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PEP: 418
Title: Add monotonic time, performance counter, and process time functions
Version: $Revision$
Last-Modified: $Date$
Author: Cameron Simpson <>, Jim Jewett <>, Stephen J. Turnbull <>, Victor Stinner <>
Status: Final
Type: Standards Track
Content-Type: text/x-rst
Created: 26-March-2012
Python-Version: 3.3
This PEP proposes to add ``time.get_clock_info(name)``,
``time.monotonic()``, ``time.perf_counter()`` and
``time.process_time()`` functions to Python 3.3.
If a program uses the system time to schedule events or to implement
a timeout, it may fail to run events at the right moment or stop the
timeout too early or too late when the system time is changed manually or
adjusted automatically by NTP. A monotonic clock should be used
instead to not be affected by system time updates:
To measure the performance of a function, ``time.clock()`` can be used
but it is very different on Windows and on Unix. On Windows,
``time.clock()`` includes time elapsed during sleep, whereas it does
not on Unix. ``time.clock()`` resolution is very good on Windows, but
very bad on Unix. The new ``time.perf_counter()`` function should be
used instead to always get the most precise performance counter with a
portable behaviour (ex: include time spend during sleep).
Until now, Python did not provide directly a portable
function to measure CPU time. ``time.clock()`` can be used on Unix,
but it has bad
resolution. ``resource.getrusage()`` or ``os.times()`` can also be
used on Unix, but they require to compute the sum of time
spent in kernel space and user space. The new ``time.process_time()``
function acts as a portable counter that always measures CPU time
(excluding time elapsed during sleep) and has the best available
Each operating system implements clocks and performance counters
differently, and it is useful to know exactly which function is used
and some properties of the clock like its resolution. The new
``time.get_clock_info()`` function gives access to all available
information about each Python time function.
New functions:
* ``time.monotonic()``: timeout and scheduling, not affected by system
clock updates
* ``time.perf_counter()``: benchmarking, most precise clock for short
* ``time.process_time()``: profiling, CPU time of the process
Users of new functions:
* time.monotonic(): concurrent.futures, multiprocessing, queue, subprocess,
telnet and threading modules to implement timeout
* time.perf_counter(): trace and timeit modules, pybench program
* time.process_time(): profile module
* time.get_clock_info(): pybench program to display information about the
timer like the resolution
The ``time.clock()`` function is deprecated because it is not
portable: it behaves differently depending on the operating system.
``time.perf_counter()`` or ``time.process_time()`` should be used
instead, depending on your requirements. ``time.clock()`` is marked as
deprecated but is not planned for removal.
* The behaviour of clocks after a system suspend is not defined in the
documentation of new functions. The behaviour depends on the
operating system: see the `Monotonic Clocks`_ section below. Some
recent operating systems provide two clocks, one including time
elapsed during system suspsend, one not including this time. Most
operating systems only provide one kind of clock.
* time.monotonic() and time.perf_counter() may or may not be adjusted.
For example, ``CLOCK_MONOTONIC`` is slewed on Linux, whereas
``GetTickCount()`` is not adjusted on Windows.
``time.get_clock_info('monotonic')['adjustable']`` can be used to check
if the monotonic clock is adjustable or not.
* No time.thread_time() function is proposed by this PEP because it is
not needed by Python standard library nor a common asked feature.
Such function would only be available on Windows and Linux. On
Linux, it is possible to use
``time.clock_gettime(CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID)``. On Windows, ctypes or
another module can be used to call the ``GetThreadTimes()``
Python functions
New Functions
Get information on the specified clock. Supported clock names:
* ``"clock"``: ``time.clock()``
* ``"monotonic"``: ``time.monotonic()``
* ``"perf_counter"``: ``time.perf_counter()``
* ``"process_time"``: ``time.process_time()``
* ``"time"``: ``time.time()``
Return a ``time.clock_info`` object which has the following attributes:
* ``implementation`` (str): name of the underlying operating system
function. Examples: ``"QueryPerformanceCounter()"``,
* ``monotonic`` (bool): True if the clock cannot go backward.
* ``adjustable`` (bool): ``True`` if the clock can be changed automatically
(e.g. by a NTP daemon) or manually by the system administrator, ``False``
* ``resolution`` (float): resolution in seconds of the clock.
Monotonic clock, i.e. cannot go backward. It is not affected by system
clock updates. The reference point of the returned value is
undefined, so that only the difference between the results of
consecutive calls is valid and is a number of seconds.
On Windows versions older than Vista, ``time.monotonic()`` detects
``GetTickCount()`` integer overflow (32 bits, roll-over after 49.7
days). It increases an internal epoch (reference time by) 2\
:sup:`32` each time that an overflow is detected. The epoch is stored
in the process-local state and so
the value of ``time.monotonic()`` may be different in two Python
processes running for more than 49 days. On more recent versions of
Windows and on other operating systems, ``time.monotonic()`` is
Availability: Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris.
Not available on GNU/Hurd.
Pseudo-code [#pseudo]_::
if == 'nt':
# GetTickCount64() requires Windows Vista, Server 2008 or later
if hasattr(_time, 'GetTickCount64'):
def monotonic():
return _time.GetTickCount64() * 1e-3
def monotonic():
ticks = _time.GetTickCount()
if ticks < monotonic.last:
# Integer overflow detected += 2**32
monotonic.last = ticks
return (ticks + * 1e-3
monotonic.last = 0 = 0
elif sys.platform == 'darwin':
def monotonic():
if monotonic.factor is None:
factor = _time.mach_timebase_info()
monotonic.factor = timebase[0] / timebase[1] * 1e-9
return _time.mach_absolute_time() * monotonic.factor
monotonic.factor = None
elif hasattr(time, "clock_gettime") and hasattr(time, "CLOCK_HIGHRES"):
def monotonic():
return time.clock_gettime(time.CLOCK_HIGHRES)
elif hasattr(time, "clock_gettime") and hasattr(time, "CLOCK_MONOTONIC"):
def monotonic():
return time.clock_gettime(time.CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
On Windows, ``QueryPerformanceCounter()`` is not used even though it
has a better resolution than ``GetTickCount()``. It is not reliable
and has too many issues.
Performance counter with the highest available resolution to measure a
short duration. It does include time elapsed during sleep and is
system-wide. The reference point of the returned value is undefined,
so that only the difference between the results of consecutive calls
is valid and is a number of seconds.
It is available on all platforms.
if == 'nt':
def _win_perf_counter():
if _win_perf_counter.frequency is None:
_win_perf_counter.frequency = _time.QueryPerformanceFrequency()
return _time.QueryPerformanceCounter() / _win_perf_counter.frequency
_win_perf_counter.frequency = None
def perf_counter():
if perf_counter.use_performance_counter:
return _win_perf_counter()
except OSError:
# QueryPerformanceFrequency() fails if the installed
# hardware does not support a high-resolution performance
# counter
perf_counter.use_performance_counter = False
if perf_counter.use_monotonic:
# The monotonic clock is preferred over the system time
return time.monotonic()
except OSError:
perf_counter.use_monotonic = False
return time.time()
perf_counter.use_performance_counter = ( == 'nt')
perf_counter.use_monotonic = hasattr(time, 'monotonic')
Sum of the system and user CPU time of the current process. It does
not include time elapsed during sleep. It is process-wide by
definition. The reference point of the returned value is undefined,
so that only the difference between the results of consecutive calls
is valid.
It is available on all platforms.
Pseudo-code [#pseudo]_::
if == 'nt':
def process_time():
handle = _time.GetCurrentProcess()
process_times = _time.GetProcessTimes(handle)
return (process_times['UserTime'] + process_times['KernelTime']) * 1e-7
import resource
except ImportError:
has_resource = False
has_resource = True
def process_time():
if process_time.clock_id is not None:
return time.clock_gettime(process_time.clock_id)
except OSError:
process_time.clock_id = None
if process_time.use_getrusage:
usage = resource.getrusage(resource.RUSAGE_SELF)
return usage[0] + usage[1]
except OSError:
process_time.use_getrusage = False
if process_time.use_times:
times = _time.times()
cpu_time = times.tms_utime + times.tms_stime
return cpu_time / process_time.ticks_per_seconds
except OSError:
process_time.use_getrusage = False
return _time.clock()
if (hasattr(time, 'clock_gettime')
and hasattr(time, 'CLOCK_PROF')):
process_time.clock_id = time.CLOCK_PROF
elif (hasattr(time, 'clock_gettime')
and hasattr(time, 'CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID')):
process_time.clock_id = time.CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID
process_time.clock_id = None
process_time.use_getrusage = has_resource
process_time.use_times = hasattr(_time, 'times')
if process_time.use_times:
# sysconf("SC_CLK_TCK"), or the HZ constant, or 60
process_time.ticks_per_seconds = _times.ticks_per_seconds
Existing Functions
The system time which is usually the civil time. It is system-wide by
definition. It can be set manually by the system administrator or
automatically by a NTP daemon.
It is available on all platforms and cannot fail.
Pseudo-code [#pseudo]_::
if == "nt":
def time():
return _time.GetSystemTimeAsFileTime()
def time():
if hasattr(time, "clock_gettime"):
return time.clock_gettime(time.CLOCK_REALTIME)
except OSError:
# CLOCK_REALTIME is not supported (unlikely)
if hasattr(_time, "gettimeofday"):
return _time.gettimeofday()
except OSError:
# gettimeofday() should not fail
if hasattr(_time, "ftime"):
return _time.ftime()
return _time.time()
Suspend execution for the given number of seconds. The actual
suspension time may be less than that requested because any caught
signal will terminate the ``time.sleep()`` following execution of that
signal's catching routine. Also, the suspension time may be longer
than requested by an arbitrary amount because of the scheduling of
other activity in the system.
Pseudo-code [#pseudo]_::
import select
except ImportError:
has_select = False
has_select = hasattr(select, "select")
if has_select:
def sleep(seconds):
return[], [], [], seconds)
elif hasattr(_time, "delay"):
def sleep(seconds):
milliseconds = int(seconds * 1000)
elif == "nt":
def sleep(seconds):
milliseconds = int(seconds * 1000)
win32api.WaitForSingleObject(sleep.sigint_event, milliseconds)
sleep.sigint_event = win32api.CreateEvent(NULL, TRUE, FALSE, FALSE)
# SetEvent(sleep.sigint_event) will be called by the signal handler of SIGINT
elif == "os2":
def sleep(seconds):
milliseconds = int(seconds * 1000)
def sleep(seconds):
seconds = int(seconds)
Deprecated Function
On Unix, return the current processor time as a floating point number
expressed in seconds. It is process-wide by definition. The resolution,
and in fact the very definition of the meaning of "processor time",
depends on that of the C function of the same name, but in any case,
this is the function to use for benchmarking Python or timing
On Windows, this function returns wall-clock seconds elapsed since the
first call to this function, as a floating point number, based on the
Win32 function ``QueryPerformanceCounter()``. The resolution is
typically better than one microsecond. It is system-wide.
Pseudo-code [#pseudo]_::
if == 'nt':
def clock():
return _win_perf_counter()
except OSError:
# QueryPerformanceFrequency() fails if the installed
# hardware does not support a high-resolution performance
# counter
return _time.clock()
clock = _time.clock
Alternatives: API design
Other names for time.monotonic()
* time.counter()
* time.metronomic()
* time.seconds()
* time.steady(): "steady" is ambiguous: it means different things to
different people. For example, on Linux, CLOCK_MONOTONIC is
adjusted. If we uses the real time as the reference clock, we may
say that CLOCK_MONOTONIC is steady. But CLOCK_MONOTONIC gets
suspended on system suspend, whereas real time includes any time
spent in suspend.
* time.timeout_clock()
* time.wallclock(): time.monotonic() is not the system time aka the
"wall clock", but a monotonic clock with an unspecified starting
The name "time.try_monotonic()" was also proposed for an older
version of time.monotonic() which would fall back to the system
time when no monotonic clock was available.
Other names for time.perf_counter()
* time.high_precision()
* time.highres()
* time.hires()
* time.performance_counter()
* time.timer()
Only expose operating system clocks
To not have to define high-level clocks, which is a difficult task, a
simpler approach is to only expose operating system clocks.
time.clock_gettime() and related clock identifiers were already added
to Python 3.3 for example.
time.monotonic(): Fallback to system time
If no monotonic clock is available, time.monotonic() falls back to the
system time.
* It is hard to define such a function correctly in the documentation:
is it monotonic? Is it steady? Is it adjusted?
* Some users want to decide what to do when no monotonic clock is
available: use another clock, display an error, or do something
Different APIs were proposed to define such function.
One function with a flag: time.monotonic(fallback=True)
* time.monotonic(fallback=True) falls back to the system time if no
monotonic clock is available or if the monotonic clock failed.
* time.monotonic(fallback=False) raises OSError if monotonic clock
fails and NotImplementedError if the system does not provide a
monotonic clock
A keyword argument that gets passed as a constant in the caller is
usually poor API.
Raising NotImplementedError for a function is something uncommon in
Python and should be avoided.
One time.monotonic() function, no flag
time.monotonic() returns (time: float, is_monotonic: bool).
An alternative is to use a function attribute:
time.monotonic.is_monotonic. The attribute value would be None before
the first call to time.monotonic().
Choosing the clock from a list of constraints
The PEP as proposed offers a few new clocks, but their guarantees
are deliberately loose in order to offer useful clocks on different
platforms. This inherently embeds policy in the calls, and the
caller must thus choose a policy.
The "choose a clock" approach suggests an additional API to let
callers implement their own policy if necessary
by making most platform clocks available and letting the caller pick amongst them.
The PEP's suggested clocks are still expected to be available for the common
simple use cases.
To do this two facilities are needed:
an enumeration of clocks, and metadata on the clocks to enable the user to
evaluate their suitability.
The primary interface is a function make simple choices easy:
the caller can use ``time.get_clock(*flags)`` with some combination of flags.
This includes at least:
* time.MONOTONIC: clock cannot go backward
* time.STEADY: clock rate is steady
* time.ADJUSTED: clock may be adjusted, for example by NTP
* time.HIGHRES: clock with the highest resolution
It returns a clock object with a .now() method returning the current time.
The clock object is annotated with metadata describing the clock feature set;
its .flags field will contain at least all the requested flags.
time.get_clock() returns None if no matching clock is found and so calls can
be chained using the or operator. Example of a simple policy decision::
T = get_clock(MONOTONIC) or get_clock(STEADY) or get_clock()
t =
The available clocks always at least include a wrapper for ``time.time()``,
so a final call with no flags can always be used to obtain a working clock.
Examples of flags of system clocks:
* QueryPerformanceCounter: MONOTONIC | HIGHRES
* gettimeofday(): (no flag)
The clock objects contain other metadata including the clock flags
with additional feature flags above those listed above, the name
of the underlying OS facility, and clock precisions.
``time.get_clock()`` still chooses a single clock; an enumeration
facility is also required.
The most obvious method is to offer ``time.get_clocks()`` with the
same signature as ``time.get_clock()``, but returning a sequence
of all clocks matching the requested flags.
Requesting no flags would thus enumerate all available clocks,
allowing the caller to make an arbitrary choice amongst them based
on their metadata.
Example partial implementation:
` <>`_.
Working around operating system bugs?
Should Python ensure that a monotonic clock is truly
monotonic by computing the maximum with the clock value and the
previous value?
Since it's relatively straightforward to cache the last value returned
using a static variable, it might be interesting to use this to make
sure that the values returned are indeed monotonic.
* Virtual machines provide less reliable clocks.
* QueryPerformanceCounter() has known bugs (only one is not fixed yet)
Python may only work around a specific known operating system bug:
`KB274323`_ contains a code example to workaround the bug (use
GetTickCount() to detect QueryPerformanceCounter() leap).
Issues with "correcting" non-monotonicities:
* if the clock is accidentally set forward by an hour and then back
again, you wouldn't have a useful clock for an hour
* the cache is not shared between processes so different processes
wouldn't see the same clock value
The amount of deviation of measurements by a given instrument from
true values. See also `Accuracy and precision
Inaccuracy in clocks may be caused by lack of precision, drift, or an
incorrect initial setting of the clock (e.g., timing of threads is
inherently inaccurate because perfect synchronization in resetting
counters is quite difficult).
Resetting a clock to the correct time. This may be done either
with a <Step> or by <Slewing>.
:Civil Time:
Time of day; external to the system. 10:45:13am is a Civil time;
45 seconds is not. Provided by existing function
``time.localtime()`` and ``time.gmtime()``. Not changed by this
An instrument for measuring time. Different clocks have different
characteristics; for example, a clock with nanosecond
<precision> may start to <drift> after a few minutes, while a less
precise clock remained accurate for days. This PEP is primarily
concerned with clocks which use a unit of seconds.
A clock which increments each time a certain event occurs. A
counter is strictly monotonic, but not a monotonic clock. It can
be used to generate a unique (and ordered) timestamp, but these
timestamps cannot be mapped to <civil time>; tick creation may well
be bursty, with several advances in the same millisecond followed
by several days without any advance.
:CPU Time:
A measure of how much CPU effort has been spent on a certain task.
CPU seconds are often normalized (so that a variable number can
occur in the same actual second). CPU seconds can be important
when profiling, but they do not map directly to user response time,
nor are they directly comparable to (real time) seconds.
The accumulated error against "true" time, as defined externally to
the system. Drift may be due to imprecision, or to a difference
between the average rate at which clock time advances and that of
real time.
The reference point of a clock. For clocks providing <civil time>,
this is often midnight as the day (and year) rolled over to January
1, 1970. For a <clock_monotonic> clock, the epoch may be undefined
(represented as None).
Delay. By the time a clock call returns, the <real time> has
advanced, possibly by more than the precision of the clock.
The characteristics expected of a monotonic clock in practice.
Moving in at most one direction; for clocks, that direction is
forward. The <clock> should also be <steady>, and should be
convertible to a unit of seconds. The tradeoffs often include lack
of a defined <epoch> or mapping to <Civil Time>.
The amount of deviation among measurements of the same physical
value by a single instrument. Imprecision in clocks may be caused by
a fluctuation of the rate at which clock time advances relative to
real time, including clock adjustment by slewing.
:Process Time:
Time elapsed since the process began. It is typically measured in
<CPU time> rather than <real time>, and typically does not advance
while the process is suspended.
:Real Time:
Time in the real world. This differs from <Civil time> in that it
is not <adjusted>, but they should otherwise advance in lockstep.
It is not related to the "real time" of "Real Time [Operating]
Systems". It is sometimes called "wall clock time" to avoid that
ambiguity; unfortunately, that introduces different ambiguities.
The smallest difference between two physical values that results
in a different measurement by a given instrument.
A slight change to a clock's speed, usually intended to correct
<drift> with respect to an external authority.
Persistence of accuracy. A measure of expected <drift>.
A clock with high <stability> and relatively high <accuracy> and
<precision>. In practice, it is often used to indicate a
<clock_monotonic> clock, but places greater emphasis on the
consistency of the duration between subsequent ticks.
An instantaneous change in the represented time. Instead of
speeding or slowing the clock (<slew>), a single offset is
permanently added.
:System Time:
Time as represented by the Operating System.
:Thread Time:
Time elapsed since the thread began. It is typically measured in
<CPU time> rather than <real time>, and typically does not advance
while the thread is idle.
What the clock on the wall says. This is typically used as a
synonym for <real time>; unfortunately, wall time is itself
Hardware clocks
List of hardware clocks
* HPET: A High Precision Event Timer (HPET) chip consists of a 64-bit
up-counter (main counter) counting at least at 10 MHz and a set of
up to 256 comparators (at least 3). Each HPET can have up to 32
timers. HPET can cause around 3 seconds of drift per day.
* TSC (Time Stamp Counter): Historically, the TSC increased with every
internal processor clock cycle, but now the rate is usually constant
(even if the processor changes frequency) and usually equals the
maximum processor frequency. Multiple cores have different TSC
values. Hibernation of system will reset TSC value. The RDTSC
instruction can be used to read this counter. CPU frequency scaling
for power saving.
* ACPI Power Management Timer: ACPI 24-bit timer with a frequency of
3.5 MHz (3,579,545 Hz).
* Cyclone: The Cyclone timer uses a 32-bit counter on IBM Extended
X-Architecture (EXA) chipsets which include computers that use the
IBM "Summit" series chipsets (ex: x440). This is available in IA32
and IA64 architectures.
* PIT (programmable interrupt timer): Intel 8253/8254 chipsets with a
configurable frequency in range 18.2 Hz - 1.2 MHz. It uses a 16-bit
* RTC (Real-time clock). Most RTCs use a crystal oscillator with a
frequency of 32,768 Hz.
Linux clocksource
There were 4 implementations of the time in the Linux kernel: UTIME
(1996), timer wheel (1997), HRT (2001) and hrtimers (2007). The
latter is the result of the "high-res-timers" project started by
George Anzinger in 2001, with contributions by Thomas Gleixner and
Douglas Niehaus. The hrtimers implementation was merged into Linux
2.6.21, released in 2007.
hrtimers supports various clock sources. It sets a priority to each
source to decide which one will be used. Linux supports the following
clock sources:
* tsc
* hpet
* pit
* pmtmr: ACPI Power Management Timer
* cyclone
High-resolution timers are not supported on all hardware
architectures. They are at least provided on x86/x86_64, ARM and
clock_getres() returns 1 nanosecond for ``CLOCK_REALTIME`` and
``CLOCK_MONOTONIC`` regardless of underlying clock source. Read `Re:
clock_getres() and real resolution
<>`_ from Thomas Gleixner (9 Feb
2012) for an explanation.
The ``/sys/devices/system/clocksource/clocksource0`` directory
contains two useful files:
* ``available_clocksource``: list of available clock sources
* ``current_clocksource``: clock source currently used. It is
possible to change the current clocksource by writing the name of a
clocksource into this file.
``/proc/timer_list`` contains the list of all hardware timers.
Read also the `time(7) manual page
"overview of time and timers".
FreeBSD timecounter
kern.timecounter.choice lists available hardware clocks with their
priority. The sysctl program can be used to change the timecounter.
# dmesg | grep Timecounter
Timecounter "i8254" frequency 1193182 Hz quality 0
Timecounter "ACPI-safe" frequency 3579545 Hz quality 850
Timecounter "HPET" frequency 100000000 Hz quality 900
Timecounter "TSC" frequency 3411154800 Hz quality 800
Timecounters tick every 10.000 msec
# sysctl kern.timecounter.choice
kern.timecounter.choice: TSC(800) HPET(900) ACPI-safe(850) i8254(0) dummy(-1000000)
# sysctl kern.timecounter.hardware="ACPI-fast"
kern.timecounter.hardware: HPET -> ACPI-fast
Available clocks:
* "TSC": Time Stamp Counter of the processor
* "HPET": High Precision Event Timer
* "ACPI-fast": ACPI Power Management timer (fast mode)
* "ACPI-safe": ACPI Power Management timer (safe mode)
* "i8254": PIT with Intel 8254 chipset
The `commit 222222
<>`_ (May
2011) decreased ACPI-fast timecounter quality to 900 and increased
HPET timecounter quality to 950: "HPET on modern platforms usually
have better resolution and lower latency than ACPI timer".
Read `Timecounters: Efficient and precise timekeeping in SMP kernels
<>`_ by Poul-Henning Kamp
(2002) for the FreeBSD Project.
Reading a hardware clock has a cost. The following table compares
the performance of different hardware clocks on Linux 3.3 with Intel
Core i7-2600 at 3.40GHz (8 cores). The `bench_time.c
<>`_ program
was used to fill these tables.
======================== ====== ======= ======
======================== ====== ======= ======
time() 2 ns 2 ns 2 ns
CLOCK_REALTIME_COARSE 10 ns 10 ns 10 ns
CLOCK_MONOTONIC_COARSE 12 ns 13 ns 12 ns
CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID 134 ns 135 ns 135 ns
CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID 127 ns 129 ns 129 ns
clock() 146 ns 146 ns 143 ns
gettimeofday() 23 ns 726 ns 637 ns
CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW 31 ns 716 ns 607 ns
CLOCK_REALTIME 27 ns 707 ns 629 ns
CLOCK_MONOTONIC 27 ns 723 ns 635 ns
======================== ====== ======= ======
FreeBSD 8.0 in kvm with hardware virtualization:
======================== ====== ========= ======= =======
Function TSC ACPI-Safe HPET i8254
======================== ====== ========= ======= =======
time() 191 ns 188 ns 189 ns 188 ns
CLOCK_SECOND 187 ns 184 ns 187 ns 183 ns
CLOCK_REALTIME_FAST 189 ns 180 ns 187 ns 190 ns
CLOCK_UPTIME_FAST 191 ns 185 ns 186 ns 196 ns
CLOCK_MONOTONIC_FAST 188 ns 187 ns 188 ns 189 ns
CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID 208 ns 206 ns 207 ns 220 ns
CLOCK_VIRTUAL 280 ns 279 ns 283 ns 296 ns
CLOCK_PROF 289 ns 280 ns 282 ns 286 ns
clock() 342 ns 340 ns 337 ns 344 ns
CLOCK_UPTIME_PRECISE 197 ns 10380 ns 4402 ns 4097 ns
CLOCK_REALTIME 196 ns 10376 ns 4337 ns 4054 ns
CLOCK_MONOTONIC_PRECISE 198 ns 10493 ns 4413 ns 3958 ns
CLOCK_UPTIME 197 ns 10523 ns 4458 ns 4058 ns
gettimeofday() 202 ns 10524 ns 4186 ns 3962 ns
CLOCK_REALTIME_PRECISE 197 ns 10599 ns 4394 ns 4060 ns
CLOCK_MONOTONIC 201 ns 10766 ns 4498 ns 3943 ns
======================== ====== ========= ======= =======
Each function was called 100,000 times and CLOCK_MONOTONIC was used to
get the time before and after. The benchmark was run 5 times, keeping
the minimum time.
NTP adjustment
NTP has different methods to adjust a clock:
* "slewing": change the clock frequency to be slightly faster or
slower (which is done with ``adjtime()``). Since the slew rate is
limited to 0.5 millisecond per second, each second of adjustment requires an
amortization interval of 2000 seconds. Thus, an adjustment of many
seconds can take hours or days to amortize.
* "stepping": jump by a large amount in a single discrete step (which
is done with ``settimeofday()``)
By default, the time is slewed if the offset is less than 128 ms, but
stepped otherwise.
Slewing is generally desirable (i.e. we should use CLOCK_MONOTONIC,
not CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW) if one wishes to measure "real" time (and not
a time-like object like CPU cycles). This is because the clock on the
other end of the NTP connection from you is probably better at keeping
time: hopefully that thirty-five thousand dollars of Cesium
timekeeping goodness is doing something better than your PC's $3
quartz crystal, after all.
Get more detail in the `documentation of the NTP daemon
Operating system time functions
Monotonic Clocks
========================= ============ =============== ============= ===============
Name C Resolution Adjusted Include Sleep Include Suspend
========================= ============ =============== ============= ===============
gethrtime() 1 ns No Yes Yes
CLOCK_MONOTONIC 1 ns Slewed on Linux Yes No
CLOCK_MONOTONIC_COARSE 1 ns Slewed on Linux Yes No
CLOCK_UPTIME 1 ns No Yes ?
mach_absolute_time() 1 ns No Yes No
QueryPerformanceCounter() \- No Yes ?
GetTickCount[64]() 1 ms No Yes Yes
timeGetTime() 1 ms No Yes ?
========================= ============ =============== ============= ===============
The "C Resolution" column is the resolution of the underlying C
Examples of clock resolution on x86_64:
========================= ================ ============= =================
Name Operating system OS Resolution Python Resolution
========================= ================ ============= =================
QueryPerformanceCounter Windows Seven 10 ns 10 ns
CLOCK_HIGHRES SunOS 5.11 2 ns 265 ns
CLOCK_MONOTONIC Linux 3.0 1 ns 322 ns
CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW Linux 3.3 1 ns 628 ns
CLOCK_BOOTTIME Linux 3.3 1 ns 628 ns
mach_absolute_time() Mac OS 10.6 1 ns 3 µs
CLOCK_MONOTONIC FreeBSD 8.2 11 ns 5 µs
CLOCK_MONOTONIC OpenBSD 5.0 10 ms 5 µs
CLOCK_UPTIME FreeBSD 8.2 11 ns 6 µs
CLOCK_MONOTONIC_COARSE Linux 3.3 1 ms 1 ms
CLOCK_MONOTONIC_COARSE Linux 3.0 4 ms 4 ms
GetTickCount64() Windows Seven 16 ms 15 ms
========================= ================ ============= =================
The "OS Resolution" is the resolution announced by the operating
The "Python Resolution" is the smallest difference between two calls
to the time function computed in Python using the `
Mac OS X provides a monotonic clock: mach_absolute_time(). It is
based on absolute elapsed time since system boot. It is not
adjusted and cannot be set.
mach_timebase_info() gives a fraction to convert the clock value to a number of
nanoseconds. See also the `Technical Q&A QA1398
mach_absolute_time() stops during a sleep on a PowerPC CPU, but not on
an Intel CPU: `Different behaviour of mach_absolute_time() on i386/ppc
CLOCK_MONOTONIC and CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW represent monotonic time since
some unspecified starting point. They cannot be set. The resolution
can be read using ``clock_getres()``.
Documentation: refer to the manual page of your operating system.
* `FreeBSD clock_gettime() manual page
* `Linux clock_gettime() manual page
CLOCK_MONOTONIC is available at least on the following operating
* DragonFly BSD, FreeBSD >= 5.0, OpenBSD, NetBSD
* Linux
* Solaris
The following operating systems don't support CLOCK_MONOTONIC:
* GNU/Hurd (see `open issues/ clock_gettime
* Mac OS X
* Windows
On Linux, NTP may adjust the CLOCK_MONOTONIC rate (slewed), but it cannot
jump backward.
CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW is specific to Linux. It is similar to
CLOCK_MONOTONIC, but provides access to a raw hardware-based time that
is not subject to NTP adjustments. CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW requires Linux
2.6.28 or later.
Linux 2.6.39 and glibc 2.14 introduces a new clock: CLOCK_BOOTTIME.
CLOCK_BOOTTIME is identical to CLOCK_MONOTONIC, except that it also
includes any time spent in suspend. Read also `Waking systems from
suspend <>`_ (March, 2011).
CLOCK_MONOTONIC stops while the machine is suspended.
Linux provides also CLOCK_MONOTONIC_COARSE since Linux 2.6.32. It is
similar to CLOCK_MONOTONIC, less precise but faster.
``clock_gettime()`` fails if the system does not support the specified
clock, even if the standard C library supports it. For example,
CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW requires a kernel version 2.6.28 or later.
Windows: QueryPerformanceCounter
High-resolution performance counter. It is monotonic.
The frequency of the counter can be read using QueryPerformanceFrequency().
The resolution is 1 / QueryPerformanceFrequency().
It has a much higher resolution, but has lower long term precision
than GetTickCount() and timeGetTime() clocks. For example, it will
drift compared to the low precision clocks.
* `MSDN: QueryPerformanceCounter() documentation
* `MSDN: QueryPerformanceFrequency() documentation
Hardware clocks used by QueryPerformanceCounter:
* Windows XP: RDTSC instruction of Intel processors, the clock
frequency is the frequency of the processor (between 200 MHz and 3
GHz, usually greater than 1 GHz nowadays).
* Windows 2000: ACPI power management timer, frequency = 3,549,545 Hz.
It can be forced through the "/usepmtimer" flag in boot.ini.
.. * Windows 95/98: 8245 PIT chipset, frequency = 1,193,181 Hz
QueryPerformanceFrequency() should only be called once: the frequency
will not change while the system is running. It fails if the
installed hardware does not support a high-resolution performance
QueryPerformanceCounter() cannot be adjusted:
only adjusts the system time.
* The performance counter value may unexpectedly leap forward because
of a hardware bug, see `KB274323`_.
* On VirtualBox, QueryPerformanceCounter() does not increment the high
part every time the low part overflows, see `Monotonic timers
* VirtualBox had a bug in its HPET virtualized device:
QueryPerformanceCounter() did jump forward by approx. 42 seconds (`issue
#8707 <>`_).
* Windows XP had a bug (see `KB896256`_): on a multiprocessor
computer, QueryPerformanceCounter() returned a different value for
each processor. The bug was fixed in Windows XP SP2.
* Issues with processor with variable frequency: the frequency is
changed depending on the workload to reduce memory consumption.
* Chromium don't use QueryPerformanceCounter() on Athlon X2 CPUs
(model 15) because "QueryPerformanceCounter is unreliable" (see
base/ in Chromium source code)
.. _KB896256:
.. _KB274323:
Windows: GetTickCount(), GetTickCount64()
GetTickCount() and GetTickCount64() are monotonic, cannot fail and are
not adjusted by SetSystemTimeAdjustment(). MSDN documentation:
The resolution can be read using GetSystemTimeAdjustment().
The elapsed time retrieved by GetTickCount() or GetTickCount64()
includes time the system spends in sleep or hibernation.
GetTickCount64() was added to Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008.
It is possible to improve the precision using the `undocumented
NtSetTimerResolution() function
There are applications using this undocumented function, example: `Timer
Resolution <>`_.
WaitForSingleObject() uses the same timer as GetTickCount() with the
same precision.
Windows: timeGetTime
The timeGetTime function retrieves the system time, in milliseconds.
The system time is the time elapsed since Windows was started. Read
the `timeGetTime() documentation
The return type of timeGetTime() is a 32-bit unsigned integer. As
GetTickCount(), timeGetTime() rolls over after 2^32 milliseconds (49.7
The elapsed time retrieved by timeGetTime() includes time the system
spends in sleep.
The default precision of the timeGetTime function can be five
milliseconds or more, depending on the machine.
timeBeginPeriod() can be used to increase the precision of
timeGetTime() up to 1 millisecond, but it negatively affects power
consumption. Calling timeBeginPeriod() also affects the granularity
of some other timing calls, such as CreateWaitableTimer(),
WaitForSingleObject() and Sleep().
.. note::
timeGetTime() and timeBeginPeriod() are part the Windows multimedia
library and so require to link the program against winmm or to
dynamically load the library.
The Solaris OS has a CLOCK_HIGHRES timer that attempts to use an
optimal hardware source, and may give close to nanosecond resolution.
CLOCK_HIGHRES is the nonadjustable, high-resolution clock. For timers
created with a clockid_t value of CLOCK_HIGHRES, the system will
attempt to use an optimal hardware source.
The resolution of CLOCK_HIGHRES can be read using ``clock_getres()``.
Solaris: gethrtime
The gethrtime() function returns the current high-resolution real
time. Time is expressed as nanoseconds since some arbitrary time in
the past; it is not correlated in any way to the time of day, and thus
is not subject to resetting or drifting by way of adjtime() or
settimeofday(). The hires timer is ideally suited to performance
measurement tasks, where cheap, accurate interval timing is required.
The linearity of gethrtime() is not preserved across a suspend-resume
cycle (`Bug 4272663 <>`_).
Read the `gethrtime() manual page of Solaris 11
On Solaris, gethrtime() is the same as clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC).
System Time
========================= ============ ============= ===============
Name C Resolution Include Sleep Include Suspend
========================= ============ ============= ===============
GetSystemTimeAsFileTime 100 ns Yes Yes
gettimeofday() 1 µs Yes Yes
ftime() 1 ms Yes Yes
time() 1 sec Yes Yes
========================= ============ ============= ===============
The "C Resolution" column is the resolution of the underlying C
Examples of clock resolution on x86_64:
========================= ================ ============= =================
Name Operating system OS Resolution Python Resolution
========================= ================ ============= =================
CLOCK_REALTIME SunOS 5.11 10 ms 238 ns
CLOCK_REALTIME Linux 3.0 1 ns 238 ns
gettimeofday() Mac OS 10.6 1 µs 4 µs
CLOCK_REALTIME FreeBSD 8.2 11 ns 6 µs
CLOCK_REALTIME OpenBSD 5.0 10 ms 5 µs
CLOCK_REALTIME_COARSE Linux 3.3 1 ms 1 ms
CLOCK_REALTIME_COARSE Linux 3.0 4 ms 4 ms
GetSystemTimeAsFileTime() Windows Seven 16 ms 1 ms
ftime() Windows Seven \- 1 ms
========================= ================ ============= =================
The "OS Resolution" is the resolution announced by the operating
The "Python Resolution" is the smallest difference between two calls
to the time function computed in Python using the `
Windows: GetSystemTimeAsFileTime
The system time can be read using GetSystemTimeAsFileTime(), ftime() and
time(). The resolution of the system time can be read using
Read the `GetSystemTimeAsFileTime() documentation
The system time can be set using SetSystemTime().
System time on UNIX
gettimeofday(), ftime(), time() and clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME) return
the system time. The resolution of CLOCK_REALTIME can be read using
The system time can be set using settimeofday() or
Linux provides also CLOCK_REALTIME_COARSE since Linux 2.6.32. It is similar
to CLOCK_REALTIME, less precise but faster.
Alexander Shishkin proposed an API for Linux to be notified when the system
clock is changed: `timerfd: add TFD_NOTIFY_CLOCK_SET to watch for clock changes
<>`_ (4th version of the API, March 2011). The
API is not accepted yet, but CLOCK_BOOTTIME provides a similar feature.
Process Time
The process time cannot be set. It is not monotonic: the clocks stop
while the process is idle.
========================= ============ ============================ ===============
Name C Resolution Include Sleep Include Suspend
========================= ============ ============================ ===============
GetProcessTimes() 100 ns No No
getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF) 1 µs No No
times() \- No No
clock() \- Yes on Windows, No otherwise No
========================= ============ ============================ ===============
The "C Resolution" column is the resolution of the underlying C
Examples of clock resolution on x86_64:
========================= ================ ============= ===================
Name Operating system OS Resolution Python Resolution
========================= ================ ============= ===================
CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID Linux 3.3 1 ns 1 ns
CLOCK_PROF FreeBSD 8.2 10 ms 1 µs
getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF) FreeBSD 8.2 \- 1 µs
getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF) SunOS 5.11 \- 1 µs
CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID Linux 3.0 1 ns 1 µs
getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF) Mac OS 10.6 \- 5 µs
clock() Mac OS 10.6 1 µs 5 µs
CLOCK_PROF OpenBSD 5.0 \- 5 µs
getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF) Linux 3.0 \- 4 ms
getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF) OpenBSD 5.0 \- 8 ms
clock() FreeBSD 8.2 8 ms 8 ms
clock() Linux 3.0 1 µs 10 ms
times() Linux 3.0 10 ms 10 ms
clock() OpenBSD 5.0 10 ms 10 ms
times() OpenBSD 5.0 10 ms 10 ms
times() Mac OS 10.6 10 ms 10 ms
clock() SunOS 5.11 1 µs 10 ms
times() SunOS 5.11 1 µs 10 ms
GetProcessTimes() Windows Seven 16 ms 16 ms
clock() Windows Seven 1 ms 1 ms
========================= ================ ============= ===================
The "OS Resolution" is the resolution announced by the operating
The "Python Resolution" is the smallest difference between two calls
to the time function computed in Python using the `
* Windows: `GetProcessTimes()
The resolution can be read using GetSystemTimeAdjustment().
* clock_gettime(CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID): High-resolution per-process
timer from the CPU. The resolution can be read using clock_getres().
* clock(). The resolution is 1 / CLOCKS_PER_SEC.
* Windows: The elapsed wall-clock time since the start of the
process (elapsed time in seconds times CLOCKS_PER_SEC). Include
time elapsed during sleep. It can fail.
* UNIX: returns an approximation of processor time used by the
* getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF) returns a structure of resource usage of the currenet
process. ru_utime is user CPU time and ru_stime is the system CPU time.
* times(): structure of process times. The resolution is 1 / ticks_per_seconds,
where ticks_per_seconds is sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK) or the HZ constant.
Python source code includes a portable library to get the process time (CPU
time): `Tools/pybench/
See also the `QueryProcessCycleTime() function
(sum of the cycle time of all threads) and `clock_getcpuclockid()
Thread Time
The thread time cannot be set. It is not monotonic: the clocks stop
while the thread is idle.
========================= ============ ============= ===============
Name C Resolution Include Sleep Include Suspend
========================= ============ ============= ===============
CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID 1 ns Yes Epoch changes
GetThreadTimes() 100 ns No ?
========================= ============ ============= ===============
The "C Resolution" column is the resolution of the underlying C
Examples of clock resolution on x86_64:
========================= ================ ============= =================
Name Operating system OS Resolution Python Resolution
========================= ================ ============= =================
CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID Linux 3.3 1 ns 649 ns
GetThreadTimes() Windows Seven 16 ms 16 ms
========================= ================ ============= =================
The "OS Resolution" is the resolution announced by the operating
The "Python Resolution" is the smallest difference between two calls
to the time function computed in Python using the `
* Windows: `GetThreadTimes()
The resolution can be read using GetSystemTimeAdjustment().
* clock_gettime(CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID): Thread-specific CPU-time
clock. It uses a number of CPU cycles, not a number of seconds.
The resolution can be read using of clock_getres().
See also the `QueryThreadCycleTime() function
(cycle time for the specified thread) and pthread_getcpuclockid().
Windows: QueryUnbiasedInterruptTime
Gets the current unbiased interrupt time from the biased interrupt
time and the current sleep bias amount. This time is not affected by
power management sleep transitions.
The elapsed time retrieved by the QueryUnbiasedInterruptTime function
includes only time that the system spends in the working state.
QueryUnbiasedInterruptTime() is not monotonic.
QueryUnbiasedInterruptTime() was introduced in Windows 7.
See also `QueryIdleProcessorCycleTime() function
(cycle time for the idle thread of each processor)
Suspend execution of the process for the given number of seconds.
Sleep is not affected by system time updates. Sleep is paused during
system suspend. For example, if a process sleeps for 60 seconds and
the system is suspended for 30 seconds in the middle of the sleep, the
sleep duration is 90 seconds in the real time.
Sleep can be interrupted by a signal: the function fails with EINTR.
======================== ============
Name C Resolution
======================== ============
nanosleep() 1 ns
clock_nanosleep() 1 ns
usleep() 1 µs
delay() 1 µs
sleep() 1 sec
======================== ============
Other functions:
======================== ============
Name C Resolution
======================== ============
sigtimedwait() 1 ns
pthread_cond_timedwait() 1 ns
sem_timedwait() 1 ns
select() 1 µs
epoll() 1 ms
poll() 1 ms
WaitForSingleObject() 1 ms
======================== ============
The "C Resolution" column is the resolution of the underlying C
* sleep(seconds)
* usleep(microseconds)
* nanosleep(nanoseconds, remaining):
`Linux manpage of nanosleep()
* delay(milliseconds)
clock_nanosleep(clock_id, flags, nanoseconds, remaining): `Linux
manpage of clock_nanosleep()
If flags is TIMER_ABSTIME, then request is interpreted as an absolute
time as measured by the clock, clock_id. If request is less than or
equal to the current value of the clock, then clock_nanosleep()
returns immediately without suspending the calling thread.
POSIX.1 specifies that changing the value of the CLOCK_REALTIME clock
via clock_settime(2) shall have no effect on a thread that is blocked
on a relative clock_nanosleep().
select(nfds, readfds, writefds, exceptfs, timeout).
Since Linux 2.6.28, select() uses high-resolution timers to handle the
timeout. A process has a "slack" attribute to configure the precision
of the timeout, the default slack is 50 microseconds. Before Linux
2.6.28, timeouts for select() were handled by the main timing
subsystem at a jiffy-level resolution. Read also `High- (but not too
high-) resolution timeouts <>`_ and
`Timer slack <>`_.
Other functions
* poll(), epoll()
* sigtimedwait(). POSIX: "If the Monotonic Clock option is supported,
the CLOCK_MONOTONIC clock shall be used to measure the time
interval specified by the timeout argument."
* pthread_cond_timedwait(), pthread_condattr_setclock(). "The default
value of the clock attribute shall refer to the system time."
* sem_timedwait(): "If the Timers option is supported, the timeout
shall be based on the CLOCK_REALTIME clock. If the Timers option is
not supported, the timeout shall be based on the system time as
returned by the time() function. The precision of the timeout
shall be the precision of the clock on which it is based."
* WaitForSingleObject(): use the same timer than GetTickCount() with
the same precision.
System Standby
The ACPI power state "S3" is a system standby mode, also called
"Suspend to RAM". RAM remains powered.
On Windows, the ``WM_POWERBROADCAST`` message is sent to Windows
applications to notify them of power-management events (ex: owner status
has changed).
For Mac OS X, read `Registering and unregistering for sleep and wake
(Technical Q&A QA1340).
.. [#pseudo] "_time" is a hypothetical module only used for the example.
The time module is implemented in C and so there is no need for
such a module.
Related Python issues:
* `Issue #12822: NewGIL should use CLOCK_MONOTONIC if possible.
* `Issue #14222: Use time.steady() to implement timeout
* `Issue #14309: Deprecate time.clock()
* `Issue #14397: Use GetTickCount/GetTickCount64 instead of
QueryPerformanceCounter for monotonic clock
* `Issue #14428: Implementation of the PEP 418
* `Issue #14555: clock_gettime/settime/getres: Add more clock identifiers
Libraries exposing monotonic clocks:
* `Java: System.nanoTime
* `Qt library: QElapsedTimer
* `glib library: g_get_monotonic_time ()
uses GetTickCount64()/GetTickCount() on Windows,
clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC) on UNIX or falls back to the system
* `python-monotonic-time
<>`_ (`github
* `Monoclock.nano_count()
<>`_ uses clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
and returns a number of nanoseconds
* `monotonic_clock <>`_ by Thomas Habets
* `Perl: Time::HiRes <>`_
exposes clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
* `Ruby:
<>`_: use
clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC), mach_absolute_time() or
gettimeofday(). "AbsoluteTime.monotonic?" method indicates if is monotonic or not.
* `libpthread
<>`_: POSIX thread library for Windows
(`clock.c <>`_)
* `Boost.Chrono
<>`_ uses:
* system_clock:
* mac = gettimeofday()
* posix = clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME)
* win = GetSystemTimeAsFileTime()
* steady_clock:
* mac = mach_absolute_time()
* posix = clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
* win = QueryPerformanceCounter()
* high_resolution_clock:
* steady_clock, if available system_clock, otherwise
* `Twisted issue #2424: Add reactor option to start with monotonic clock
* `gettimeofday() should never be used to measure time
<>`_ by Thomas Habets (2010-09-05)
* `hrtimers - subsystem for high-resolution kernel timers
* `C++ Timeout Specification
<>`_ by Lawrence Crowl (2010-08-19)
* `Windows: Game Timing and Multicore Processors
<>`_ by Chuck Walbourn (December 2005)
* `Implement a Continuously Updating, High-Resolution Time Provider
for Windows
<>`_ by Johan Nilsson (March 2004)
* `clockspeed <>`_ uses a hardware tick
counter to compensate for a persistently fast or slow system time, by D. J. Bernstein (1998)
* `Retrieving system time
lists hardware clocks and time functions with their resolution and
epoch or range
* On Windows, the JavaScript runtime of Firefox interpolates
GetSystemTimeAsFileTime() with QueryPerformanceCounter() to get a
higher resolution. See the `Bug 363258 - bad millisecond resolution
for (new Date).getTime() / on Windows
* `When microseconds matter
<>`_: How the
IBM High Resolution Time Stamp Facility accurately measures itty
bits of time, by W. Nathaniel Mills, III (Apr 2002)
* `Win32 Performance Measurement Options
<>`_ by Matthew Wilson (May, 2003)
* `Counter Availability and Characteristics for Feed-forward Based Synchronization
by Timothy Broomhead, Julien Ridoux, Darryl Veitch (2009)
* System Management Interrupt (SMI) issues:
* `System Management Interrupt Free Hardware
by Keith Mannthey (2009)
* `IBM Real-Time "SMI Free" mode driver
<>`_ by Keith Mannthey (Feb 2009)
* `Fixing Realtime problems caused by SMI on Ubuntu
* `[RFC] simple SMI detector
<>`_ by Jon Masters (Jan 2009)
* `[PATCH 2.6.34-rc3] A nonintrusive SMI sniffer for x86
<>`_ by Joe Korty (2010-04)
The PEP was accepted on 2012-04-28 by Guido van Rossum [1]_. The PEP
implementation has since been committed to the repository.
.. [1]
This document has been placed in the public domain.
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