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PEP: 3156
Title: Asynchronous IO Support Rebooted: the "asyncio" Module
Version: $Revision$
Last-Modified: $Date$
Author: Guido van Rossum <guido@python.org>
BDFL-Delegate: Antoine Pitrou <antoine@python.org>
Discussions-To: <python-tulip@googlegroups.com>
Status: Final
Type: Standards Track
Content-Type: text/x-rst
Created: 12-Dec-2012
Post-History: 21-Dec-2012
Replaces: 3153
Resolution: https://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-dev/2013-November/130419.html
Abstract
========
This is a proposal for asynchronous I/O in Python 3, starting at
Python 3.3. Consider this the concrete proposal that is missing from
PEP 3153. The proposal includes a pluggable event loop, transport and
protocol abstractions similar to those in Twisted, and a higher-level
scheduler based on ``yield from`` (PEP 380). The proposed package
name is ``asyncio``.
Introduction
============
Status
------
A reference implementation exists under the code name Tulip. The
Tulip repo is linked from the References section at the end. Packages
based on this repo will be provided on PyPI (see References) to enable
using the ``asyncio`` package with Python 3.3 installations.
As of October 20th 2013, the ``asyncio`` package has been checked into
the Python 3.4 repository and released with Python 3.4-alpha-4, with
"provisional" API status. This is an expression of confidence and
intended to increase early feedback on the API, and not intended to
force acceptance of the PEP. The expectation is that the package will
keep provisional status in Python 3.4 and progress to final status in
Python 3.5. Development continues to occur primarily in the Tulip
repo, with changes occasionally merged into the CPython repo.
Dependencies
------------
Python 3.3 is required for many of the proposed features. The
reference implementation (Tulip) requires no new language or standard
library features beyond Python 3.3, no third-party modules or
packages, and no C code, except for the (optional) IOCP support on
Windows.
Module Namespace
----------------
The specification here lives in a new top-level package, ``asyncio``.
Different components live in separate submodules of the package. The
package will import common APIs from their respective submodules and
make them available as package attributes (similar to the way the
email package works). For such common APIs, the name of the submodule
that actually defines them is not part of the specification. Less
common APIs may have to explicitly be imported from their respective
submodule, and in this case the submodule name is part of the
specification.
Classes and functions defined without a submodule name are assumed to
live in the namespace of the top-level package. (But do not confuse
these with methods of various classes, which for brevity are also used
without a namespace prefix in certain contexts.)
Interoperability
----------------
The event loop is the place where most interoperability occurs. It
should be easy for (Python 3.3 ports of) frameworks like Twisted,
Tornado, or even gevents to either adapt the default event loop
implementation to their needs using a lightweight adapter or proxy, or
to replace the default event loop implementation with an adaptation of
their own event loop implementation. (Some frameworks, like Twisted,
have multiple event loop implementations. This should not be a
problem since these all have the same interface.)
In most cases it should be possible for two different third-party
frameworks to interoperate, either by sharing the default event loop
implementation (each using its own adapter), or by sharing the event
loop implementation of either framework. In the latter case two
levels of adaptation would occur (from framework A's event loop to the
standard event loop interface, and from there to framework B's event
loop). Which event loop implementation is used should be under
control of the main program (though a default policy for event loop
selection is provided).
For this interoperability to be effective, the preferred direction of
adaptation in third party frameworks is to keep the default event loop
and adapt it to the framework's API. Ideally all third party
frameworks would give up their own event loop implementation in favor
of the standard implementation. But not all frameworks may be
satisfied with the functionality provided by the standard
implementation.
In order to support both directions of adaptation, two separate APIs
are specified:
- An interface for managing the current event loop
- The interface of a conforming event loop
An event loop implementation may provide additional methods and
guarantees, as long as these are called out in the documentation as
non-standard. An event loop implementation may also leave certain
methods unimplemented if they cannot be implemented in the given
environment; however, such deviations from the standard API should be
considered only as a last resort, and only if the platform or
environment forces the issue. (An example would be a platform where
there is a system event loop that cannot be started or stopped; see
"Embedded Event Loops" below.)
The event loop API does not depend on ``await/yield from``. Rather, it uses
a combination of callbacks, additional interfaces (transports and
protocols), and Futures. The latter are similar to those defined in
PEP 3148, but have a different implementation and are not tied to
threads. In particular, the ``result()`` method raises an exception
instead of blocking when a result is not yet ready; the user is
expected to use callbacks (or ``await/yield from``) to wait for the result.
All event loop methods specified as returning a coroutine are allowed
to return either a Future or a coroutine, at the implementation's
choice (the standard implementation always returns coroutines). All
event loop methods documented as accepting coroutine arguments *must*
accept both Futures and coroutines for such arguments. (A convenience
function, ``ensure_future()``, exists to convert an argument that is either a
coroutine or a Future into a Future.)
For users (like myself) who don't like using callbacks, a scheduler is
provided for writing asynchronous I/O code as coroutines using the PEP
380 ``yield from`` or PEP 492 ``await`` expressions.
The scheduler is not pluggable;
pluggability occurs at the event loop level, and the standard
scheduler implementation should work with any conforming event loop
implementation. (In fact this is an important litmus test for
conforming implementations.)
For interoperability between code written using coroutines and other
async frameworks, the scheduler defines a Task class that behaves like a
Future. A framework that interoperates at the event loop level can
wait for a Future to complete by adding a callback to the Future.
Likewise, the scheduler offers an operation to suspend a coroutine
until a callback is called.
If such a framework cannot use the Future and Task classes as-is, it
may reimplement the ``loop.create_future()`` and
``loop.create_task()`` methods. These should return objects
implementing (a superset of) the Future/Task interfaces.
A less ambitious framework may just call the
``loop.set_task_factory()`` to replace the Task class without
implementing its own event loop.
The event loop API provides limited interoperability with threads:
there is an API to submit a function to an executor (see PEP 3148)
which returns a Future that is compatible with the event loop, and
there is a method to schedule a callback with an event loop from
another thread in a thread-safe manner.
Transports and Protocols
------------------------
For those not familiar with Twisted, a quick explanation of the
relationship between transports and protocols is in order. At the
highest level, the transport is concerned with *how* bytes are
transmitted, while the protocol determines *which* bytes to transmit
(and to some extent when).
A different way of saying the same thing: a transport is an
abstraction for a socket (or similar I/O endpoint) while a protocol is
an abstraction for an application, from the transport's point of view.
Yet another view is simply that the transport and protocol interfaces
*together* define an abstract interface for using network I/O and
interprocess I/O.
There is almost always a 1:1 relationship between transport and
protocol objects: the protocol calls transport methods to send data,
while the transport calls protocol methods to pass it data that has
been received. Neither transport nor protocol methods "block" -- they
set events into motion and then return.
The most common type of transport is a bidirectional stream transport.
It represents a pair of buffered streams (one in each direction) that
each transmit a sequence of bytes. The most common example of a
bidirectional stream transport is probably a TCP connection. Another
common example is an SSL/TLS connection. But there are some other things
that can be viewed this way, for example an SSH session or a pair of
UNIX pipes. Typically there aren't many different transport
implementations, and most of them come with the event loop
implementation. However, there is no requirement that all transports
must be created by calling an event loop method: a third party module
may well implement a new transport and provide a constructor or
factory function for it that simply takes an event loop as an argument
or calls ``get_event_loop()``.
Note that transports don't need to use sockets, not even if they use
TCP -- sockets are a platform-specific implementation detail.
A bidirectional stream transport has two "ends": one end talks to
the network (or another process, or whatever low-level interface it
wraps), and the other end talks to the protocol. The former uses
whatever API is necessary to implement the transport; but the
interface between transport and protocol is standardized by this PEP.
A protocol can represent some kind of "application-level" protocol
such as HTTP or SMTP; it can also implement an abstraction shared by
multiple protocols, or a whole application. A protocol's primary
interface is with the transport. While some popular protocols (and
other abstractions) may have standard implementations, often
applications implement custom protocols. It also makes sense to have
libraries of useful third party protocol implementations that can be
downloaded and installed from PyPI.
There general notion of transport and protocol includes other
interfaces, where the transport wraps some other communication
abstraction. Examples include interfaces for sending and receiving
datagrams (e.g. UDP), or a subprocess manager. The separation of
concerns is the same as for bidirectional stream transports and
protocols, but the specific interface between transport and protocol
is different in each case.
Details of the interfaces defined by the various standard types of
transports and protocols are given later.
Event Loop Interface Specification
==================================
Event Loop Policy: Getting and Setting the Current Event Loop
-------------------------------------------------------------
Event loop management is controlled by an event loop policy, which is
a global (per-process) object. There is a default policy, and an API
to change the policy. A policy defines the notion of context; a
policy manages a separate event loop per context. The default
policy's notion of context is defined as the current thread.
Certain platforms or programming frameworks may change the default
policy to something more suitable to the expectations of the users of
that platform or framework. Such platforms or frameworks must
document their policy and at what point during their initialization
sequence the policy is set, in order to avoid undefined behavior when
multiple active frameworks want to override the default policy.
(See also "Embedded Event Loops" below.)
To get the event loop for current context, use ``get_event_loop()``.
This returns an event loop object implementing the interface specified
below, or raises an exception in case no event loop has been set for
the current context and the current policy does not specify to create
one. It should never return ``None``.
To set the event loop for the current context, use
``set_event_loop(event_loop)``, where ``event_loop`` is an event loop
object, i.e. an instance of ``AbstractEventLoop``, or ``None``.
It is okay to set the current event loop to ``None``, in
which case subsequent calls to ``get_event_loop()`` will raise an
exception. This is useful for testing code that should not depend on
the existence of a default event loop.
It is expected that ``get_event_loop()`` returns a different event
loop object depending on the context (in fact, this is the definition
of context). It may create a new event loop object if none is set and
creation is allowed by the policy. The default policy will create a
new event loop only in the main thread (as defined by threading.py,
which uses a special subclass for the main thread), and only if
``get_event_loop()`` is called before ``set_event_loop()`` is ever
called. (To reset this state, reset the policy.) In other threads an
event loop must be explicitly set. Other policies may behave
differently. Event loop by the default policy creation is lazy;
i.e. the first call to ``get_event_loop()`` creates an event loop
instance if necessary and specified by the current policy.
For the benefit of unit tests and other special cases there's a third
policy function: ``new_event_loop()``, which creates and returns a new
event loop object according to the policy's default rules. To make
this the current event loop, you must call ``set_event_loop()`` with
it.
To change the event loop policy, call
``set_event_loop_policy(policy)``, where ``policy`` is an event loop
policy object or ``None``. If not ``None``, the policy object must be
an instance of ``AbstractEventLoopPolicy`` that defines methods
``get_event_loop()``, ``set_event_loop(loop)`` and
``new_event_loop()``, all behaving like the functions described above.
Passing a policy value of ``None`` restores the default event loop
policy (overriding the alternate default set by the platform or
framework). The default event loop policy is an instance of the class
``DefaultEventLoopPolicy``. The current event loop policy object can
be retrieved by calling ``get_event_loop_policy()``.
TBD: describe child watchers and UNIX quirks for subprocess processing.
Passing an Event Loop Around Explicitly
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
It is possible to write code that uses an event loop without relying
on a global or per-thread default event loop. For this purpose, all
APIs that need access to the current event loop (and aren't methods on
an event class) take an optional keyword argument named ``loop``. If
this argument is ``None`` or unspecified, such APIs will call
``get_event_loop()`` to get the default event loop, but if the
``loop`` keyword argument is set to an event loop object, they will
use that event loop, and pass it along to any other such APIs they
call. For example, ``Future(loop=my_loop)`` will create a Future tied
to the event loop ``my_loop``. When the default current event is
``None``, the ``loop`` keyword argument is effectively mandatory.
Note that an explicitly passed event loop must still belong to the
current thread; the ``loop`` keyword argument does not magically
change the constraints on how an event loop can be used.
Specifying Times
----------------
As usual in Python, all timeouts, intervals and delays are measured in
seconds, and may be ints or floats. However, absolute times are not
specified as POSIX timestamps. The accuracy, precision and epoch of
the clock are up to the implementation.
The default implementation uses ``time.monotonic()``. Books could be
written about the implications of this choice. Better read the docs
for the standard library ``time`` module.
Embedded Event Loops
--------------------
On some platforms an event loop is provided by the system. Such a
loop may already be running when the user code starts, and there may
be no way to stop or close it without exiting from the program. In
this case, the methods for starting, stopping and closing the event
loop may not be implementable, and ``is_running()`` may always return
``True``.
Event Loop Classes
------------------
There is no actual class named ``EventLoop``. There is an
``AbstractEventLoop`` class which defines all the methods without
implementations, and serves primarily as documentation. The following
concrete classes are defined:
- ``SelectorEventLoop`` is a concrete implementation of the full API
based on the ``selectors`` module (new in Python 3.4). The
constructor takes one optional argument, a ``selectors.Selector``
object. By default an instance of ``selectors.DefaultSelector`` is
created and used.
- ``ProactorEventLoop`` is a concrete implementation of the API except
for the I/O event handling and signal handling methods. It is only
defined on Windows (or on other platforms which support a similar
API for "overlapped I/O"). The constructor takes one optional
argument, a ``Proactor`` object. By default an instance of
``IocpProactor`` is created and used. (The ``IocpProactor`` class
is not specified by this PEP; it is just an implementation
detail of the ``ProactorEventLoop`` class.)
Event Loop Methods Overview
---------------------------
The methods of a conforming event loop are grouped into several
categories. The first set of categories must be supported by all
conforming event loop implementations, with the exception that
embedded event loops may not implement the methods for starting,
stopping and closing. (However, a partially-conforming event loop is
still better than nothing. :-)
- Starting, stopping and closing: ``run_forever()``,
``run_until_complete()``, ``stop()``, ``is_running()``, ``close()``,
``is_closed()``.
- Basic and timed callbacks: ``call_soon()``, ``call_later()``,
``call_at()``, ``time()``.
- Thread interaction: ``call_soon_threadsafe()``,
``run_in_executor()``, ``set_default_executor()``.
- Internet name lookups: ``getaddrinfo()``, ``getnameinfo()``.
- Internet connections: ``create_connection()``, ``create_server()``,
``create_datagram_endpoint()``.
- Wrapped socket methods: ``sock_recv()``, ``sock_sendall()``,
``sock_connect()``, ``sock_accept()``.
- Tasks and futures support: ``create_future()``, ``create_task()``,
``set_task_factory()``, ``get_task_factory()``.
- Error handling: ``get_exception_handler()``, ``set_exception_handler()``,
``default_exception_handler()``, ``call_exception_handler()``.
- Debug mode: ``get_debug()``, ``set_debug()``.
The second set of categories *may* be supported by conforming event
loop implementations. If not supported, they will raise
``NotImplementedError``. (In the default implementation,
``SelectorEventLoop`` on UNIX systems supports all of these;
``SelectorEventLoop`` on Windows supports the I/O event handling
category; ``ProactorEventLoop`` on Windows supports the pipes and
subprocess category.)
- I/O callbacks: ``add_reader()``, ``remove_reader()``,
``add_writer()``, ``remove_writer()``.
- Pipes and subprocesses: ``connect_read_pipe()``,
``connect_write_pipe()``, ``subprocess_shell()``,
``subprocess_exec()``.
- Signal callbacks: ``add_signal_handler()``,
``remove_signal_handler()``.
Event Loop Methods
------------------
Starting, Stopping and Closing
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
An (unclosed) event loop can be in one of two states: running or
stopped. These methods deal with starting and stopping an event loop:
- ``run_forever()``. Runs the event loop until ``stop()`` is called.
This cannot be called when the event loop is already running. (This
has a long name in part to avoid confusion with earlier versions of
this PEP, where ``run()`` had different behavior, in part because
there are already too many APIs that have a method named ``run()``,
and in part because there shouldn't be many places where this is
called anyway.)
- ``run_until_complete(future)``. Runs the event loop until the
Future is done. If the Future is done, its result is returned, or
its exception is raised. This cannot be called when the event loop
is already running.
The method creates a new ``Task`` object if the
parameter is a coroutine.
- ``stop()``. Stops the event loop as soon as it is convenient. It
is fine to restart the loop with ``run_forever()`` or
``run_until_complete()`` subsequently; no scheduled callbacks will
be lost if this is done. Note: ``stop()`` returns normally and the
current callback is allowed to continue. How soon after this point
the event loop stops is up to the implementation, but the intention
is to stop short of polling for I/O, and not to run any callbacks
scheduled in the future; the major freedom an implementation has is
how much of the "ready queue" (callbacks already scheduled with
``call_soon()``) it processes before stopping.
- ``is_running()``. Returns ``True`` if the event loop is currently
running, ``False`` if it is stopped.
- ``close()``. Closes the event loop, releasing any resources it may
hold, such as the file descriptor used by ``epoll()`` or
``kqueue()``, and the default executor. This should not be called
while the event loop is running. After it has been called the event
loop should not be used again. It may be called multiple times;
subsequent calls are no-ops.
- ``is_closed()``. Returns ``True`` if the event loop is closed,
``False`` otherwise. (Primarily intended for error reporting;
please don't implement functionality based on this method.)
Basic Callbacks
'''''''''''''''
Callbacks associated with the same event loop are strictly serialized:
one callback must finish before the next one will be called. This is
an important guarantee: when two or more callbacks use or modify
shared state, each callback is guaranteed that while it is running, the
shared state isn't changed by another callback.
- ``call_soon(callback, *args)``. This schedules a callback to be
called as soon as possible. Returns a ``Handle`` (see below)
representing the callback, whose ``cancel()`` method can be used to
cancel the callback. It guarantees that callbacks are called in the
order in which they were scheduled.
- ``call_later(delay, callback, *args)``. Arrange for
``callback(*args)`` to be called approximately ``delay`` seconds in
the future, once, unless cancelled. Returns a ``Handle`` representing
the callback, whose ``cancel()`` method can be used to cancel the
callback. Callbacks scheduled in the past or at exactly the same
time will be called in an undefined order.
- ``call_at(when, callback, *args)``. This is like ``call_later()``,
but the time is expressed as an absolute time. Returns a similar
``Handle``. There is a simple equivalency: ``loop.call_later(delay,
callback, *args)`` is the same as ``loop.call_at(loop.time() +
delay, callback, *args)``.
- ``time()``. Returns the current time according to the event loop's
clock. This may be ``time.time()`` or ``time.monotonic()`` or some
other system-specific clock, but it must return a float expressing
the time in units of approximately one second since some epoch.
(No clock is perfect -- see PEP 418.)
Note: A previous version of this PEP defined a method named
``call_repeatedly()``, which promised to call a callback at regular
intervals. This has been withdrawn because the design of such a
function is overspecified. On the one hand, a simple timer loop can
easily be emulated using a callback that reschedules itself using
``call_later()``; it is also easy to write coroutine containing a loop
and a ``sleep()`` call (a toplevel function in the module, see below).
On the other hand, due to the complexities of accurate timekeeping
there are many traps and pitfalls here for the unaware (see PEP 418),
and different use cases require different behavior in edge cases. It
is impossible to offer an API for this purpose that is bullet-proof in
all cases, so it is deemed better to let application designers decide
for themselves what kind of timer loop to implement.
Thread interaction
''''''''''''''''''
- ``call_soon_threadsafe(callback, *args)``. Like
``call_soon(callback, *args)``, but when called from another thread
while the event loop is blocked waiting for I/O, unblocks the event
loop. Returns a ``Handle``. This is the *only* method that is safe
to call from another thread. (To schedule a callback for a later
time in a threadsafe manner, you can use
``loop.call_soon_threadsafe(loop.call_later, when, callback,
*args)``.) Note: this is not safe to call from a signal handler
(since it may use locks). In fact, no API is signal-safe; if you
want to handle signals, use ``add_signal_handler()`` described
below.
- ``run_in_executor(executor, callback, *args)``. Arrange to call
``callback(*args)`` in an executor (see PEP 3148). Returns an
``asyncio.Future`` instance whose result on success is the return
value of that call. This is equivalent to
``wrap_future(executor.submit(callback, *args))``. If ``executor``
is ``None``, the default executor set by ``set_default_executor()``
is used. If no default executor has been set yet, a
``ThreadPoolExecutor`` with a default number of threads is created
and set as the default executor. (The default implementation uses
5 threads in this case.)
- ``set_default_executor(executor)``. Set the default executor used
by ``run_in_executor()``. The argument must be a PEP 3148
``Executor`` instance or ``None``, in order to reset the default
executor.
See also the ``wrap_future()`` function described in the section about
Futures.
Internet name lookups
'''''''''''''''''''''
These methods are useful if you want to connect or bind a socket to an
address without the risk of blocking for the name lookup. They are
usually called implicitly by ``create_connection()``,
``create_server()`` or ``create_datagram_endpoint()``.
- ``getaddrinfo(host, port, family=0, type=0, proto=0, flags=0)``.
Similar to the ``socket.getaddrinfo()`` function but returns a
Future. The Future's result on success will be a list of the same
format as returned by ``socket.getaddrinfo()``, i.e. a list of
``(address_family, socket_type, socket_protocol, canonical_name,
address)`` where ``address`` is a 2-tuple ``(ipv4_address, port)``
for IPv4 addresses and a 4-tuple ``(ipv4_address, port, flow_info,
scope_id)`` for IPv6 addresses. If the ``family`` argument is zero
or unspecified, the list returned may contain a mixture of IPv4 and
IPv6 addresses; otherwise the addresses returned are constrained by
the ``family`` value (similar for ``proto`` and ``flags``). The
default implementation calls ``socket.getaddrinfo()`` using
``run_in_executor()``, but other implementations may choose to
implement their own DNS lookup. The optional arguments *must* be
specified as keyword arguments.
Note: implementations are allowed to implement a subset of the full
socket.getaddrinfo() interface; e.g. they may not support symbolic
port names, or they may ignore or incompletely implement the
``type``, ``proto`` and ``flags`` arguments. However, if ``type``
and ``proto`` are ignored, the argument values passed in should be
copied unchanged into the return tuples' ``socket_type`` and
``socket_protocol`` elements. (You can't ignore ``family``, since
IPv4 and IPv6 addresses must be looked up differently. The only
permissible values for ``family`` are ``socket.AF_UNSPEC`` (``0``),
``socket.AF_INET`` and ``socket.AF_INET6``, and the latter only if
it is defined by the platform.)
- ``getnameinfo(sockaddr, flags=0)``. Similar to
``socket.getnameinfo()`` but returns a Future. The Future's result
on success will be a tuple ``(host, port)``. Same implementation
remarks as for ``getaddrinfo()``.
Internet connections
''''''''''''''''''''
These are the high-level interfaces for managing internet connections.
Their use is recommended over the corresponding lower-level interfaces
because they abstract away the differences between selector-based
and proactor-based event loops.
Note that the client and server side of stream connections use the
same transport and protocol interface. However, datagram endpoints
use a different transport and protocol interface.
- ``create_connection(protocol_factory, host, port, <options>)``.
Creates a stream connection to a given internet host and port. This
is a task that is typically called from the client side of the
connection. It creates an implementation-dependent bidirectional
stream Transport to represent the connection, then calls
``protocol_factory()`` to instantiate (or retrieve) the user's
Protocol implementation, and finally ties the two together. (See
below for the definitions of Transport and Protocol.) The user's
Protocol implementation is created or retrieved by calling
``protocol_factory()`` without arguments(*). The coroutine's result
on success is the ``(transport, protocol)`` pair; if a failure
prevents the creation of a successful connection, an appropriate
exception will be raised. Note that when the coroutine completes,
the protocol's ``connection_made()`` method has not yet been called;
that will happen when the connection handshake is complete.
(*) There is no requirement that ``protocol_factory`` is a class.
If your protocol class needs to have specific arguments passed to
its constructor, you can use ``lambda``.
You can also pass a trivial ``lambda`` that returns a previously
constructed Protocol instance.
The <options> are all specified using optional keyword arguments:
- ``ssl``: Pass ``True`` to create an SSL/TLS transport (by default
a plain TCP transport is created). Or pass an ``ssl.SSLContext``
object to override the default SSL context object to be used. If
a default context is created it is up to the implementation to
configure reasonable defaults. The reference implementation
currently uses ``PROTOCOL_SSLv23`` and sets the ``OP_NO_SSLv2``
option, calls ``set_default_verify_paths()`` and sets ``verify_mode``
to ``CERT_REQUIRED``. In addition, whenever the context (default
or otherwise) specifies a ``verify_mode`` of ``CERT_REQUIRED`` or
``CERT_OPTIONAL``, if a hostname is given, immediately after a
successful handshake ``ssl.match_hostname(peercert, hostname)`` is
called, and if this raises an exception the connection is closed.
(To avoid this behavior, pass in an SSL context that has
``verify_mode`` set to ``CERT_NONE``. But this means you are not
secure, and vulnerable to for example man-in-the-middle attacks.)
- ``family``, ``proto``, ``flags``: Address family, protocol and
flags to be passed through to ``getaddrinfo()``. These all
default to ``0``, which means "not specified". (The socket type
is always ``SOCK_STREAM``.) If any of these values are not
specified, the ``getaddrinfo()`` method will choose appropriate
values. Note: ``proto`` has nothing to do with the high-level
Protocol concept or the ``protocol_factory`` argument.
- ``sock``: An optional socket to be used instead of using the
``host``, ``port``, ``family``, ``proto`` and ``flags``
arguments. If this is given, ``host`` and ``port`` must be
explicitly set to ``None``.
- ``local_addr``: If given, a ``(host, port)`` tuple used to bind
the socket to locally. This is rarely needed but on multi-homed
servers you occasionally need to force a connection to come from a
specific address. This is how you would do that. The host and
port are looked up using ``getaddrinfo()``.
- ``server_hostname``: This is only relevant when using SSL/TLS; it
should not be used when ``ssl`` is not set. When ``ssl`` is set,
this sets or overrides the hostname that will be verified. By
default the value of the ``host`` argument is used. If ``host``
is empty, there is no default and you must pass a value for
``server_hostname``. To disable hostname verification (which is a
serious security risk) you must pass an empty string here and pass
an ``ssl.SSLContext`` object whose ``verify_mode`` is set to
``ssl.CERT_NONE`` as the ``ssl`` argument.
- ``create_server(protocol_factory, host, port, <options>)``.
Enters a serving loop that accepts connections.
This is a coroutine that completes once the serving loop is set up
to serve. The return value is a ``Server`` object which can be used
to stop the serving loop in a controlled fashion (see below).
Multiple sockets may be bound if the specified address allows
both IPv4 and IPv6 connections.
Each time a connection is accepted,
``protocol_factory`` is called without arguments(**) to create a
Protocol, a bidirectional stream Transport is created to represent
the network side of the connection, and the two are tied together by
calling ``protocol.connection_made(transport)``.
(**) See previous footnote for ``create_connection()``. However, since
``protocol_factory()`` is called once for each new incoming
connection, it should return a new Protocol object each time it is
called.
The <options> are all specified using optional keyword arguments:
- ``ssl``: Pass an ``ssl.SSLContext`` object (or an object with the
same interface) to override the default SSL context object to be
used. (Unlike for ``create_connection()``, passing ``True`` does
not make sense here -- the ``SSLContext`` object is needed to
specify the certificate and key.)
- ``backlog``: Backlog value to be passed to the ``listen()`` call.
The default is implementation-dependent; in the default
implementation the default value is ``100``.
- ``reuse_address``: Whether to set the ``SO_REUSEADDR`` option on
the socket. The default is ``True`` on UNIX, ``False`` on
Windows.
- ``family``, ``flags``: Address family and flags to be passed
through to ``getaddrinfo()``. The family defaults to
``AF_UNSPEC``; the flags default to ``AI_PASSIVE``. (The socket
type is always ``SOCK_STREAM``; the socket protocol always set to
``0``, to let ``getaddrinfo()`` choose.)
- ``sock``: An optional socket to be used instead of using the
``host``, ``port``, ``family`` and ``flags`` arguments. If this
is given, ``host`` and ``port`` must be explicitly set to ``None``.
- ``create_datagram_endpoint(protocol_factory, local_addr=None,
remote_addr=None, <options>)``. Creates an endpoint for sending and
receiving datagrams (typically UDP packets). Because of the nature
of datagram traffic, there are no separate calls to set up client
and server side, since usually a single endpoint acts as both client
and server. This is a coroutine that returns a ``(transport,
protocol)`` pair on success, or raises an exception on failure. If
the coroutine returns successfully, the transport will call
callbacks on the protocol whenever a datagram is received or the
socket is closed; it is up to the protocol to call methods on the
protocol to send datagrams. The transport returned is a
``DatagramTransport``. The protocol returned is a
``DatagramProtocol``. These are described later.
Mandatory positional argument:
- ``protocol_factory``: A class or factory function that will be
called exactly once, without arguments, to construct the protocol
object to be returned. The interface between datagram transport
and protocol is described below.
Optional arguments that may be specified positionally or as keyword
arguments:
- ``local_addr``: An optional tuple indicating the address to which
the socket will be bound. If given this must be a ``(host,
port)`` pair. It will be passed to ``getaddrinfo()`` to be
resolved and the result will be passed to the ``bind()`` method of
the socket created. If ``getaddrinfo()`` returns more than one
address, they will be tried in turn. If omitted, no ``bind()``
call will be made.
- ``remote_addr``: An optional tuple indicating the address to which
the socket will be "connected". (Since there is no such thing as
a datagram connection, this just specifies a default value for the
destination address of outgoing datagrams.) If given this must be
a ``(host, port)`` pair. It will be passed to ``getaddrinfo()``
to be resolved and the result will be passed to ``sock_connect()``
together with the socket created. If ``getaddrinfo()`` returns
more than one address, they will be tried in turn. If omitted,
no ``sock_connect()`` call will be made.
The <options> are all specified using optional keyword arguments:
- ``family``, ``proto``, ``flags``: Address family, protocol and
flags to be passed through to ``getaddrinfo()``. These all
default to ``0``, which means "not specified". (The socket type
is always ``SOCK_DGRAM``.) If any of these values are not
specified, the ``getaddrinfo()`` method will choose appropriate
values.
Note that if both ``local_addr`` and ``remote_addr`` are present,
all combinations of local and remote addresses with matching address
family will be tried.
Wrapped Socket Methods
''''''''''''''''''''''
The following methods for doing async I/O on sockets are not for
general use. They are primarily meant for transport implementations
working with IOCP through the ``ProactorEventLoop`` class. However,
they are easily implementable for other event loop types, so there is
no reason not to require them. The socket argument has to be a
non-blocking socket.
- ``sock_recv(sock, n)``. Receive up to ``n`` bytes from socket
``sock``. Returns a Future whose result on success will be a
bytes object.
- ``sock_sendall(sock, data)``. Send bytes ``data`` to socket
``sock``. Returns a Future whose result on success will be
``None``. Note: the name uses ``sendall`` instead of ``send``, to
reflect that the semantics and signature of this method echo those
of the standard library socket method ``sendall()`` rather than
``send()``.
- ``sock_connect(sock, address)``. Connect to the given address.
Returns a Future whose result on success will be ``None``.
- ``sock_accept(sock)``. Accept a connection from a socket. The
socket must be in listening mode and bound to an address. Returns a
Future whose result on success will be a tuple ``(conn, peer)``
where ``conn`` is a connected non-blocking socket and ``peer`` is
the peer address.
I/O Callbacks
'''''''''''''
These methods are primarily meant for transport implementations
working with a selector. They are implemented by
``SelectorEventLoop`` but not by ``ProactorEventLoop``. Custom event
loop implementations may or may not implement them.
The ``fd`` arguments below may be integer file descriptors, or
"file-like" objects with a ``fileno()`` method that wrap integer file
descriptors. Not all file-like objects or file descriptors are
acceptable. Sockets (and socket file descriptors) are always
accepted. On Windows no other types are supported. On UNIX, pipes
and possibly tty devices are also supported, but disk files are not.
Exactly which special file types are supported may vary by platform
and per selector implementation. (Experimentally, there is at least
one kind of pseudo-tty on OS X that is supported by ``select`` and
``poll`` but not by ``kqueue``: it is used by Emacs shell windows.)
- ``add_reader(fd, callback, *args)``. Arrange for
``callback(*args)`` to be called whenever file descriptor ``fd`` is
deemed ready for reading. Calling ``add_reader()`` again for the
same file descriptor implies a call to ``remove_reader()`` for the
same file descriptor.
- ``add_writer(fd, callback, *args)``. Like ``add_reader()``,
but registers the callback for writing instead of for reading.
- ``remove_reader(fd)``. Cancels the current read callback for file
descriptor ``fd``, if one is set. If no callback is currently set
for the file descriptor, this is a no-op and returns ``False``.
Otherwise, it removes the callback arrangement and returns ``True``.
- ``remove_writer(fd)``. This is to ``add_writer()`` as
``remove_reader()`` is to ``add_reader()``.
Pipes and Subprocesses
''''''''''''''''''''''
These methods are supported by ``SelectorEventLoop`` on UNIX and
``ProactorEventLoop`` on Windows.
The transports and protocols used with pipes and subprocesses differ
from those used with regular stream connections. These are described
later.
Each of the methods below has a ``protocol_factory`` argument, similar
to ``create_connection()``; this will be called exactly once, without
arguments, to construct the protocol object to be returned.
Each method is a coroutine that returns a ``(transport, protocol)``
pair on success, or raises an exception on failure.
- ``connect_read_pipe(protocol_factory, pipe)``: Create a
unidrectional stream connection from a file-like object wrapping the
read end of a UNIX pipe, which must be in non-blocking mode. The
transport returned is a ``ReadTransport``.
- ``connect_write_pipe(protocol_factory, pipe)``: Create a
unidrectional stream connection from a file-like object wrapping the
write end of a UNIX pipe, which must be in non-blocking mode. The
transport returned is a ``WriteTransport``; it does not have any
read-related methods. The protocol returned is a ``BaseProtocol``.
- ``subprocess_shell(protocol_factory, cmd, <options>)``: Create a
subprocess from ``cmd``, which is a string using the platform's
"shell" syntax. This is similar to the standard library
``subprocess.Popen()`` class called with ``shell=True``. The
remaining arguments and return value are described below.
- ``subprocess_exec(protocol_factory, *args, <options>)``: Create a
subprocess from one or more string arguments, where the first string
specifies the program to execute, and the remaining strings specify
the program's arguments. (Thus, together the string arguments form
the ``sys.argv`` value of the program, assuming it is a Python
script.) This is similar to the standard library
``subprocess.Popen()`` class called with ``shell=False`` and the
list of strings passed as the first argument; however, where
``Popen()`` takes a single argument which is list of strings,
``subprocess_exec()`` takes multiple string arguments. The
remaining arguments and return value are described below.
Apart from the way the program to execute is specified, the two
``subprocess_*()`` methods behave the same. The transport returned is
a ``SubprocessTransport`` which has a different interface than the
common bidirectional stream transport. The protocol returned is a
``SubprocessProtocol`` which also has a custom interface.
The <options> are all specified using optional keyword arguments:
- ``stdin``: Either a file-like object representing the pipe to be
connected to the subprocess's standard input stream using
``connect_write_pipe()``, or the constant ``subprocess.PIPE`` (the
default). By default a new pipe will be created and connected.
- ``stdout``: Either a file-like object representing the pipe to be
connected to the subprocess's standard output stream using
``connect_read_pipe()``, or the constant ``subprocess.PIPE`` (the
default). By default a new pipe will be created and connected.
- ``stderr``: Either a file-like object representing the pipe to be
connected to the subprocess's standard error stream using
``connect_read_pipe()``, or one of the constants ``subprocess.PIPE``
(the default) or ``subprocess.STDOUT``. By default a new pipe will
be created and connected. When ``subprocess.STDOUT`` is specified,
the subprocess's standard error stream will be connected to the same
pipe as the standard output stream.
- ``bufsize``: The buffer size to be used when creating a pipe; this
is passed to ``subprocess.Popen()``. In the default implementation
this defaults to zero, and on Windows it must be zero; these
defaults deviate from ``subprocess.Popen()``.
- ``executable``, ``preexec_fn``, ``close_fds``, ``cwd``, ``env``,
``startupinfo``, ``creationflags``, ``restore_signals``,
``start_new_session``, ``pass_fds``: These optional arguments are
passed to ``subprocess.Popen()`` without interpretation.
Signal callbacks
''''''''''''''''
These methods are only supported on UNIX.
- ``add_signal_handler(sig, callback, *args)``. Whenever signal
``sig`` is received, arrange for ``callback(*args)`` to be called.
Specifying another callback for the same signal replaces the
previous handler (only one handler can be active per signal). The
``sig`` must be a valid signal number defined in the ``signal``
module. If the signal cannot be handled this raises an exception:
``ValueError`` if it is not a valid signal or if it is an
uncatchable signal (e.g. ``SIGKILL``), ``RuntimeError`` if this
particular event loop instance cannot handle signals (since signals
are global per process, only an event loop associated with the main
thread can handle signals).
- ``remove_signal_handler(sig)``. Removes the handler for signal
``sig``, if one is set. Raises the same exceptions as
``add_signal_handler()`` (except that it may return ``False``
instead raising ``RuntimeError`` for uncatchable signals). Returns
``True`` if a handler was removed successfully, ``False`` if no
handler was set.
Note: If these methods are statically known to be unsupported, they
may raise ``NotImplementedError`` instead of ``RuntimeError``.
Mutual Exclusion of Callbacks
-----------------------------
An event loop should enforce mutual exclusion of callbacks, i.e. it
should never start a callback while a previously callback is still
running. This should apply across all types of callbacks, regardless
of whether they are scheduled using ``call_soon()``, ``call_later()``,
``call_at()``, ``call_soon_threadsafe()``, ``add_reader()``,
``add_writer()``, or ``add_signal_handler()``.
Exceptions
----------
There are two categories of exceptions in Python: those that derive
from the ``Exception`` class and those that derive from
``BaseException``. Exceptions deriving from ``Exception`` will
generally be caught and handled appropriately; for example, they will
be passed through by Futures, and they will be logged and ignored when
they occur in a callback.
However, exceptions deriving only from ``BaseException`` are typically
not caught, and will usually cause the program to terminate with a
traceback. In some cases they are caught and re-raised. (Examples of
this category include ``KeyboardInterrupt`` and ``SystemExit``; it is
usually unwise to treat these the same as most other exceptions.)
The event loop passes the latter category into its *exception
handler*. This is a callback which accepts a *context* dict as a
parameter::
def exception_handler(context):
...
*context* may have many different keys but several of them are very
widely used:
- ``'message'``: error message.
- ``'exception'``: exception instance; ``None`` if there is no
exception.
- ``'source_traceback'``: a list of strings representing stack at the
point the object involved in the error was created.
- ``'handle_traceback'``: a list of strings representing the stack at
the moment the handle involved in the error was created.
The loop has the following methods related to exception handling:
- ``get_exception_handler()`` returns the current exception handler
registered for the loop.
- ``set_exception_handler(handler)`` sets the exception handler.
- ``default_exception_handler(context)`` the *default* exception
handler for this loop implementation.
- ``call_exception_handler(context)`` passes *context* into the
registered exception handler. This allows handling uncaught
exceptions uniformly by third-party libraries.
The loop uses ``default_exception_handler()`` if the default was not
overridden by explicit ``set_exception_handler()`` call.
Debug Mode
----------
By default the loop operates in *release* mode. Applications may
enable *debug* mode better error reporting at the cost of some
performance.
In debug mode many additional checks are enabled, for example:
- Source tracebacks are available for unhandled exceptions in futures/tasks.
- The loop checks for slow callbacks to detect accidental blocking for I/O.
The ``loop.slow_callback_duration`` attribute controls the maximum
execution time allowed between two *yield points* before a slow
callback is reported. The default value is 0.1 seconds; it may be
changed by assigning to it.
There are two methods related to debug mode:
- ``get_debug()`` returns ``True`` if *debug* mode is enabled,
``False`` otherwise.
- ``set_debug(enabled)`` enables *debug* mode if the argument is ``True``.
Debug mode is automatically enabled if the ``PYTHONASYNCIODEBUG``
*environment variable* is defined and not empty.
Handles
-------
The various methods for registering one-off callbacks
(``call_soon()``, ``call_later()``, ``call_at()`` and
``call_soon_threadsafe()``) all return an object representing the
registration that can be used to cancel the callback. This object is
called a ``Handle``. Handles are opaque and have only one public
method:
- ``cancel()``: Cancel the callback.
Note that ``add_reader()``, ``add_writer()`` and
``add_signal_handler()`` do not return Handles.
Servers
-------
The ``create_server()`` method returns a ``Server`` instance, which
wraps the sockets (or other network objects) used to accept requests.
This class has two public methods:
- ``close()``: Close the service. This stops accepting new requests
but does not cancel requests that have already been accepted and are
currently being handled.
- ``wait_closed()``: A coroutine that blocks until the service is
closed and all accepted requests have been handled.
Futures
-------
The ``asyncio.Future`` class here is intentionally similar to the
``concurrent.futures.Future`` class specified by PEP 3148, but there
are slight differences. Whenever this PEP talks about Futures or
futures this should be understood to refer to ``asyncio.Future`` unless
``concurrent.futures.Future`` is explicitly mentioned. The supported
public API is as follows, indicating the differences with PEP 3148:
- ``cancel()``. If the Future is already done (or cancelled), do
nothing and return ``False``. Otherwise, this attempts to cancel
the Future and returns ``True``. If the cancellation attempt is
successful, eventually the Future's state will change to cancelled
(so that ``cancelled()`` will return ``True``)
and the callbacks will be scheduled. For regular Futures,
cancellation will always succeed immediately; but for Tasks (see
below) the task may ignore or delay the cancellation attempt.
- ``cancelled()``. Returns ``True`` if the Future was successfully
cancelled.
- ``done()``. Returns ``True`` if the Future is done. Note that a
cancelled Future is considered done too (here and everywhere).
- ``result()``. Returns the result set with ``set_result()``, or
raises the exception set with ``set_exception()``. Raises
``CancelledError`` if cancelled. Difference with PEP 3148: This has
no timeout argument and does *not* wait; if the future is not yet
done, it raises an exception.
- ``exception()``. Returns the exception if set with
``set_exception()``, or ``None`` if a result was set with
``set_result()``. Raises ``CancelledError`` if cancelled.
Difference with PEP 3148: This has no timeout argument and does
*not* wait; if the future is not yet done, it raises an exception.
- ``add_done_callback(fn)``. Add a callback to be run when the Future
becomes done (or is cancelled). If the Future is already done (or
cancelled), schedules the callback to using ``call_soon()``.
Difference with PEP 3148: The callback is never called immediately,
and always in the context of the caller -- typically this is a
thread. You can think of this as calling the callback through
``call_soon()``. Note that in order to match PEP 3148, the callback
(unlike all other callbacks defined in this PEP, and ignoring the
convention from the section "Callback Style" below) is always called
with a single argument, the Future object. (The motivation for
strictly serializing callbacks scheduled with ``call_soon()``
applies here too.)
- ``remove_done_callback(fn)``. Remove the argument from the list of
callbacks. This method is not defined by PEP 3148. The argument
must be equal (using ``==``) to the argument passed to
``add_done_callback()``. Returns the number of times the callback
was removed.
- ``set_result(result)``. The Future must not be done (nor cancelled)
already. This makes the Future done and schedules the callbacks.
Difference with PEP 3148: This is a public API.
- ``set_exception(exception)``. The Future must not be done (nor
cancelled) already. This makes the Future done and schedules the
callbacks. Difference with PEP 3148: This is a public API.
The internal method ``set_running_or_notify_cancel()`` is not
supported; there is no way to set the running state. Likewise,
the method ``running()`` is not supported.
The following exceptions are defined:
- ``InvalidStateError``. Raised whenever the Future is not in a state
acceptable to the method being called (e.g. calling ``set_result()``
on a Future that is already done, or calling ``result()`` on a Future
that is not yet done).
- ``InvalidTimeoutError``. Raised by ``result()`` and ``exception()``
when a nonzero ``timeout`` argument is given.
- ``CancelledError``. An alias for
``concurrent.futures.CancelledError``. Raised when ``result()`` or
``exception()`` is called on a Future that is cancelled.
- ``TimeoutError``. An alias for ``concurrent.futures.TimeoutError``.
May be raised by ``run_until_complete()``.
A Future is associated with an event loop when it is created.
A ``asyncio.Future`` object is not acceptable to the ``wait()`` and
``as_completed()`` functions in the ``concurrent.futures`` package.
However, there are similar APIs ``asyncio.wait()`` and
``asyncio.as_completed()``, described below.
A ``asyncio.Future`` object is acceptable to a ``yield from`` expression
when used in a coroutine. This is implemented through the
``__iter__()`` interface on the Future. See the section "Coroutines
and the Scheduler" below.
When a Future is garbage-collected, if it has an associated exception
but neither ``result()`` nor ``exception()`` has ever been called, the
exception is logged. (When a coroutine uses ``yield from`` to wait
for a Future, that Future's ``result()`` method is called once the
coroutine is resumed.)
In the future (pun intended) we may unify ``asyncio.Future`` and
``concurrent.futures.Future``, e.g. by adding an ``__iter__()`` method
to the latter that works with ``yield from``. To prevent accidentally
blocking the event loop by calling e.g. ``result()`` on a Future
that's not done yet, the blocking operation may detect that an event
loop is active in the current thread and raise an exception instead.
However the current PEP strives to have no dependencies beyond Python
3.3, so changes to ``concurrent.futures.Future`` are off the table for
now.
There are some public functions related to Futures:
- ``asyncio.async(arg)``. This takes an argument that is either a
coroutine object or a Future (i.e., anything you can use with
``yield from``) and returns a Future. If the argument is a Future,
it is returned unchanged; if it is a coroutine object, it wraps it
in a Task (remember that ``Task`` is a subclass of ``Future``).
- ``asyncio.wrap_future(future)``. This takes a PEP 3148 Future
(i.e., an instance of ``concurrent.futures.Future``) and returns a
Future compatible with the event loop (i.e., a ``asyncio.Future``
instance).
Transports
----------
Transports and protocols are strongly influenced by Twisted and PEP
3153. Users rarely implement or instantiate transports -- rather,
event loops offer utility methods to set up transports.
Transports work in conjunction with protocols. Protocols are
typically written without knowing or caring about the exact type of
transport used, and transports can be used with a wide variety of
protocols. For example, an HTTP client protocol implementation may be
used with either a plain socket transport or an SSL/TLS transport.
The plain socket transport can be used with many different protocols
besides HTTP (e.g. SMTP, IMAP, POP, FTP, IRC, SPDY).
The most common type of transport is a bidirectional stream transport.
There are also unidirectional stream transports (used for pipes) and
datagram transports (used by the ``create_datagram_endpoint()``
method).
Methods For All Transports
''''''''''''''''''''''''''
- ``get_extra_info(name, default=None)``. This is a catch-all method
that returns implementation-specific information about a transport.
The first argument is the name of the extra field to be retrieved.
The optional second argument is a default value to be returned.
Consult the implementation documentation to find out the supported
extra field names. For an unsupported name, the default is always
returned.
Bidirectional Stream Transports
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
A bidirectional stream transport is an abstraction on top of a socket
or something similar (for example, a pair of UNIX pipes or an SSL/TLS
connection).
Most connections have an asymmetric nature: the client and server
usually have very different roles and behaviors. Hence, the interface
between transport and protocol is also asymmetric. From the
protocol's point of view, *writing* data is done by calling the
``write()`` method on the transport object; this buffers the data and
returns immediately. However, the transport takes a more active role
in *reading* data: whenever some data is read from the socket (or
other data source), the transport calls the protocol's
``data_received()`` method.
Nevertheless, the interface between transport and protocol used by
bidirectional streams is the same for clients as it is for servers,
since the connection between a client and a server is essentially a
pair of streams, one in each direction.
Bidirectional stream transports have the following public methods:
- ``write(data)``. Write some bytes. The argument must be a bytes
object. Returns ``None``. The transport is free to buffer the
bytes, but it must eventually cause the bytes to be transferred to
the entity at the other end, and it must maintain stream behavior.
That is, ``t.write(b'abc'); t.write(b'def')`` is equivalent to
``t.write(b'abcdef')``, as well as to::
t.write(b'a')
t.write(b'b')
t.write(b'c')
t.write(b'd')
t.write(b'e')
t.write(b'f')
- ``writelines(iterable)``. Equivalent to::
for data in iterable:
self.write(data)
- ``write_eof()``. Close the writing end of the connection.
Subsequent calls to ``write()`` are not allowed. Once all buffered
data is transferred, the transport signals to the other end that no
more data will be received. Some protocols don't support this
operation; in that case, calling ``write_eof()`` will raise an
exception. (Note: This used to be called ``half_close()``, but
unless you already know what it is for, that name doesn't indicate
*which* end is closed.)
- ``can_write_eof()``. Return ``True`` if the protocol supports
``write_eof()``, ``False`` if it does not. (This method typically
returns a fixed value that depends only on the specific Transport
class, not on the state of the Transport object. It is needed
because some protocols need to change their behavior when
``write_eof()`` is unavailable. For example, in HTTP, to send data
whose size is not known ahead of time, the end of the data is
typically indicated using ``write_eof()``; however, SSL/TLS does not
support this, and an HTTP protocol implementation would have to use
the "chunked" transfer encoding in this case. But if the data size
is known ahead of time, the best approach in both cases is to use
the Content-Length header.)
- ``get_write_buffer_size()``. Return the current size of the
transport's write buffer in bytes. This only knows about the write
buffer managed explicitly by the transport; buffering in other
layers of the network stack or elsewhere of the network is not
reported.
- ``set_write_buffer_limits(high=None, low=None)``. Set the high- and
low-water limits for flow control.
These two values control when to call the protocol's
``pause_writing()`` and ``resume_writing()`` methods. If specified,
the low-water limit must be less than or equal to the high-water
limit. Neither value can be negative.
The defaults are implementation-specific. If only the high-water
limit is given, the low-water limit defaults to a
implementation-specific value less than or equal to the high-water
limit. Setting high to zero forces low to zero as well, and causes
``pause_writing()`` to be called whenever the buffer becomes
non-empty. Setting low to zero causes ``resume_writing()`` to be
called only once the buffer is empty. Use of zero for either limit
is generally sub-optimal as it reduces opportunities for doing I/O
and computation concurrently.
- ``pause_reading()``. Suspend delivery of data to the protocol until
a subsequent ``resume_reading()`` call. Between ``pause_reading()``
and ``resume_reading()``, the protocol's ``data_received()`` method
will not be called.
- ``resume_reading()``. Restart delivery of data to the protocol via
``data_received()``. Note that "paused" is a binary state --
``pause_reading()`` should only be called when the transport is not
paused, while ``resume_reading()`` should only be called when the
transport is paused.
- ``close()``. Sever the connection with the entity at the other end.
Any data buffered by ``write()`` will (eventually) be transferred
before the connection is actually closed. The protocol's
``data_received()`` method will not be called again. Once all
buffered data has been flushed, the protocol's ``connection_lost()``
method will be called with ``None`` as the argument. Note that
this method does not wait for all that to happen.
- ``abort()``. Immediately sever the connection. Any data still
buffered by the transport is thrown away. Soon, the protocol's
``connection_lost()`` method will be called with ``None`` as
argument.
Unidirectional Stream Transports
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
A writing stream transport supports the ``write()``, ``writelines()``,
``write_eof()``, ``can_write_eof()``, ``close()`` and ``abort()`` methods
described for bidirectional stream transports.
A reading stream transport supports the ``pause_reading()``,
``resume_reading()`` and ``close()`` methods described for
bidirectional stream transports.
A writing stream transport calls only ``connection_made()`` and
``connection_lost()`` on its associated protocol.
A reading stream transport can call all protocol methods specified in
the Protocols section below (i.e., the previous two plus
``data_received()`` and ``eof_received()``).
Datagram Transports
'''''''''''''''''''
Datagram transports have these methods:
- ``sendto(data, addr=None)``. Sends a datagram (a bytes object).
The optional second argument is the destination address. If
omitted, ``remote_addr`` must have been specified in the
``create_datagram_endpoint()`` call that created this transport. If
present, and ``remote_addr`` was specified, they must match. The
(data, addr) pair may be sent immediately or buffered. The return
value is ``None``.
- ``abort()``. Immediately close the transport. Buffered data will
be discarded.
- ``close()``. Close the transport. Buffered data will be
transmitted asynchronously.
Datagram transports call the following methods on the associated
protocol object: ``connection_made()``, ``connection_lost()``,
``error_received()`` and ``datagram_received()``. ("Connection"
in these method names is a slight misnomer, but the concepts still
exist: ``connection_made()`` means the transport representing the
endpoint has been created, and ``connection_lost()`` means the
transport is closed.)
Subprocess Transports
'''''''''''''''''''''
Subprocess transports have the following methods:
- ``get_pid()``. Return the process ID of the subprocess.
- ``get_returncode()``. Return the process return code, if the
process has exited; otherwise ``None``.
- ``get_pipe_transport(fd)``. Return the pipe transport (a
unidirectional stream transport) corresponding to the argument,
which should be 0, 1 or 2 representing stdin, stdout or stderr (of
the subprocess). If there is no such pipe transport, return
``None``. For stdin, this is a writing transport; for stdout and
stderr this is a reading transport. You must use this method to get
a transport you can use to write to the subprocess's stdin.
- ``send_signal(signal)``. Send a signal to the subprocess.
- ``terminate()``. Terminate the subprocess.
- ``kill()``. Kill the subprocess. On Windows this is an alias for
``terminate()``.
- ``close()``. This is an alias for ``terminate()``.
Note that ``send_signal()``, ``terminate()`` and ``kill()`` wrap the
corresponding methods in the standard library ``subprocess`` module.
Protocols
---------
Protocols are always used in conjunction with transports. While a few
common protocols are provided (e.g. decent though not necessarily
excellent HTTP client and server implementations), most protocols will
be implemented by user code or third-party libraries.
Like for transports, we distinguish between stream protocols, datagram
protocols, and perhaps other custom protocols. The most common type
of protocol is a bidirectional stream protocol. (There are no
unidirectional protocols.)
Stream Protocols
''''''''''''''''
A (bidirectional) stream protocol must implement the following
methods, which will be called by the transport. Think of these as
callbacks that are always called by the event loop in the right
context. (See the "Context" section way above.)
- ``connection_made(transport)``. Indicates that the transport is
ready and connected to the entity at the other end. The protocol
should probably save the transport reference as an instance variable
(so it can call its ``write()`` and other methods later), and may
write an initial greeting or request at this point.
- ``data_received(data)``. The transport has read some bytes from the
connection. The argument is always a non-empty bytes object. There
are no guarantees about the minimum or maximum size of the data
passed along this way. ``p.data_received(b'abcdef')`` should be
treated exactly equivalent to::
p.data_received(b'abc')
p.data_received(b'def')
- ``eof_received()``. This is called when the other end called
``write_eof()`` (or something equivalent). If this returns a false
value (including ``None``), the transport will close itself. If it
returns a true value, closing the transport is up to the protocol.
However, for SSL/TLS connections this is ignored, because the TLS
standard requires that no more data is sent and the connection is
closed as soon as a "closure alert" is received.
The default implementation returns ``None``.
- ``pause_writing()``. Asks that the protocol temporarily stop
writing data to the transport. Heeding the request is optional, but
the transport's buffer may grow without bounds if you keep writing.
The buffer size at which this is called can be controlled through
the transport's ``set_write_buffer_limits()`` method.
- ``resume_writing()``. Tells the protocol that it is safe to start
writing data to the transport again. Note that this may be called
directly by the transport's ``write()`` method (as opposed to being
called indirectly using ``call_soon()``), so that the protocol may
be aware of its paused state immediately after ``write()`` returns.
- ``connection_lost(exc)``. The transport has been closed or aborted,
has detected that the other end has closed the connection cleanly,
or has encountered an unexpected error. In the first three cases
the argument is ``None``; for an unexpected error, the argument is
the exception that caused the transport to give up.
Here is a table indicating the order and multiplicity of the basic
calls:
1. ``connection_made()`` -- exactly once
2. ``data_received()`` -- zero or more times
3. ``eof_received()`` -- at most once
4. ``connection_lost()`` -- exactly once
Calls to ``pause_writing()`` and ``resume_writing()`` occur in pairs
and only between #1 and #4. These pairs will not be nested. The
final ``resume_writing()`` call may be omitted; i.e. a paused
connection may be lost and never be resumed.
Datagram Protocols
''''''''''''''''''
Datagram protocols have ``connection_made()`` and
``connection_lost()`` methods with the same signatures as stream
protocols. (As explained in the section about datagram transports, we
prefer the slightly odd nomenclature over defining different method
names to indicating the opening and closing of the socket.)
In addition, they have the following methods:
- ``datagram_received(data, addr)``. Indicates that a datagram
``data`` (a bytes objects) was received from remote address ``addr``
(an IPv4 2-tuple or an IPv6 4-tuple).
- ``error_received(exc)``. Indicates that a send or receive operation
raised an ``OSError`` exception. Since datagram errors may be
transient, it is up to the protocol to call the transport's
``close()`` method if it wants to close the endpoint.
Here is a chart indicating the order and multiplicity of calls:
1. ``connection_made()`` -- exactly once
2. ``datagram_received()``, ``error_received()`` -- zero or more times
3. ``connection_lost()`` -- exactly once
Subprocess Protocol
'''''''''''''''''''
Subprocess protocols have ``connection_made()``, ``connection_lost()``,
``pause_writing()`` and ``resume_writing()`` methods with the same
signatures as stream protocols. In addition, they have the following
methods:
- ``pipe_data_received(fd, data)``. Called when the subprocess writes
data to its stdout or stderr. ``fd`` is the file descriptor (1 for
stdout, 2 for stderr). ``data`` is a ``bytes`` object.
- ``pipe_connection_lost(fd, exc)``. Called when the subprocess
closes its stdin, stdout or stderr. ``fd`` is the file descriptor.
``exc`` is an exception or ``None``.
- ``process_exited()``. Called when the subprocess has exited. To
retrieve the exit status, use the transport's ``get_returncode()``
method.
Note that depending on the behavior of the subprocess it is possible
that ``process_exited()`` is called either before or after
``pipe_connection_lost()``. For example, if the subprocess creates a
sub-subprocess that shares its stdin/stdout/stderr and then itself
exits, ``process_exited()`` may be called while all the pipes are
still open. On the other hand, when the subprocess closes its
stdin/stdout/stderr but does not exit, ``pipe_connection_lost()`` may
be called for all three pipes without ``process_exited()`` being
called. If (as is the more common case) the subprocess exits and
thereby implicitly closes all pipes, the calling order is undefined.
Callback Style
--------------
Most interfaces taking a callback also take positional arguments. For
instance, to arrange for ``foo("abc", 42)`` to be called soon, you
call ``loop.call_soon(foo, "abc", 42)``. To schedule the call
``foo()``, use ``loop.call_soon(foo)``. This convention greatly
reduces the number of small lambdas required in typical callback
programming.
This convention specifically does *not* support keyword arguments.
Keyword arguments are used to pass optional extra information about
the callback. This allows graceful evolution of the API without
having to worry about whether a keyword might be significant to a
callee somewhere. If you have a callback that *must* be called with a
keyword argument, you can use a lambda. For example::
loop.call_soon(lambda: foo('abc', repeat=42))
Coroutines and the Scheduler
============================
This is a separate toplevel section because its status is different
from the event loop interface. Usage of coroutines is optional, and
it is perfectly fine to write code using callbacks only. On the other
hand, there is only one implementation of the scheduler/coroutine API,
and if you're using coroutines, that's the one you're using.
Coroutines
----------
A coroutine is a generator that follows certain conventions. For
documentation purposes, all coroutines should be decorated with
``@asyncio.coroutine``, but this cannot be strictly enforced.
Coroutines use the ``yield from`` syntax introduced in PEP 380,
instead of the original ``yield`` syntax.
The word "coroutine", like the word "generator", is used for two
different (though related) concepts:
- The function that defines a coroutine (a function definition
decorated with ``asyncio.coroutine``). If disambiguation is needed
we will call this a *coroutine function*.
- The object obtained by calling a coroutine function. This object
represents a computation or an I/O operation (usually a combination)
that will complete eventually. If disambiguation is needed we will
call it a *coroutine object*.
Things a coroutine can do:
- ``result = yield from future`` -- suspends the coroutine until the
future is done, then returns the future's result, or raises an
exception, which will be propagated. (If the future is cancelled,
it will raise a ``CancelledError`` exception.) Note that tasks are
futures, and everything said about futures also applies to tasks.
- ``result = yield from coroutine`` -- wait for another coroutine to
produce a result (or raise an exception, which will be propagated).
The ``coroutine`` expression must be a *call* to another coroutine.
- ``return expression`` -- produce a result to the coroutine that is
waiting for this one using ``yield from``.
- ``raise exception`` -- raise an exception in the coroutine that is
waiting for this one using ``yield from``.
Calling a coroutine does not start its code running -- it is just a
generator, and the coroutine object returned by the call is really a
generator object, which doesn't do anything until you iterate over it.
In the case of a coroutine object, there are two basic ways to start
it running: call ``yield from coroutine`` from another coroutine
(assuming the other coroutine is already running!), or convert it to a
Task (see below).
Coroutines (and tasks) can only run when the event loop is running.
Waiting for Multiple Coroutines
-------------------------------
To wait for multiple coroutines or Futures, two APIs similar to the
``wait()`` and ``as_completed()`` APIs in the ``concurrent.futures``
package are provided:
- ``asyncio.wait(fs, timeout=None, return_when=ALL_COMPLETED)``. This
is a coroutine that waits for the Futures or coroutines given by
``fs`` to complete. Coroutine arguments will be wrapped in Tasks
(see below). This returns a Future whose result on success is a
tuple of two sets of Futures, ``(done, pending)``, where ``done`` is
the set of original Futures (or wrapped coroutines) that are done
(or cancelled), and ``pending`` is the rest, i.e. those that are
still not done (nor cancelled). Note that with the defaults for
``timeout`` and ``return_when``, ``done`` will always be an empty
list. Optional arguments ``timeout`` and ``return_when`` have the
same meaning and defaults as for ``concurrent.futures.wait()``:
``timeout``, if not ``None``, specifies a timeout for the overall
operation; ``return_when``, specifies when to stop. The constants
``FIRST_COMPLETED``, ``FIRST_EXCEPTION``, ``ALL_COMPLETED`` are
defined with the same values and the same meanings as in PEP 3148:
- ``ALL_COMPLETED`` (default): Wait until all Futures are done (or
until the timeout occurs).
- ``FIRST_COMPLETED``: Wait until at least one Future is done (or
until the timeout occurs).
- ``FIRST_EXCEPTION``: Wait until at least one Future is done but
not cancelled with an exception set. (The exclusion of cancelled
Futures from the condition is surprising, but PEP 3148 does it
this way.)
- ``asyncio.as_completed(fs, timeout=None)``. Returns an iterator whose
values are Futures or coroutines; waiting for successive values
waits until the next Future or coroutine from the set ``fs``
completes, and returns its result (or raises its exception). The
optional argument ``timeout`` has the same meaning and default as it
does for ``concurrent.futures.wait()``: when the timeout occurs, the
next Future returned by the iterator will raise ``TimeoutError``
when waited for. Example of use::
for f in as_completed(fs):
result = yield from f # May raise an exception.
# Use result.
Note: if you do not wait for the values produced by the iterator,
your ``for`` loop may not make progress (since you are not allowing
other tasks to run).
- ``asyncio.wait_for(f, timeout)``. This is a convenience to wait for
a single coroutine or Future with a timeout. When a timeout occurs,
it cancels the task and raises TimeoutError. To avoid the task
cancellation, wrap it in ``shield()``.
- ``asyncio.gather(f1, f2, ...)``. Returns a Future which waits until
all arguments (Futures or coroutines) are done and return a list of
their corresponding results. If one or more of the arguments is
cancelled or raises an exception, the returned Future is cancelled
or has its exception set (matching what happened to the first
argument), and the remaining arguments are left running in the
background. Cancelling the returned Future does not affect the
arguments. Note that coroutine arguments are converted to Futures
using ``asyncio.async()``.
- ``asyncio.shield(f)``. Wait for a Future, shielding it from
cancellation. This returns a Future whose result or exception
is exactly the same as the argument; however, if the returned
Future is cancelled, the argument Future is unaffected.
A use case for this function would be a coroutine that caches a
query result for a coroutine that handles a request in an HTTP
server. When the request is cancelled by the client, we could
(arguably) want the query-caching coroutine to continue to run, so
that when the client reconnects, the query result is (hopefully)
cached. This could be written e.g. as follows::
@asyncio.coroutine
def handle_request(self, request):
...
cached_query = self.get_cache(...)
if cached_query is None:
cached_query = yield from asyncio.shield(self.fill_cache(...))
...
Sleeping
--------
The coroutine ``asyncio.sleep(delay)`` returns after a given time delay.
Tasks
-----
A Task is an object that manages an independently running coroutine.
The Task interface is the same as the Future interface, and in fact
``Task`` is a subclass of ``Future``. The task becomes done when its
coroutine returns or raises an exception; if it returns a result, that
becomes the task's result, if it raises an exception, that becomes the
task's exception.
Cancelling a task that's not done yet throws an
``asyncio.CancelledError`` exception into the coroutine. If the
coroutine doesn't catch this (or if it re-raises it) the task will be
marked as cancelled (i.e., ``cancelled()`` will return ``True``); but
if the coroutine somehow catches and ignores the exception it may
continue to execute (and ``cancelled()`` will return ``False``).
Tasks are also useful for interoperating between coroutines and
callback-based frameworks like Twisted. After converting a coroutine
into a Task, callbacks can be added to the Task.
To convert a coroutine into a task, call the coroutine function and
pass the resulting coroutine object to the ``loop.create_task()``
method. You may also use ``asyncio.ensure_future()`` for this purpose.
You may ask, why not automatically convert all coroutines to Tasks?
The ``@asyncio.coroutine`` decorator could do this. However, this would
slow things down considerably in the case where one coroutine calls
another (and so on), as switching to a "bare" coroutine has much less
overhead than switching to a Task.
The ``Task`` class is derived from ``Future`` adding new methods:
- ``current_task(loop=None)``. A *class method* returning the
currently running task in an event loop. If *loop* is ``None`` the
method returns the current task for the default loop. Every
coroutine is executed inside a *task context*, either a ``Task``
created using ``ensure_future()`` or ``loop.create_task()``, or by
being called from another coroutine using ``yield from`` or
``await``. This method returns ``None`` when called *outside* a
coroutine, e.g. in a callback scheduled using ``loop.call_later()``.
- ``all_tasks(loop=None)``. A *class method* returning a set of all
active tasks for the loop. This uses the default loop if *loop* is
``None``.
The Scheduler
-------------
The scheduler has no public interface. You interact with it by using
``yield from future`` and ``yield from task``. In fact, there is no
single object representing the scheduler -- its behavior is
implemented by the ``Task`` and ``Future`` classes using only the
public interface of the event loop, so it will work with third-party
event loop implementations, too.
Convenience Utilities
---------------------
A few functions and classes are provided to simplify the writing of
basic stream-based clients and servers, such as FTP or HTTP. Thes
are:
- ``asyncio.open_connection(host, port)``: A wrapper for
``EventLoop.create_connection()`` that does not require you to
provide a ``Protocol`` factory or class. This is a coroutine that
returns a ``(reader, writer)`` pair, where ``reader`` is an instance
of ``StreamReader`` and ``writer`` is an instance of
``StreamWriter`` (both described below).
- ``asyncio.start_server(client_connected_cb, host, port)``: A wrapper
for ``EventLoop.create_server()`` that takes a simple callback
function rather than a ``Protocol`` factory or class. This is a
coroutine that returns a ``Server`` object just as
``create_server()`` does. Each time a client connection is
accepted, ``client_connected_cb(reader, writer)`` is called, where
``reader`` is an instance of ``StreamReader`` and ``writer`` is an
instance of ``StreamWriter`` (both described below). If the result
returned by ``client_connected_cb()`` is a coroutine, it is
automatically wrapped in a ``Task``.
- ``StreamReader``: A class offering an interface not unlike that of a
read-only binary stream, except that the various reading methods are
coroutines. It is normally driven by a ``StreamReaderProtocol``
instance. Note that there should be only one reader. The interface
for the reader is:
- ``readline()``: A coroutine that reads a string of bytes
representing a line of text ending in ``'\n'``, or until the end
of the stream, whichever comes first.
- ``read(n)``: A coroutine that reads up to ``n`` bytes. If ``n``
is omitted or negative, it reads until the end of the stream.
- ``readexactly(n)``: A coroutine that reads exactly ``n`` bytes, or
until the end of the stream, whichever comes first.
- ``exception()``: Return the exception that has been set on the
stream using ``set_exception()``, or None if no exception is set.
The interface for the driver is:
- ``feed_data(data)``: Append ``data`` (a ``bytes`` object) to the
internal buffer. This unblocks a blocked reading coroutine if it
provides sufficient data to fulfill the reader's contract.
- ``feed_eof()``: Signal the end of the buffer. This unblocks a
blocked reading coroutine. No more data should be fed to the
reader after this call.
- ``set_exception(exc)``: Set an exception on the stream. All
subsequent reading methods will raise this exception. No more
data should be fed to the reader after this call.
- ``StreamWriter``: A class offering an interface not unlike that of a
write-only binary stream. It wraps a transport. The interface is
an extended subset of the transport interface: the following methods
behave the same as the corresponding transport methods: ``write()``,
``writelines()``, ``write_eof()``, ``can_write_eof()``,
``get_extra_info()``, ``close()``. Note that the writing methods
are _not_ coroutines (this is the same as for transports, but
different from the ``StreamReader`` class). The following method is
in addition to the transport interface:
- ``drain()``: This should be called with ``yield from`` after
writing significant data, for the purpose of flow control. The
intended use is like this::
writer.write(data)
yield from writer.drain()
Note that this is not technically a coroutine: it returns either a
Future or an empty tuple (both can be passed to ``yield from``).
Use of this method is optional. However, when it is not used, the
internal buffer of the transport underlying the ``StreamWriter``
may fill up with all data that was ever written to the writer. If
an app does not have a strict limit on how much data it writes, it
_should_ call ``yield from drain()`` occasionally to avoid filling
up the transport buffer.
- ``StreamReaderProtocol``: A protocol implementation used as an
adapter between the bidirectional stream transport/protocol
interface and the ``StreamReader`` and ``StreamWriter`` classes. It
acts as a driver for a specific ``StreamReader`` instance, calling
its methods ``feed_data()``, ``feed_eof()``, and ``set_exception()``
in response to various protocol callbacks. It also controls the
behavior of the ``drain()`` method of the ``StreamWriter`` instance.
Synchronization
===============
Locks, events, conditions and semaphores modeled after those in the
``threading`` module are implemented and can be accessed by importing
the ``asyncio.locks`` submodule. Queues modeled after those in the
``queue`` module are implemented and can be accessed by importing the
``asyncio.queues`` submodule.
In general these have a close correspondence to their threaded
counterparts, however, blocking methods (e.g. ``acquire()`` on locks,
``put()`` and ``get()`` on queues) are coroutines, and timeout
parameters are not provided (you can use ``asyncio.wait_for()`` to add
a timeout to a blocking call, however).
The docstrings in the modules provide more complete documentation.
Locks
-----
The following classes are provided by ``asyncio.locks``. For all
these except ``Event``, the ``with`` statement may be used in
combination with ``yield from`` to acquire the lock and ensure that
the lock is released regardless of how the ``with`` block is left, as
follows::
with (yield from my_lock):
...
- ``Lock``: a basic mutex, with methods ``acquire()`` (a coroutine),
``locked()``, and ``release()``.
- ``Event``: an event variable, with methods ``wait()`` (a coroutine),
``set()``, ``clear()``, and ``is_set()``.
- ``Condition``: a condition variable, with methods ``acquire()``,
``wait()``, ``wait_for(predicate)`` (all three coroutines),
``locked()``, ``release()``, ``notify()``, and ``notify_all()``.
- ``Semaphore``: a semaphore, with methods ``acquire()`` (a
coroutine), ``locked()``, and ``release()``. The constructor
argument is the initial value (default ``1``).
- ``BoundedSemaphore``: a bounded semaphore; this is similar to
``Semaphore`` but the initial value is also the maximum value.
Queues
------
The following classes and exceptions are provided by ``asyncio.queues``.
- ``Queue``: a standard queue, with methods ``get()``, ``put()`` (both
coroutines), ``get_nowait()``, ``put_nowait()``, ``empty()``,
``full()``, ``qsize()``, and ``maxsize()``.
- ``PriorityQueue``: a subclass of ``Queue`` that retrieves entries
in priority order (lowest first).
- ``LifoQueue``: a subclass of ``Queue`` that retrieves the most
recently added entries first.
- ``JoinableQueue``: a subclass of ``Queue`` with ``task_done()`` and
``join()`` methods (the latter a coroutine).
- ``Empty``, ``Full``: exceptions raised when ``get_nowait()`` or
``put_nowait()`` is called on a queue that is empty or full,
respectively.
Miscellaneous
=============
Logging
-------
All logging performed by the ``asyncio`` package uses a single
``logging.Logger`` object, ``asyncio.logger``. To customize logging
you can use the standard ``Logger`` API on this object. (Do not
replace the object though.)
``SIGCHLD`` handling on UNIX
----------------------------
Efficient implementation of the ``process_exited()`` method on
subprocess protocols requires a ``SIGCHLD`` signal handler. However,
signal handlers can only be set on the event loop associated with the
main thread. In order to support spawning subprocesses from event
loops running in other threads, a mechanism exists to allow sharing a
``SIGCHLD`` handler between multiple event loops. There are two
additional functions, ``asyncio.get_child_watcher()`` and
``asyncio.set_child_watcher()``, and corresponding methods on the
event loop policy.
There are two child watcher implementation classes,
``FastChildWatcher`` and ``SafeChildWatcher``. Both use ``SIGCHLD``.
The ``SafeChildWatcher`` class is used by default; it is inefficient
when many subprocesses exist simultaneously. The ``FastChildWatcher``
class is efficient, but it may interfere with other code (either C
code or Python code) that spawns subprocesses without using an
``asyncio`` event loop. If you are sure you are not using other code
that spawns subprocesses, to use the fast implementation, run the
following in your main thread::
watcher = asyncio.FastChildWatcher()
asyncio.set_child_watcher(watcher)
Wish List
=========
(There is agreement that these features are desirable, but no
implementation was available when Python 3.4 beta 1 was released, and
the feature freeze for the rest of the Python 3.4 release cycle
prohibits adding them in this late stage. However, they will
hopefully be added in Python 3.5, and perhaps earlier in the PyPI
distribution.)
- Support a "start TLS" operation to upgrade a TCP socket to SSL/TLS.
Former wish list items that have since been implemented (but aren't
specified by the PEP):
- UNIX domain sockets.
- A per-loop error handling callback.
Open Issues
===========
(Note that these have been resolved de facto in favor of the status
quo by the acceptance of the PEP. However, the PEP's provisional
status allows revising these decisions for Python 3.5.)
- Why do ``create_connection()`` and ``create_datagram_endpoint()``
have a ``proto`` argument but not ``create_server()``? And why are
the family, flag, proto arguments for ``getaddrinfo()`` sometimes
zero and sometimes named constants (whose value is also zero)?
- Do we need another inquiry method to tell whether the loop is in the
process of stopping?
- A fuller public API for Handle? What's the use case?
- A debugging API? E.g. something that logs a lot of stuff, or logs
unusual conditions (like queues filling up faster than they drain)
or even callbacks taking too much time...
- Do we need introspection APIs? E.g. asking for the read callback
given a file descriptor. Or when the next scheduled call is. Or
the list of file descriptors registered with callbacks. Right now
these all require using internals.
- Do we need more socket I/O methods, e.g. ``sock_sendto()`` and
``sock_recvfrom()``, and perhaps others like ``pipe_read()``?
I guess users can write their own (it's not rocket science).
- We may need APIs to control various timeouts. E.g. we may want to
limit the time spent in DNS resolution, connecting, ssl/tls handshake,
idle connection, close/shutdown, even per session. Possibly it's
sufficient to add ``timeout`` keyword arguments to some methods,
and other timeouts can probably be implemented by clever use of
``call_later()`` and ``Task.cancel()``. But it's possible that some
operations need default timeouts, and we may want to change the
default for a specific operation globally (i.e., per event loop).
References
==========
- PEP 492 describes the semantics of ``async/await``.
- PEP 380 describes the semantics of ``yield from``.
- Greg Ewing's ``yield from`` tutorials:
http://www.cosc.canterbury.ac.nz/greg.ewing/python/yield-from/yield_from.html
- PEP 3148 describes ``concurrent.futures.Future``.
- PEP 3153, while rejected, has a good write-up explaining the need
to separate transports and protocols.
- PEP 418 discusses the issues of timekeeping.
- Tulip repo: http://code.google.com/p/tulip/
- PyPI: the Python Package Index at http://pypi.python.org/
- Nick Coghlan wrote a nice blog post with some background, thoughts
about different approaches to async I/O, gevent, and how to use
futures with constructs like ``while``, ``for`` and ``with``:
http://python-notes.boredomandlaziness.org/en/latest/pep_ideas/async_programming.html
- TBD: references to the relevant parts of Twisted, Tornado, ZeroMQ,
pyftpdlib, libevent, libev, pyev, libuv, wattle, and so on.
Acknowledgments
===============
Apart from PEP 3153, influences include PEP 380 and Greg Ewing's
tutorial for ``yield from``, Twisted, Tornado, ZeroMQ, pyftpdlib, and
wattle (Steve Dower's counter-proposal). My previous work on
asynchronous support in the NDB library for Google App Engine provided
an important starting point.
I am grateful for the numerous discussions on python-ideas from
September through December 2012, and many more on python-tulip since
then; a Skype session with Steve Dower and Dino Viehland; email
exchanges with and a visit by Ben Darnell; an audience with Niels
Provos (original author of libevent); and in-person meetings (as well
as frequent email exchanges) with several Twisted developers,
including Glyph, Brian Warner, David Reid, and Duncan McGreggor.
Contributors to the implementation include
Eli Bendersky,
Gustavo Carneiro (Gambit Research),
Saúl Ibarra Corretgé,
Geert Jansen,
A. Jesse Jiryu Davis,
Nikolay Kim,
Charles-François Natali,
Richard Oudkerk,
Antoine Pitrou,
Giampaolo Rodolá,
Andrew Svetlov,
and many others who submitted bugs and/or fixes.
I thank Antoine Pitrou for his feedback in his role of official PEP
BDFL.
Copyright
=========
This document has been placed in the public domain.
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