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/*
* Core Definitions for QAPI Visitor Classes
*
* Copyright (C) 2012-2016 Red Hat, Inc.
* Copyright IBM, Corp. 2011
*
* Authors:
* Anthony Liguori <aliguori@us.ibm.com>
*
* This work is licensed under the terms of the GNU LGPL, version 2.1 or later.
* See the COPYING.LIB file in the top-level directory.
*
*/
#ifndef QAPI_VISITOR_H
#define QAPI_VISITOR_H
#include "qapi/qapi-builtin-types.h"
/*
* The QAPI schema defines both a set of C data types, and a QMP wire
* format. QAPI objects can contain references to other QAPI objects,
* resulting in a directed acyclic graph. QAPI also generates visitor
* functions to walk these graphs. This file represents the interface
* for doing work at each node of a QAPI graph; it can also be used
* for a virtual walk, where there is no actual QAPI C struct.
*
* There are four kinds of visitor classes: input visitors (QObject,
* string, and QemuOpts) parse an external representation and build
* the corresponding QAPI graph, output visitors (QObject and string) take
* a completed QAPI graph and generate an external representation, the
* dealloc visitor can take a QAPI graph (possibly partially
* constructed) and recursively free its resources, and the clone
* visitor performs a deep clone of one QAPI object to another. While
* the dealloc and QObject input/output visitors are general, the string,
* QemuOpts, and clone visitors have some implementation limitations;
* see the documentation for each visitor for more details on what it
* supports. Also, see visitor-impl.h for the callback contracts
* implemented by each visitor, and docs/devel/qapi-code-gen.txt for more
* about the QAPI code generator.
*
* All of the visitors are created via:
*
* Visitor *subtype_visitor_new(parameters...);
*
* A visitor should be used for exactly one top-level visit_type_FOO()
* or virtual walk; if that is successful, the caller can optionally
* call visit_complete() (for now, useful only for output visits, but
* safe to call on all visits). Then, regardless of success or
* failure, the user should call visit_free() to clean up resources.
* It is okay to free the visitor without completing the visit, if
* some other error is detected in the meantime.
*
* All QAPI types have a corresponding function with a signature
* roughly compatible with this:
*
* void visit_type_FOO(Visitor *v, const char *name, T obj, Error **errp);
*
* where T is FOO for scalar types, and FOO * otherwise. The scalar
* visitors are declared here; the remaining visitors are generated in
* qapi-visit.h.
*
* The @name parameter of visit_type_FOO() describes the relation
* between this QAPI value and its parent container. When visiting
* the root of a tree, @name is ignored; when visiting a member of an
* object, @name is the key associated with the value; when visiting a
* member of a list, @name is NULL; and when visiting the member of an
* alternate, @name should equal the name used for visiting the
* alternate.
*
* The visit_type_FOO() functions expect a non-null @obj argument;
* they allocate *@obj during input visits, leave it unchanged on
* output visits, and recursively free any resources during a dealloc
* visit. Each function also takes the customary @errp argument (see
* qapi/error.h for details), for reporting any errors (such as if a
* member @name is not present, or is present but not the specified
* type).
*
* If an error is detected during visit_type_FOO() with an input
* visitor, then *@obj will be NULL for pointer types, and left
* unchanged for scalar types. Using an output or clone visitor with
* an incomplete object has undefined behavior (other than a special
* case for visit_type_str() treating NULL like ""), while the dealloc
* visitor safely handles incomplete objects. Since input visitors
* never produce an incomplete object, such an object is possible only
* by manual construction.
*
* For the QAPI object types (structs, unions, and alternates), there
* is an additional generated function in qapi-visit.h compatible
* with:
*
* void visit_type_FOO_members(Visitor *v, FOO *obj, Error **errp);
*
* for visiting the members of a type without also allocating the QAPI
* struct.
*
* Additionally, in qapi-types.h, all QAPI pointer types (structs,
* unions, alternates, and lists) have a generated function compatible
* with:
*
* void qapi_free_FOO(FOO *obj);
*
* where behaves like free() in that @obj may be NULL. Such objects
* may also be used with the following macro, provided alongside the
* clone visitor:
*
* Type *QAPI_CLONE(Type, src);
*
* in order to perform a deep clone of @src. Because of the generated
* qapi_free functions and the QAPI_CLONE() macro, the clone and
* dealloc visitor should not be used directly outside of QAPI code.
*
* QAPI types can also inherit from a base class; when this happens, a
* function is generated for easily going from the derived type to the
* base type:
*
* BASE *qapi_CHILD_base(CHILD *obj);
*
* For a real QAPI struct, typical input usage involves:
*
* <example>
* Foo *f;
* Error *err = NULL;
* Visitor *v;
*
* v = FOO_visitor_new(...);
* visit_type_Foo(v, NULL, &f, &err);
* if (err) {
* ...handle error...
* } else {
* ...use f...
* }
* visit_free(v);
* qapi_free_Foo(f);
* </example>
*
* For a list, it is:
* <example>
* FooList *l;
* Error *err = NULL;
* Visitor *v;
*
* v = FOO_visitor_new(...);
* visit_type_FooList(v, NULL, &l, &err);
* if (err) {
* ...handle error...
* } else {
* for ( ; l; l = l->next) {
* ...use l->value...
* }
* }
* visit_free(v);
* qapi_free_FooList(l);
* </example>
*
* Similarly, typical output usage is:
*
* <example>
* Foo *f = ...obtain populated object...
* Error *err = NULL;
* Visitor *v;
* Type *result;
*
* v = FOO_visitor_new(..., &result);
* visit_type_Foo(v, NULL, &f, &err);
* if (err) {
* ...handle error...
* } else {
* visit_complete(v, &result);
* ...use result...
* }
* visit_free(v);
* </example>
*
* When visiting a real QAPI struct, this file provides several
* helpers that rely on in-tree information to control the walk:
* visit_optional() for the 'has_member' field associated with
* optional 'member' in the C struct; and visit_next_list() for
* advancing through a FooList linked list. Similarly, the
* visit_is_input() helper makes it possible to write code that is
* visitor-agnostic everywhere except for cleanup. Only the generated
* visit_type functions need to use these helpers.
*
* It is also possible to use the visitors to do a virtual walk, where
* no actual QAPI struct is present. In this situation, decisions
* about what needs to be walked are made by the calling code, and
* structured visits are split between pairs of start and end methods
* (where the end method must be called if the start function
* succeeded, even if an intermediate visit encounters an error).
* Thus, a virtual walk corresponding to '{ "list": [1, 2] }' looks
* like:
*
* <example>
* Visitor *v;
* Error *err = NULL;
* int value;
*
* v = FOO_visitor_new(...);
* visit_start_struct(v, NULL, NULL, 0, &err);
* if (err) {
* goto out;
* }
* visit_start_list(v, "list", NULL, 0, &err);
* if (err) {
* goto outobj;
* }
* value = 1;
* visit_type_int(v, NULL, &value, &err);
* if (err) {
* goto outlist;
* }
* value = 2;
* visit_type_int(v, NULL, &value, &err);
* if (err) {
* goto outlist;
* }
* outlist:
* visit_end_list(v, NULL);
* if (!err) {
* visit_check_struct(v, &err);
* }
* outobj:
* visit_end_struct(v, NULL);
* out:
* error_propagate(errp, err);
* visit_free(v);
* </example>
*/
/*** Useful types ***/
/* This struct is layout-compatible with all other *List structs
* created by the QAPI generator. It is used as a typical
* singly-linked list. */
typedef struct GenericList {
struct GenericList *next;
char padding[];
} GenericList;
/* This struct is layout-compatible with all Alternate types
* created by the QAPI generator. */
typedef struct GenericAlternate {
QType type;
char padding[];
} GenericAlternate;
/*** Visitor cleanup ***/
/*
* Complete the visit, collecting any output.
*
* May only be called only once after a successful top-level
* visit_type_FOO() or visit_end_ITEM(), and marks the end of the
* visit. The @opaque pointer should match the output parameter
* passed to the subtype_visitor_new() used to create an output
* visitor, or NULL for any other visitor. Needed for output
* visitors, but may also be called with other visitors.
*/
void visit_complete(Visitor *v, void *opaque);
/*
* Free @v and any resources it has tied up.
*
* May be called whether or not the visit has been successfully
* completed, but should not be called until a top-level
* visit_type_FOO() or visit_start_ITEM() has been performed on the
* visitor. Safe if @v is NULL.
*/
void visit_free(Visitor *v);
/*** Visiting structures ***/
/*
* Start visiting an object @obj (struct or union).
*
* @name expresses the relationship of this object to its parent
* container; see the general description of @name above.
*
* @obj must be non-NULL for a real walk, in which case @size
* determines how much memory an input or clone visitor will allocate
* into *@obj. @obj may also be NULL for a virtual walk, in which
* case @size is ignored.
*
* @errp obeys typical error usage, and reports failures such as a
* member @name is not present, or present but not an object. On
* error, input visitors set *@obj to NULL.
*
* After visit_start_struct() succeeds, the caller may visit its
* members one after the other, passing the member's name and address
* within the struct. Finally, visit_end_struct() needs to be called
* with the same @obj to clean up, even if intermediate visits fail.
* See the examples above.
*
* FIXME Should this be named visit_start_object, since it is also
* used for QAPI unions, and maps to JSON objects?
*/
void visit_start_struct(Visitor *v, const char *name, void **obj,
size_t size, Error **errp);
/*
* Prepare for completing an object visit.
*
* @errp obeys typical error usage, and reports failures such as
* unparsed keys remaining in the input stream.
*
* Should be called prior to visit_end_struct() if all other
* intermediate visit steps were successful, to allow the visitor one
* last chance to report errors. May be skipped on a cleanup path,
* where there is no need to check for further errors.
*/
void visit_check_struct(Visitor *v, Error **errp);
/*
* Complete an object visit started earlier.
*
* @obj must match what was passed to the paired visit_start_struct().
*
* Must be called after any successful use of visit_start_struct(),
* even if intermediate processing was skipped due to errors, to allow
* the backend to release any resources. Destroying the visitor early
* with visit_free() behaves as if this was implicitly called.
*/
void visit_end_struct(Visitor *v, void **obj);
/*** Visiting lists ***/
/*
* Start visiting a list.
*
* @name expresses the relationship of this list to its parent
* container; see the general description of @name above.
*
* @list must be non-NULL for a real walk, in which case @size
* determines how much memory an input or clone visitor will allocate
* into *@list (at least sizeof(GenericList)). Some visitors also
* allow @list to be NULL for a virtual walk, in which case @size is
* ignored.
*
* @errp obeys typical error usage, and reports failures such as a
* member @name is not present, or present but not a list. On error,
* input visitors set *@list to NULL.
*
* After visit_start_list() succeeds, the caller may visit its members
* one after the other. A real visit (where @obj is non-NULL) uses
* visit_next_list() for traversing the linked list, while a virtual
* visit (where @obj is NULL) uses other means. For each list
* element, call the appropriate visit_type_FOO() with name set to
* NULL and obj set to the address of the value member of the list
* element. Finally, visit_end_list() needs to be called with the
* same @list to clean up, even if intermediate visits fail. See the
* examples above.
*/
void visit_start_list(Visitor *v, const char *name, GenericList **list,
size_t size, Error **errp);
/*
* Iterate over a GenericList during a non-virtual list visit.
*
* @size represents the size of a linked list node (at least
* sizeof(GenericList)).
*
* @tail must not be NULL; on the first call, @tail is the value of
* *list after visit_start_list(), and on subsequent calls @tail must
* be the previously returned value. Should be called in a loop until
* a NULL return or error occurs; for each non-NULL return, the caller
* then calls the appropriate visit_type_*() for the element type of
* the list, with that function's name parameter set to NULL and obj
* set to the address of @tail->value.
*/
GenericList *visit_next_list(Visitor *v, GenericList *tail, size_t size);
/*
* Prepare for completing a list visit.
*
* @errp obeys typical error usage, and reports failures such as
* unvisited list tail remaining in the input stream.
*
* Should be called prior to visit_end_list() if all other
* intermediate visit steps were successful, to allow the visitor one
* last chance to report errors. May be skipped on a cleanup path,
* where there is no need to check for further errors.
*/
void visit_check_list(Visitor *v, Error **errp);
/*
* Complete a list visit started earlier.
*
* @list must match what was passed to the paired visit_start_list().
*
* Must be called after any successful use of visit_start_list(), even
* if intermediate processing was skipped due to errors, to allow the
* backend to release any resources. Destroying the visitor early
* with visit_free() behaves as if this was implicitly called.
*/
void visit_end_list(Visitor *v, void **list);
/*** Visiting alternates ***/
/*
* Start the visit of an alternate @obj.
*
* @name expresses the relationship of this alternate to its parent
* container; see the general description of @name above.
*
* @obj must not be NULL. Input and clone visitors use @size to
* determine how much memory to allocate into *@obj, then determine
* the qtype of the next thing to be visited, stored in (*@obj)->type.
* Other visitors will leave @obj unchanged.
*
* If successful, this must be paired with visit_end_alternate() with
* the same @obj to clean up, even if visiting the contents of the
* alternate fails.
*/
void visit_start_alternate(Visitor *v, const char *name,
GenericAlternate **obj, size_t size,
Error **errp);
/*
* Finish visiting an alternate type.
*
* @obj must match what was passed to the paired visit_start_alternate().
*
* Must be called after any successful use of visit_start_alternate(),
* even if intermediate processing was skipped due to errors, to allow
* the backend to release any resources. Destroying the visitor early
* with visit_free() behaves as if this was implicitly called.
*
*/
void visit_end_alternate(Visitor *v, void **obj);
/*** Other helpers ***/
/*
* Does optional struct member @name need visiting?
*
* @name must not be NULL. This function is only useful between
* visit_start_struct() and visit_end_struct(), since only objects
* have optional keys.
*
* @present points to the address of the optional member's has_ flag.
*
* Input visitors set *@present according to input; other visitors
* leave it unchanged. In either case, return *@present for
* convenience.
*/
bool visit_optional(Visitor *v, const char *name, bool *present);
/*
* Visit an enum value.
*
* @name expresses the relationship of this enum to its parent
* container; see the general description of @name above.
*
* @obj must be non-NULL. Input visitors parse input and set *@obj to
* the enumeration value, leaving @obj unchanged on error; other
* visitors use *@obj but leave it unchanged.
*
* Currently, all input visitors parse text input, and all output
* visitors produce text output. The mapping between enumeration
* values and strings is done by the visitor core, using @strings; it
* should be the ENUM_lookup array from visit-types.h.
*
* May call visit_type_str() under the hood, and the enum visit may
* fail even if the corresponding string visit succeeded; this implies
* that visit_type_str() must have no unwelcome side effects.
*/
void visit_type_enum(Visitor *v, const char *name, int *obj,
const QEnumLookup *lookup, Error **errp);
/*
* Check if visitor is an input visitor.
*/
bool visit_is_input(Visitor *v);
/*** Visiting built-in types ***/
/*
* Visit an integer value.
*
* @name expresses the relationship of this integer to its parent
* container; see the general description of @name above.
*
* @obj must be non-NULL. Input visitors set *@obj to the value;
* other visitors will leave *@obj unchanged.
*/
void visit_type_int(Visitor *v, const char *name, int64_t *obj, Error **errp);
/*
* Visit a uint8_t value.
* Like visit_type_int(), except clamps the value to uint8_t range.
*/
void visit_type_uint8(Visitor *v, const char *name, uint8_t *obj,
Error **errp);
/*
* Visit a uint16_t value.
* Like visit_type_int(), except clamps the value to uint16_t range.
*/
void visit_type_uint16(Visitor *v, const char *name, uint16_t *obj,
Error **errp);
/*
* Visit a uint32_t value.
* Like visit_type_int(), except clamps the value to uint32_t range.
*/
void visit_type_uint32(Visitor *v, const char *name, uint32_t *obj,
Error **errp);
/*
* Visit a uint64_t value.
* Like visit_type_int(), except clamps the value to uint64_t range,
* that is, ensures it is unsigned.
*/
void visit_type_uint64(Visitor *v, const char *name, uint64_t *obj,
Error **errp);
/*
* Visit an int8_t value.
* Like visit_type_int(), except clamps the value to int8_t range.
*/
void visit_type_int8(Visitor *v, const char *name, int8_t *obj, Error **errp);
/*
* Visit an int16_t value.
* Like visit_type_int(), except clamps the value to int16_t range.
*/
void visit_type_int16(Visitor *v, const char *name, int16_t *obj,
Error **errp);
/*
* Visit an int32_t value.
* Like visit_type_int(), except clamps the value to int32_t range.
*/
void visit_type_int32(Visitor *v, const char *name, int32_t *obj,
Error **errp);
/*
* Visit an int64_t value.
* Identical to visit_type_int().
*/
void visit_type_int64(Visitor *v, const char *name, int64_t *obj,
Error **errp);
/*
* Visit a uint64_t value.
* Like visit_type_uint64(), except that some visitors may choose to
* recognize additional syntax, such as suffixes for easily scaling
* values.
*/
void visit_type_size(Visitor *v, const char *name, uint64_t *obj,
Error **errp);
/*
* Visit a boolean value.
*
* @name expresses the relationship of this boolean to its parent
* container; see the general description of @name above.
*
* @obj must be non-NULL. Input visitors set *@obj to the value;
* other visitors will leave *@obj unchanged.
*/
void visit_type_bool(Visitor *v, const char *name, bool *obj, Error **errp);
/*
* Visit a string value.
*
* @name expresses the relationship of this string to its parent
* container; see the general description of @name above.
*
* @obj must be non-NULL. Input and clone visitors set *@obj to the
* value (always using "" rather than NULL for an empty string).
* Other visitors leave *@obj unchanged, and commonly treat NULL like
* "".
*
* It is safe to cast away const when preparing a (const char *) value
* into @obj for use by an output visitor.
*
* FIXME: Callers that try to output NULL *obj should not be allowed.
*/
void visit_type_str(Visitor *v, const char *name, char **obj, Error **errp);
/*
* Visit a number (i.e. double) value.
*
* @name expresses the relationship of this number to its parent
* container; see the general description of @name above.
*
* @obj must be non-NULL. Input visitors set *@obj to the value;
* other visitors will leave *@obj unchanged. Visitors should
* document if infinity or NaN are not permitted.
*/
void visit_type_number(Visitor *v, const char *name, double *obj,
Error **errp);
/*
* Visit an arbitrary value.
*
* @name expresses the relationship of this value to its parent
* container; see the general description of @name above.
*
* @obj must be non-NULL. Input visitors set *@obj to the value;
* other visitors will leave *@obj unchanged. *@obj must be non-NULL
* for output visitors.
*
* Note that some kinds of input can't express arbitrary QObject.
* E.g. the visitor returned by qobject_input_visitor_new_keyval()
* can't create numbers or booleans, only strings.
*/
void visit_type_any(Visitor *v, const char *name, QObject **obj, Error **errp);
/*
* Visit a JSON null value.
*
* @name expresses the relationship of the null value to its parent
* container; see the general description of @name above.
*
* @obj must be non-NULL. Input visitors set *@obj to the value;
* other visitors ignore *@obj.
*/
void visit_type_null(Visitor *v, const char *name, QNull **obj,
Error **errp);
#endif