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'Show relative speeds of local, nonlocal, global, and built-in access.'
# Please leave this code so that it runs under older versions of
# Python 3 (no f-strings). That will allow benchmarking for
# cross-version comparisons. To run the benchmark on Python 2,
# comment-out the nonlocal reads and writes.
from collections import deque, namedtuple
trials = [None] * 500
steps_per_trial = 25
class A(object):
def m(self):
pass
class B(object):
__slots__ = 'x'
def __init__(self, x):
self.x = x
class C(object):
def __init__(self, x):
self.x = x
def read_local(trials=trials):
v_local = 1
for t in trials:
v_local; v_local; v_local; v_local; v_local
v_local; v_local; v_local; v_local; v_local
v_local; v_local; v_local; v_local; v_local
v_local; v_local; v_local; v_local; v_local
v_local; v_local; v_local; v_local; v_local
def make_nonlocal_reader():
v_nonlocal = 1
def inner(trials=trials):
for t in trials:
v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal
v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal
v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal
v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal
v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal; v_nonlocal
inner.__name__ = 'read_nonlocal'
return inner
read_nonlocal = make_nonlocal_reader()
v_global = 1
def read_global(trials=trials):
for t in trials:
v_global; v_global; v_global; v_global; v_global
v_global; v_global; v_global; v_global; v_global
v_global; v_global; v_global; v_global; v_global
v_global; v_global; v_global; v_global; v_global
v_global; v_global; v_global; v_global; v_global
def read_builtin(trials=trials):
for t in trials:
oct; oct; oct; oct; oct
oct; oct; oct; oct; oct
oct; oct; oct; oct; oct
oct; oct; oct; oct; oct
oct; oct; oct; oct; oct
def read_classvar_from_class(trials=trials, A=A):
A.x = 1
for t in trials:
A.x; A.x; A.x; A.x; A.x
A.x; A.x; A.x; A.x; A.x
A.x; A.x; A.x; A.x; A.x
A.x; A.x; A.x; A.x; A.x
A.x; A.x; A.x; A.x; A.x
def read_classvar_from_instance(trials=trials, A=A):
A.x = 1
a = A()
for t in trials:
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
def read_instancevar(trials=trials, a=C(1)):
for t in trials:
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
def read_instancevar_slots(trials=trials, a=B(1)):
for t in trials:
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
def read_namedtuple(trials=trials, D=namedtuple('D', ['x'])):
a = D(1)
for t in trials:
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x; a.x
def read_boundmethod(trials=trials, a=A()):
for t in trials:
a.m; a.m; a.m; a.m; a.m
a.m; a.m; a.m; a.m; a.m
a.m; a.m; a.m; a.m; a.m
a.m; a.m; a.m; a.m; a.m
a.m; a.m; a.m; a.m; a.m
def write_local(trials=trials):
v_local = 1
for t in trials:
v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1
v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1
v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1
v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1
v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1; v_local = 1
def make_nonlocal_writer():
v_nonlocal = 1
def inner(trials=trials):
nonlocal v_nonlocal
for t in trials:
v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1
v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1
v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1
v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1
v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1; v_nonlocal = 1
inner.__name__ = 'write_nonlocal'
return inner
write_nonlocal = make_nonlocal_writer()
def write_global(trials=trials):
global v_global
for t in trials:
v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1
v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1
v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1
v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1
v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1; v_global = 1
def write_classvar(trials=trials, A=A):
for t in trials:
A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1
A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1
A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1
A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1
A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1; A.x = 1
def write_instancevar(trials=trials, a=C(1)):
for t in trials:
a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1
a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1
a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1
a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1
a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1
def write_instancevar_slots(trials=trials, a=B(1)):
for t in trials:
a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1
a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1
a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1
a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1
a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1; a.x = 1
def read_list(trials=trials, a=[1]):
for t in trials:
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
def read_deque(trials=trials, a=deque([1])):
for t in trials:
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
def read_dict(trials=trials, a={0: 1}):
for t in trials:
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]; a[0]
def list_append_pop(trials=trials, a=[1]):
ap, pop = a.append, a.pop
for t in trials:
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
def deque_append_pop(trials=trials, a=deque([1])):
ap, pop = a.append, a.pop
for t in trials:
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
def deque_append_popleft(trials=trials, a=deque([1])):
ap, pop = a.append, a.popleft
for t in trials:
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop(); ap(1); pop();
def write_list(trials=trials, a=[1]):
for t in trials:
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
def write_deque(trials=trials, a=deque([1])):
for t in trials:
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
def write_dict(trials=trials, a={0: 1}):
for t in trials:
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1; a[0]=1
def loop_overhead(trials=trials):
for t in trials:
pass
if __name__=='__main__':
from timeit import Timer
for f in [
'Variable and attribute read access:',
read_local, read_nonlocal, read_global, read_builtin,
read_classvar_from_class, read_classvar_from_instance,
read_instancevar, read_instancevar_slots,
read_namedtuple, read_boundmethod,
'\nVariable and attribute write access:',
write_local, write_nonlocal, write_global,
write_classvar, write_instancevar, write_instancevar_slots,
'\nData structure read access:',
read_list, read_deque, read_dict,
'\nData structure write access:',
write_list, write_deque, write_dict,
'\nStack (or queue) operations:',
list_append_pop, deque_append_pop, deque_append_popleft,
'\nTiming loop overhead:',
loop_overhead]:
if isinstance(f, str):
print(f)
continue
timing = min(Timer(f).repeat(7, 1000))
timing *= 1000000 / (len(trials) * steps_per_trial)
print('{:6.1f} ns\t{}'.format(timing, f.__name__))
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