (kfm, or Konqueror).
See the output of ``kfmclient --commands``
for more information on the Konqueror remote-control interface.
"""
def open(self, url, new=0, autoraise=True):
sys.audit("webbrowser.open", url)
# XXX Currently I know no way to prevent KFM from opening a new win.
if new == 2:
action = "newTab"
else:
action = "openURL"
devnull = subprocess.DEVNULL
try:
p = subprocess.Popen(["kfmclient", action, url],
close_fds=True, stdin=devnull,
stdout=devnull, stderr=devnull)
except OSError:
# fall through to next variant
pass
else:
p.wait()
# kfmclient's return code unfortunately has no meaning as it seems
return True
try:
p = subprocess.Popen(["konqueror", "--silent", url],
close_fds=True, stdin=devnull,
stdout=devnull, stderr=devnull,
start_new_session=True)
except OSError:
# fall through to next variant
pass
else:
if p.poll() is None:
# Should be running now.
return True
try:
p = subprocess.Popen(["kfm", "-d", url],
close_fds=True, stdin=devnull,
stdout=devnull, stderr=devnull,
start_new_session=True)
except OSError:
return False
else:
return (p.poll() is None)
class Grail(BaseBrowser):
# There should be a way to maintain a connection to Grail, but the
# Grail remote control protocol doesn't really allow that at this
# point. It probably never will!
def _find_grail_rc(self):
import glob
import pwd
import socket
import tempfile
tempdir = os.path.join(tempfile.gettempdir(),
".grail-unix")
user = pwd.getpwuid(os.getuid())[0]
filename = os.path.join(tempdir, user + "-*")
maybes = glob.glob(filename)
if not maybes:
return None
s = socket.socket(socket.AF_UNIX, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
for fn in maybes:
# need to PING each one until we find one that's live
try:
s.connect(fn)
except OSError:
# no good; attempt to clean it out, but don't fail:
try:
os.unlink(fn)
except OSError:
pass
else:
return s
def _remote(self, action):
s = self._find_grail_rc()
if not s:
return 0
s.send(action)
s.close()
return 1
def open(self, url, new=0, autoraise=True):
sys.audit("webbrowser.open", url)
if new:
ok = self._remote("LOADNEW " + url)
else:
ok = self._remote("LOAD " + url)
return ok
#
# Platform support for Unix
#
# These are the right tests because all these Unix browsers require either
# a console terminal or an X display to run.
def register_X_browsers():
# use xdg-open if around
if shutil.which("xdg-open"):
register("xdg-open", None, BackgroundBrowser("xdg-open"))
# The default GNOME3 browser
if "GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION_ID" in os.environ and shutil.which("gvfs-open"):
register("gvfs-open", None, BackgroundBrowser("gvfs-open"))
# The default GNOME browser
if "GNOME_DESKTOP_SESSION_ID" in os.environ and shutil.which("gnome-open"):
register("gnome-open", None, BackgroundBrowser("gnome-open"))
# The default KDE browser
if "KDE_FULL_SESSION" in os.environ and shutil.which("kfmclient"):
register("kfmclient", Konqueror, Konqueror("kfmclient"))
if shutil.which("x-www-browser"):
register("x-www-browser", None, BackgroundBrowser("x-www-browser"))
# The Mozilla browsers
for browser in ("firefox", "iceweasel", "iceape", "seamonkey"):
if shutil.which(browser):
register(browser, None, Mozilla(browser))
# The Netscape and old Mozilla browsers
for browser in ("mozilla-firefox",
"mozilla-firebird", "firebird",
"mozilla", "netscape"):
if shutil.which(browser):
register(browser, None, Netscape(browser))
# Konqueror/kfm, the KDE browser.
if shutil.which("kfm"):
register("kfm", Konqueror, Konqueror("kfm"))
elif shutil.which("konqueror"):
register("konqueror", Konqueror, Konqueror("konqueror"))
# Gnome's Galeon and Epiphany
for browser in ("galeon", "epiphany"):
if shutil.which(browser):
register(browser, None, Galeon(browser))
# Skipstone, another Gtk/Mozilla based browser
if shutil.which("skipstone"):
register("skipstone", None, BackgroundBrowser("skipstone"))
# Google Chrome/Chromium browsers
for browser in ("google-chrome", "chrome", "chromium", "chromium-browser"):
if shutil.which(browser):
register(browser, None, Chrome(browser))
# Opera, quite popular
if shutil.which("opera"):
register("opera", None, Opera("opera"))
# Next, Mosaic -- old but still in use.
if shutil.which("mosaic"):
register("mosaic", None, BackgroundBrowser("mosaic"))
# Grail, the Python browser. Does anybody still use it?
if shutil.which("grail"):
register("grail", Grail, None)
def register_standard_browsers():
global _tryorder
_tryorder = []
if sys.platform == 'darwin':
register("MacOSX", None, MacOSXOSAScript('default'))
register("chrome", None, MacOSXOSAScript('chrome'))
register("firefox", None, MacOSXOSAScript('firefox'))
register("safari", None, MacOSXOSAScript('safari'))
# OS X can use below Unix support (but we prefer using the OS X
# specific stuff)
if sys.platform[:3] == "win":
# First try to use the default Windows browser
register("windows-default", WindowsDefault)
# Detect some common Windows browsers, fallback to IE
iexplore = os.path.join(os.environ.get("PROGRAMFILES", "C:\\Program Files"),
"Internet Explorer\\IEXPLORE.EXE")
for browser in ("firefox", "firebird", "seamonkey", "mozilla",
"netscape", "opera", iexplore):
if shutil.which(browser):
register(browser, None, BackgroundBrowser(browser))
else:
# Prefer X browsers if present
if os.environ.get("DISPLAY"):
try:
cmd = "xdg-settings get default-web-browser".split()
raw_result = subprocess.check_output(cmd, stderr=subprocess.DEVNULL)
result = raw_result.decode().strip()
except (FileNotFoundError, subprocess.CalledProcessError):
pass
else:
global _os_preferred_browser
_os_preferred_browser = result
register_X_browsers()
# Also try console browsers
if os.environ.get("TERM"):
if shutil.which("www-browser"):
register("www-browser", None, GenericBrowser("www-browser"))
# The Links/elinks browsers <http://artax.karlin.mff.cuni.cz/~mikulas/links/>
if shutil.which("links"):
register("links", None, GenericBrowser("links"))
if shutil.which("elinks"):
register("elinks", None, Elinks("elinks"))
# The Lynx browser <http://lynx.isc.org/>, <http://lynx.browser.org/>
if shutil.which("lynx"):
register("lynx", None, GenericBrowser("lynx"))
# The w3m browser <http://w3m.sourceforge.net/>
if shutil.which("w3m"):
register("w3m", None, GenericBrowser("w3m"))
# OK, now that we know what the default preference orders for each
# platform are, allow user to override them with the BROWSER variable.
if "BROWSER" in os.environ:
userchoices = os.environ["BROWSER"].split(os.pathsep)
userchoices.reverse()
# Treat choices in same way as if passed into get() but do register
# and prepend to _tryorder
for cmdline in userchoices:
if cmdline != '':
cmd = _synthesize(cmdline, preferred=True)
if cmd[1] is None:
register(cmdline, None, GenericBrowser(cmdline), preferred=True)
# what to do if _tryorder is now empty?
#
# Platform support for Windows
#
if sys.platform[:3] == "win":
class WindowsDefault(BaseBrowser):
def open(self, url, new=0, autoraise=True):
sys.audit("webbrowser.open", url)
try:
os.startfile(url)
except OSError:
# [Error 22] No application is associated with the specified
# file for this operation: '<URL>'
return False
else:
return True
#
# Platform support for MacOS
#
if sys.platform == 'darwin':
# Adapted from patch submitted to SourceForge by Steven J. Burr
class MacOSX(BaseBrowser):
"""Launcher class for Aqua browsers on Mac OS X
Optionally specify a browser name on instantiation. Note that this
will not work for Aqua browsers if the user has moved the application
package after installation.
If no browser is specified, the default browser, as specified in the
Internet System Preferences panel, will be used.
"""
def __init__(self, name):
self.name = name
def open(self, url, new=0, autoraise=True):
sys.audit("webbrowser.open", url)
assert "'" not in url
# hack for local urls
if not ':' in url:
url = 'file:'+url
# new must be 0 or 1
new = int(bool(new))
if self.name == "default":
# User called open, open_new or get without a browser parameter
script = 'open location "%s"' % url.replace('"', '%22') # opens in default browser
else:
# User called get and chose a browser
if self.name == "OmniWeb":
toWindow = ""
else:
# Include toWindow parameter of OpenURL command for browsers
# that support it. 0 == new window; -1 == existing
toWindow = "toWindow %d" % (new - 1)
cmd = 'OpenURL "%s"' % url.replace('"', '%22')
script = '''tell application "%s"
activate
%s %s
end tell''' % (self.name, cmd, toWindow)
# Open pipe to AppleScript through osascript command
osapipe = os.popen("osascript", "w")
if osapipe is None:
return False
# Write script to osascript's stdin
osapipe.write(script)
rc = osapipe.close()
return not rc
class MacOSXOSAScript(BaseBrowser):
def __init__(self, name):
self._name = name
def open(self, url, new=0, autoraise=True):
if self._name == 'default':
script = 'open location "%s"' % url.replace('"', '%22') # opens in default browser
else:
script = '''
tell application "%s"
activate
open location "%s"
end
'''%(self._name, url.replace('"', '%22'))
osapipe = os.popen("osascript", "w")
if osapipe is None:
return False
osapipe.write(script)
rc = osapipe.close()
return not rc
def main():
import getopt
usage = """Usage: %s [-n | -t] url
-n: open new window
-t: open new tab""" % sys.argv[0]
try:
opts, args = getopt.getopt(sys.argv[1:], 'ntd')
except getopt.error as msg:
print(msg, file=sys.stderr)
print(usage, file=sys.stderr)
sys.exit(1)
new_win = 0
for o, a in opts:
if o == '-n': new_win = 1
elif o == '-t': new_win = 2
if len(args) != 1:
print(usage, file=sys.stderr)
sys.exit(1)
url = args[0]
open(url, new_win)
print("\a")
if __name__ == "__main__":
main()
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