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A pytorch implementation of memory augmented neural network/LSTM with differentiable neural dictionary, based on Ritter et al. (2018). Been There, Done That: Meta-Learning with Episodic Recall. ICML.

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dnd-lstm Binder Open in Colab

This is a LSTM cell with a differentiable neural dictionary described in Ritter et al. (2018). You can run dnd-lstm/src/contextual-choice.py with jupyter binder or google colab via links above.

Task description

src/contextual-choice.ipynb tests the model on an evidence accumulation task with "context".

More concretely, in the i-th trial ...

  • At time t, the model receives noisy observation, x_t (e.g. random dots moving around, slightly drifting to left/right) and a "context" for this trial, call it context_i (e.g. an image of an apple)
  • The task is to press button 0 if x_t is, on average, negative and press 1 otherwise (like press left/right button according to the average direction of the moving dots). Let's denote the response target by y_i, so y_i \in {0, 1}.
  • If the model never saw trial i before, it has to base its decision in x_t. However, if it this is the 2nd encounter of trial i, assuming the model cached the association between context_i and y_i in its episodic memory, then the model can just output y_i.

Since context is always presented within a trial, making decisions based on recalling the context-target association allows the model to respond faster, which leads to greater cumulative reward.

Stimulus

Here're the stimuli for two example trials. The horizontal axis represents time, before the grey dotted line, I turned on very high level of noise so that making better-than-chance deicisons is impossible without episodic memory. The top half of the input represent the observation time series, and the bottom half represent the context (over time).

The left/right figure shows a trial where the model needs to respond 0/1 since observation is negative/positive on average.

Results

Behaviorally, when the model encounters a previously-seen trial, the choice accuracy is better than chance at t == 0. By task design, this is only possible if the model can retrieve the correct episodic memory.

A PCA analysis of the memory content shows that the choice is encoded in the memory:

Dir structure

.
├── LICENSE
├── README.md
├── figs
├── requirements.txt
└── src
    ├── contextual-choice.ipynb         # train the model on a contextual choice task, in .ipynb
    ├── contextual-choice.py            # train the model on a contextual choice task, in .py
    ├── model   
    │   ├── A2C.py                      # an advantage actor critic agent
    │   ├── DND.py                      # the memory module 
    │   ├── DNDLSTM.py                  # a LSTM-based A2C agent with DND memory 
    │   ├── utils.py
    └── └── __init__.py
    ├── task
    │   ├── ContextualChoice.py         # the definition of the contextual choice task
    │   └── __init__.py
    └── utils.py

Extra note

  1. A variant of the DND part is implemented in psyneulink as pnl.ContentAddressableMemory.

  2. The original paper uses A3C. I'm doing A2C instead - no asynchronous parallel rollouts. If you are not familiar with these ideas, here's a a standalone demo of A2C.

  3. The memory module is called a "differentiable neural dictionary", but note that it is not fully differentiable, unlike end-to-end models (e.g. NTM, DNC). By giving up end-to-end differentiability, one can impose some explicit structure of what the memory module suppose to do, such as one-nearest neighbor search or kernel-weighted averaging.

References

  • Ritter, S., Wang, J. X., Kurth-Nelson, Z., Jayakumar, S. M., Blundell, C., Pascanu, R., & Botvinick, M. (2018). Been There, Done That: Meta-Learning with Episodic Recall. arXiv [stat.ML]. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1805.09692

    • also see Blundell et al. 2016, Pritzel et al. 2017 and Kaiser et al 2017...
  • Mnih, V., Badia, A. P., Mirza, M., Graves, A., Lillicrap, T. P., Harley, T., … Kavukcuoglu, K. (2016). Asynchronous Methods for Deep Reinforcement Learning. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.01783

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A pytorch implementation of memory augmented neural network/LSTM with differentiable neural dictionary, based on Ritter et al. (2018). Been There, Done That: Meta-Learning with Episodic Recall. ICML.

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