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/* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
* main.c
* Implements simulation of a single FMU instance
* that implements the "FMI for Co-Simulation 2.0" interface.
* Command syntax: see printHelp()
* Simulates the given FMU from t = 0 .. tEnd with fixed step size h and
* writes the computed solution to file 'result.csv'.
* The CSV file (comma-separated values) may e.g. be plotted using
* OpenOffice Calc or Microsoft Excel.
* This program demonstrates basic use of an FMU.
* Real applications may use advanced master algorithms to co-simulate
* many FMUs, limit the numerical error using error estimation
* and back-stepping, provide graphical plotting utilities, debug support,
* and user control of parameter and start values, or perform a clean
* error handling (e.g. call freeSlaveInstance when a call to the fmu
* returns with error). All this is missing here.
* Revision history
* 07.03.2014 initial version released in FMU SDK 2.0.0
* Free libraries and tools used to implement this simulator:
* - header files from the FMI specification
* - libxml2 XML parser, see
* - 7z.exe 4.57 zip and unzip tool, see
* Author: Adrian Tirea
* Copyright QTronic GmbH. All rights reserved.
* -------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include "fmi2.h"
#include "sim_support.h"
FMU fmu; // the fmu to simulate
// simulate the given FMU from tStart = 0 to tEnd.
static int simulate(FMU* fmu, double tEnd, double h, fmi2Boolean loggingOn, char separator,
int nCategories, char **categories) {
double time;
double tStart = 0; // start time
const char *guid; // global unique id of the fmu
const char *instanceName; // instance name
fmi2Component c; // instance of the fmu
fmi2Status fmi2Flag; // return code of the fmu functions
char *fmuResourceLocation = getTempResourcesLocation(); // path to the fmu resources as URL, "file://C:\QTronic\sales"
fmi2Boolean visible = fmi2False; // no simulator user interface
fmi2CallbackFunctions callbacks = {fmuLogger, calloc, free, NULL, fmu}; // called by the model during simulation
ModelDescription* md; // handle to the parsed XML file
fmi2Boolean toleranceDefined = fmi2False; // true if model description define tolerance
fmi2Real tolerance = 0; // used in setting up the experiment
ValueStatus vs = valueMissing;
int nSteps = 0;
double hh = h;
Element *defaultExp;
FILE* file;
// instantiate the fmu
md = fmu->modelDescription;
guid = getAttributeValue((Element *)md, att_guid);
instanceName = getAttributeValue((Element *)getCoSimulation(md), att_modelIdentifier);
c = fmu->instantiate(instanceName, fmi2CoSimulation, guid, fmuResourceLocation,
&callbacks, visible, loggingOn);
if (!c) return error("could not instantiate model");
if (nCategories > 0) {
fmi2Flag = fmu->setDebugLogging(c, fmi2True, nCategories, categories);
if (fmi2Flag > fmi2Warning) {
return error("could not initialize model; failed FMI set debug logging");
defaultExp = getDefaultExperiment(md);
if (defaultExp) tolerance = getAttributeDouble(defaultExp, att_tolerance, &vs);
if (vs == valueDefined) {
toleranceDefined = fmi2True;
fmi2Flag = fmu->setupExperiment(c, toleranceDefined, tolerance, tStart, fmi2True, tEnd);
if (fmi2Flag > fmi2Warning) {
return error("could not initialize model; failed FMI setup experiment");
fmi2Flag = fmu->enterInitializationMode(c);
if (fmi2Flag > fmi2Warning) {
return error("could not initialize model; failed FMI enter initialization mode");
fmi2Flag = fmu->exitInitializationMode(c);
if (fmi2Flag > fmi2Warning) {
return error("could not initialize model; failed FMI exit initialization mode");
// open result file
if (!(file = fopen(RESULT_FILE, "w"))) {
printf("could not write %s because:\n", RESULT_FILE);
printf(" %s\n", strerror(errno));
return 0; // failure
// output solution for time t0
outputRow(fmu, c, tStart, file, separator, fmi2True); // output column names
outputRow(fmu, c, tStart, file, separator, fmi2False); // output values
// enter the simulation loop
time = tStart;
while (time < tEnd) {
// check not to pass over end time
if (h > tEnd - time) {
hh = tEnd - time;
fmi2Flag = fmu->doStep(c, time, hh, fmi2True);
if (fmi2Flag == fmi2Discard) {
fmi2Boolean b;
// check if model requests to end simulation
if (fmi2OK != fmu->getBooleanStatus(c, fmi2Terminated, &b)) {
return error("could not complete simulation of the model. getBooleanStatus return other than fmi2OK");
if (b == fmi2True) {
return error("the model requested to end the simulation");
return error("could not complete simulation of the model");
if (fmi2Flag != fmi2OK) return error("could not complete simulation of the model");
time += hh;
outputRow(fmu, c, time, file, separator, fmi2False); // output values for this step
// end simulation
// print simulation summary
printf("Simulation from %g to %g terminated successful\n", tStart, tEnd);
printf(" steps ............ %d\n", nSteps);
printf(" fixed step size .. %g\n", h);
return 1; // success
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
const char* fmuFileName;
int i;
// parse command line arguments and load the FMU
// default arguments value
double tEnd = 1.0;
double h=0.1;
int loggingOn = 0;
char csv_separator = ',';
char **categories = NULL;
int nCategories = 0;
parseArguments(argc, argv, &fmuFileName, &tEnd, &h, &loggingOn, &csv_separator, &nCategories, &categories);
// run the simulation
printf("FMU Simulator: run '%s' from t=0..%g with step size h=%g, loggingOn=%d, csv separator='%c' ",
fmuFileName, tEnd, h, loggingOn, csv_separator);
printf("log categories={ ");
for (i = 0; i < nCategories; i++) printf("%s ", categories[i]);
simulate(&fmu, tEnd, h, loggingOn, csv_separator, nCategories, categories);
printf("CSV file '%s' written\n", RESULT_FILE);
// release FMU
#else /* WINDOWS */
#endif /* WINDOWS */
if (categories) free(categories);
// delete temp files obtained by unzipping the FMU
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