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Fix misalignment of rasters with RPC (fixes #35796) (#36385)

* Fix misalignment of rasters with RPC (fixes #35796)

By default GDAL would assume that the imagery has zero elevation - if that is not the case,
the image would not be shown in the correct location. Fortunately we can pass RPC_HEIGHT
to GDAL to use given value as the fixed elevation for the whole image.

We try to use HEIGHT_OFF coefficient ("Geodetic Height Offset") as an estimate for elevation
(it seems that ENVI software does that as well). In the future we may want to use also
RPC_DEM for an even more precise georeferencing.

https://gdal.org/development/rfc/rfc22_rpc.html

* Update code to use the new fuction GDALAutoCreateWarpedVRTEx()

This function will be available in GDAL >= 3.2 so we have a local
copy for the time being for older versions of GDAL.
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wonder-sk committed May 20, 2020
1 parent 7053b78 commit d48c17816f31fd6a3ce8ccb11a044afb4308e9d2
Showing with 237 additions and 3 deletions.
  1. +12 −3 src/core/providers/gdal/qgsgdalprovider.cpp
  2. +209 −0 src/core/qgsgdalutils.cpp
  3. +16 −0 src/core/qgsgdalutils.h
@@ -2670,9 +2670,18 @@ void QgsGdalProvider::initBaseDataset()
{
QgsLogger::warning( QStringLiteral( "Creating Warped VRT." ) );

mGdalDataset =
GDALAutoCreateWarpedVRT( mGdalBaseDataset, nullptr, nullptr,
GRA_NearestNeighbour, 0.2, nullptr );
if ( GDALGetMetadata( mGdalBaseDataset, "RPC" ) )
{
mGdalDataset =
QgsGdalUtils::rpcAwareAutoCreateWarpedVrt( mGdalBaseDataset, nullptr, nullptr,
GRA_NearestNeighbour, 0.2, nullptr );
}
else
{
mGdalDataset =
GDALAutoCreateWarpedVRT( mGdalBaseDataset, nullptr, nullptr,
GRA_NearestNeighbour, 0.2, nullptr );
}

if ( !mGdalDataset )
{
@@ -18,6 +18,7 @@

#define CPL_SUPRESS_CPLUSPLUS //#spellok
#include "gdal.h"
#include "gdalwarper.h"
#include "cpl_string.h"

#include <QString>
@@ -277,3 +278,211 @@ QString QgsGdalUtils::validateCreationOptionsFormat( const QStringList &createOp
return QStringLiteral( "Failed GDALValidateCreationOptions() test" );
return QString();
}

#if GDAL_VERSION_NUM < GDAL_COMPUTE_VERSION(2,3,0)
// GDAL < 2.3 does not come with GDALWarpInitDefaultBandMapping and GDALWarpInitNoDataReal
// in the public API so we define them here for rpcAwareAutoCreateWarpedVrt()

static void GDALWarpInitDefaultBandMapping( GDALWarpOptions *psOptionsIn, int nBandCount )
{
if ( psOptionsIn->nBandCount != 0 ) { return; }

psOptionsIn->nBandCount = nBandCount;

psOptionsIn->panSrcBands = static_cast<int *>(
CPLMalloc( sizeof( int ) * psOptionsIn->nBandCount ) );
psOptionsIn->panDstBands = static_cast<int *>(
CPLMalloc( sizeof( int ) * psOptionsIn->nBandCount ) );

for ( int i = 0; i < psOptionsIn->nBandCount; i++ )
{
psOptionsIn->panSrcBands[i] = i + 1;
psOptionsIn->panDstBands[i] = i + 1;
}
}

static void InitNoData( int nBandCount, double **ppdNoDataReal, double dDataReal )
{
if ( nBandCount <= 0 ) { return; }
if ( *ppdNoDataReal != nullptr ) { return; }

*ppdNoDataReal = static_cast<double *>(
CPLMalloc( sizeof( double ) * nBandCount ) );

for ( int i = 0; i < nBandCount; ++i )
{
( *ppdNoDataReal )[i] = dDataReal;
}
}

static void GDALWarpInitNoDataReal( GDALWarpOptions *psOptionsIn, double dNoDataReal )
{
InitNoData( psOptionsIn->nBandCount, &psOptionsIn->padfDstNoDataReal, dNoDataReal );
InitNoData( psOptionsIn->nBandCount, &psOptionsIn->padfSrcNoDataReal, dNoDataReal );
// older GDAL also requires imaginary values to be set
InitNoData( psOptionsIn->nBandCount, &psOptionsIn->padfDstNoDataImag, 0 );
InitNoData( psOptionsIn->nBandCount, &psOptionsIn->padfSrcNoDataImag, 0 );
}
#endif

#if GDAL_VERSION_NUM < GDAL_COMPUTE_VERSION(3,2,0)

GDALDatasetH GDALAutoCreateWarpedVRTEx( GDALDatasetH hSrcDS, const char *pszSrcWKT, const char *pszDstWKT, GDALResampleAlg eResampleAlg,
double dfMaxError, const GDALWarpOptions *psOptionsIn, char **papszTransformerOptions )
{
VALIDATE_POINTER1( hSrcDS, "GDALAutoCreateWarpedVRT", nullptr );

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* Populate the warp options. */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
GDALWarpOptions *psWO = nullptr;
if ( psOptionsIn != nullptr )
psWO = GDALCloneWarpOptions( psOptionsIn );
else
psWO = GDALCreateWarpOptions();

psWO->eResampleAlg = eResampleAlg;

psWO->hSrcDS = hSrcDS;

GDALWarpInitDefaultBandMapping( psWO, GDALGetRasterCount( hSrcDS ) );

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* Setup no data values */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
for ( int i = 0; i < psWO->nBandCount; i++ )
{
GDALRasterBandH rasterBand = GDALGetRasterBand( psWO->hSrcDS, psWO->panSrcBands[i] );

int hasNoDataValue;
double noDataValue = GDALGetRasterNoDataValue( rasterBand, &hasNoDataValue );

if ( hasNoDataValue )
{
// Check if the nodata value is out of range
int bClamped = FALSE;
int bRounded = FALSE;
CPL_IGNORE_RET_VAL(
GDALAdjustValueToDataType( GDALGetRasterDataType( rasterBand ),
noDataValue, &bClamped, &bRounded ) );
if ( !bClamped )
{
GDALWarpInitNoDataReal( psWO, -1e10 );

psWO->padfSrcNoDataReal[i] = noDataValue;
psWO->padfDstNoDataReal[i] = noDataValue;
}
}
}

if ( psWO->padfDstNoDataReal != nullptr )
{
if ( CSLFetchNameValue( psWO->papszWarpOptions, "INIT_DEST" ) == nullptr )
{
psWO->papszWarpOptions =
CSLSetNameValue( psWO->papszWarpOptions, "INIT_DEST", "NO_DATA" );
}
}

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* Create the transformer. */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
psWO->pfnTransformer = GDALGenImgProjTransform;

char **papszOptions = nullptr;
if ( pszSrcWKT != nullptr )
papszOptions = CSLSetNameValue( papszOptions, "SRC_SRS", pszSrcWKT );
if ( pszDstWKT != nullptr )
papszOptions = CSLSetNameValue( papszOptions, "DST_SRS", pszDstWKT );
papszOptions = CSLMerge( papszOptions, papszTransformerOptions );
psWO->pTransformerArg =
GDALCreateGenImgProjTransformer2( psWO->hSrcDS, nullptr,
papszOptions );
CSLDestroy( papszOptions );

if ( psWO->pTransformerArg == nullptr )
{
GDALDestroyWarpOptions( psWO );
return nullptr;
}

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* Figure out the desired output bounds and resolution. */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
double adfDstGeoTransform[6] = { 0.0 };
int nDstPixels = 0;
int nDstLines = 0;
CPLErr eErr =
GDALSuggestedWarpOutput( hSrcDS, psWO->pfnTransformer,
psWO->pTransformerArg,
adfDstGeoTransform, &nDstPixels, &nDstLines );
if ( eErr != CE_None )
{
GDALDestroyTransformer( psWO->pTransformerArg );
GDALDestroyWarpOptions( psWO );
return nullptr;
}

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* Update the transformer to include an output geotransform */
/* back to pixel/line coordinates. */
/* */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
GDALSetGenImgProjTransformerDstGeoTransform(
psWO->pTransformerArg, adfDstGeoTransform );

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* Do we want to apply an approximating transformation? */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
if ( dfMaxError > 0.0 )
{
psWO->pTransformerArg =
GDALCreateApproxTransformer( psWO->pfnTransformer,
psWO->pTransformerArg,
dfMaxError );
psWO->pfnTransformer = GDALApproxTransform;
GDALApproxTransformerOwnsSubtransformer( psWO->pTransformerArg, TRUE );
}

/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
/* Create the VRT file. */
/* -------------------------------------------------------------------- */
GDALDatasetH hDstDS
= GDALCreateWarpedVRT( hSrcDS, nDstPixels, nDstLines,
adfDstGeoTransform, psWO );

GDALDestroyWarpOptions( psWO );

if ( pszDstWKT != nullptr )
GDALSetProjection( hDstDS, pszDstWKT );
else if ( pszSrcWKT != nullptr )
GDALSetProjection( hDstDS, pszSrcWKT );
else if ( GDALGetGCPCount( hSrcDS ) > 0 )
GDALSetProjection( hDstDS, GDALGetGCPProjection( hSrcDS ) );
else
GDALSetProjection( hDstDS, GDALGetProjectionRef( hSrcDS ) );

return hDstDS;
}
#endif


GDALDatasetH QgsGdalUtils::rpcAwareAutoCreateWarpedVrt(
GDALDatasetH hSrcDS,
const char *pszSrcWKT,
const char *pszDstWKT,
GDALResampleAlg eResampleAlg,
double dfMaxError,
const GDALWarpOptions *psOptionsIn )
{
char **opts = nullptr;
if ( GDALGetMetadata( hSrcDS, "RPC" ) )
{
// well-behaved RPC should have height offset a good value for RPC_HEIGHT
const char *heightOffStr = GDALGetMetadataItem( hSrcDS, "HEIGHT_OFF", "RPC" );
if ( heightOffStr )
opts = CSLAddNameValue( opts, "RPC_HEIGHT", heightOffStr );
}

return GDALAutoCreateWarpedVRTEx( hSrcDS, pszSrcWKT, pszDstWKT, eResampleAlg, dfMaxError, psOptionsIn, opts );
}
@@ -100,6 +100,22 @@ class CORE_EXPORT QgsGdalUtils
*/
static gdal::dataset_unique_ptr imageToMemoryDataset( const QImage &image );

/**
* This is a copy of GDALAutoCreateWarpedVRT optimized for imagery using RPC georeferencing
* that also sets RPC_HEIGHT in GDALCreateGenImgProjTransformer2 based on HEIGHT_OFF.
* By default GDAL would assume that the imagery has zero elevation - if that is not the case,
* the image would not be shown in the correct location.
*
* \since QGIS 3.14
*/
static GDALDatasetH rpcAwareAutoCreateWarpedVrt(
GDALDatasetH hSrcDS,
const char *pszSrcWKT,
const char *pszDstWKT,
GDALResampleAlg eResampleAlg,
double dfMaxError,
const GDALWarpOptions *psOptionsIn );

friend class TestQgsGdalUtils;
};

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