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Simple library to convert a Python dictionary or other native data type into a valid XML string.
Python
Branch: master

README.markdown

Summary

Converts a Python dictionary or other native data type into a valid XML string.

Details

Supports item (int, float, long, decimal.Decimal, bool, str, unicode, datetime, none and other number-like objects) and collection (list, set, tuple and dict, as well as iterable and dict-like objects) data types, with arbitrary nesting for the collections. Items with a datetime type are converted to ISO format strings. Items with a none type become empty XML elements.

The root object passed into the dicttoxml method can be any of the supported data types.

To satisfy XML syntax, the method prepends an <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> element and wraps the output in a <root> ... </root> element. However, this can be disabled to create XML snippets. Alternately, a custom root element can be specified by passing in the optional custom_root=foobar argument.

For lists of items, if each item is also a collection data type (lists, dict), the elements of that item are wrapped in a generic <item> ... </item> element.

Each element includes an optional type attribute with the data type. By default, the type attribute it included but it can be excluded by passing an optional attr_type=False argument when calling the dicttoxml method.

Note: datetime data types are converted into ISO format strings, and unicode and datetime data types get a str attribute.

Python -> XML
integer   int
long      long
float     float
Decimal   number
string    str
unicode   str
datetime  str
None      null
boolean   bool
list      list
set       list
tuple     list
dict      dict

Elements with an unsupported data type raise a TypeError exception.

If an element name is invalid XML, it is rendered with the name "key" and the invalid name is included as a name attribute. E.g. { "^.{0,256}$": "foo" } would be rendered <key name="^.{0,256}$">foo</key>. An exception is element names with spaces, which are converted to underscores.

This module should work in Python 2.6+ and Python 3.

Installation

The dicttoxml module is published on the Python Package Index, so you can install it using pip or easy_install.

pip install dicttoxml

Or:

easy_install dicttoxml

Alternately, you can download the tarballed installer - dicttoxml-[VERSION].tar.gz - for this package from the dist directory on github and uncompress it. Then, from a terminal or command window, navigate into the unzipped folder and type the command:

python setup.py install

That should be all you need to do.

Basic Usage

Once installed, import the library into your script and convert a dict into xml by running the dicttoxml function:

>>> import dicttoxml
>>> xml = dicttoxml.dicttoxml(some_dict)

Alternately, you can import the dicttoxml() function from the library.

>>> from dicttoxml import dicttoxml
>>> xml = dicttoxml(some_dict)

That's it!

JSON to XML

Let's say you want to fetch a JSON object from a URL and convert it into XML. Here's how you can do that:

>>> import json
>>> import urllib
>>> import dicttoxml
>>> page = urllib.urlopen('http://quandyfactory.com/api/example')
>>> content = page.read()
>>> obj = json.loads(content)
>>> print(obj)
{u'mylist': [u'foo', u'bar', u'baz'], u'mydict': {u'foo': u'bar', u'baz': 1}, u'ok': True}
>>> xml = dicttoxml.dicttoxml(obj)
>>> print(xml)
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?><root><mylist><item type="str">foo</item><item type="str">bar</item><item type="str">baz</item></mylist><mydict><foo type="str">bar</foo><baz type="int">1</baz></mydict><ok type="bool">true</ok></root>

It's that simple.

Disable Type Attributes

By default, dicttoxml includes a type attribute for each element. Starting in version 1.4, you can turn this off by passing an optional attr_type=False argument to the dicttoxml method.

Using our example:

>>> xml = dicttoxml.dicttoxml(obj, attr_type=False)
>>> print(xml)
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?><root><mydict><foo>bar</foo><baz>1</baz></mydict><mylist><item>foo</item><item>bar</item><item>baz</item></mylist><ok>true</ok></root>

As you can see, the only difference is that the type attributes are now absent.

Custom Root

By default, dicttoxml wraps all the elements in a <root> ... </root> element. Starting in version 1.5, you can change the name of the root element to something else by passing an optional custom_root=some_custom_root argument to the dicttoxml method.

Using our example:

>>> xml = dicttoxml.dicttoxml(obj, custom_root=some_custom_root)
>>> print(xml)
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?><some_custom_root><mydict><foo>bar</foo><baz>1</baz></mydict><mylist><item>foo</item><item>bar</item><item>baz</item></mylist><ok>true</ok></some_custom_root>

As you can see, the name of the root element has changed to some_custom_root.

XML Snippet

You can also create an XML snippet for inclusion into another XML document, rather than a full XML document itself.

Continuing with the example from above:

>>> xml_snippet = dicttoxml.dicttoxml(obj, root=False)
>>> print(xml_snippet)
<mylist><item type="str">foo</item><item type="str">bar</item><item type="str">baz</item></mylist><mydict><foo type="str">bar</foo><baz type="int">1</baz></mydict><ok type="bool">true</ok>

With the optional root argument set to False, the method converts the dict into XML without including an <?xml> prolog or a <root> element to enclose all the other elements.

Pretty-Printing

As they say, Python comes with batteries included. You can easily syntax-check and pretty-print your XML using Python's xml.dom.minidom module.

Again, continuing with our example:

>>> from xml.dom.minidom import parseString
>>> dom = parseString(xml)
>>> print(dom.toprettyxml())
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<root>
    <mylist type="list">
        <item type="str">foo</item>
        <item type="str">bar</item>
        <item type="str">baz</item>
    </mylist>
    <mydict type="dict">
        <foo type="str">bar</foo>
        <baz type="int">1</baz>
    </mydict>
    <ok type="bool">true</ok>
</root>

This makes the XML easier to read. If it is not well-formed, the xml parser will raise an exception.

Unique ID Attributes

Starting in version 1.1, you can set an optional ids parameter so that dicttoxml gives each element a unique id attribute.

With the ids flag on, the function generates a unique randomly-generated ID for each element based on the parent element in the form parent_unique. For list items, the id is in the form parent_unique_index.

Continuing with our example:

>>> xml_with_ids = dicttoxml.dicttoxml(obj, ids=True)
>>> print(parseString(xml_with_ids).toprettyxml())
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<root>
        <mylist id="root_160980" type="list">
                <item id="mylist_609405_1" type="str">foo</item>
                <item id="mylist_609405_2" type="str">bar</item>
                <item id="mylist_609405_3" type="str">baz</item>
        </mylist>
        <mydict id="root_140407" type="dict">
                <foo id="mydict_260437" type="str">bar</foo>
                <baz id="mydict_111194" type="int">1</baz>
        </mydict>
        <ok id="root_612831" type="bool">true</ok>
</root>

Note that the default XML output remains the same as previous, so as not to break compatibility for existing uses.

Dict-Like and Iterable Objects

Starting in version 1.3, dicttoxml accepts dict-like objects that are derived from the dict base class and treats them like dicts. For example:

>>> import collections
>>> dictlike = collections.OrderedDict({'foo': 1, 'bar': 2, 'baz': 3})
>>> xml = dicttoxml.dicttoxml(dictlike)
>>> print(xml)
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?><root><baz type="int">3</baz><foo type="int">1</foo><bar type="int">2</bar></root>

Also starting in version 1.3, dicttoxml accepts iterable objects and treats them like lists. For example:

>>> myiterator = xrange(1,11)
>>> xml = dicttoxml.dicttoxml(myiterator)
>>> print(xml)
'<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?><root><item type="int">1</item><item type="int">2</item><item type="int">3</item><item type="int">4</item><item type="int">5</item><item type="int">6</item><item type="int">7</item><item type="int">8</item><item type="int">9</item><item type="int">10</item></root>'

As always, this remains compatible with arbitrary nesting of objects and types.

Debugging

You can also enable debugging information.

>>> import dicttoxml
>>> dicttoxml.set_debug()
Debug mode is on. Events are logged at: dicttoxml.log
>>> xml = dicttoxml.dicttoxml(some_dict)

By default, debugging information is logged to dicttoxml.log, but you can change this:

>>> dicttoxml.set_debug(filename='some_other_filename.log')
Debug mode is on. Events are logged at: some_other_filename.log

To turn debug mode off, just call set_debug with an argument of False:

>>> dicttoxml.set_debug(False)
Debug mode is off.

If you encounter any errors in the code, please file an issue on github: https://github.com/quandyfactory/dicttoxml/issues.

Author

Version

  • Version: 1.6.6
  • Release Date: 2015-04-09

Revision History

Version 1.6.6

  • Release Date: 2015-04-09
  • Changes:
    • PyPi does not want to upload version 1.6.5. It's returning an Upload failed (500): Internal Server Error message when I try to upload the code. I'm incrementing the version by one and reinstalling it to see if that fixes the issue.

Version 1.6.5

  • Release Date: 2015-04-09
  • Changes:
    • Fixed issue #37, elements with boolean values were getting a "number" type attribute. The issue was that isinstance(True, numbers.Number) returns True. I modified the get_xml_type() function to test for boolean before testing for numbers.Number. Thanks to badsequel for identifying and reporting the issue.

Version 1.6.4

  • Release Date: 2015-03-11
  • Changes:
    • Fixed issue #36, logging was throwing an UnicodeDecodeError on non-ASCII characters in dictionary values. Thanks to beef9999 for identifying and reporting the issue.

Version 1.6.3

  • Release Date: 2015-03-05
  • Changes:
    • Updated README.markdown to reflect changes made in v. 1.6.2.

Version 1.6.2

  • Release Date: 2015-03-05
  • Changes:
    • Fixed issue #35, dicttoxml fails to identify a decimal.Decimal as a number. This is done by replacing type(val).__name__ in ('int', 'long') with the more generic isinstance(val, number.Number). Thanks to jmagnusson for finding and fixing the error.

Version 1.6.1

  • Release Date: 2015-03-05
  • Changes:

Version 1.6.0

  • Release Date: 2015-02-23
  • Changes:
    • Fixed issue #32, duplication in test for list-like data types.

Version 1.5.9

  • Release Date: 2015-02-23
  • Changes:
    • Merged pull request #33 to replace invocations of logging with LOG. Thanks to mfriedenhagen for identifying the issue with the logger, and to seyhuns for supplying a pull request that could be merged automatically.

Version 1.5.8

Version 1.5.7

  • Release Date: 2014-12-09
  • Changes:
    • Fixed issue #29. Thanks to birdsarah for identifying this performance issue and providing a fix.

Version 1.5.6

  • Release Date: 2014-08-18
  • Changes:
    • Fixed issue #24. Thanks to gdude2002 for identifying the issue.
    • Abstracted all XML validity tests to a single function make_valid_xml_name(key, attr)

Version 1.5.5

  • Release Date: 2014-06-16
  • Changes:
    • Fixed issue #21. Thanks to lichenbo for identifying the issue and providing a fix.
    • Abstracted setting XML type attribute into a function, get_xml_type().
    • Standardized variable names inside functions (e.g. k -> key, v -> val).
    • Cleaned up README so it works as both Markdown (for github) and ReStructuredText (for PyPi)

Version 1.5.4

  • Release Date: 2014-06-03
  • Changes:

Version 1.5.3

  • Release Date: 2014-06-08
  • Changes:
    • Minor updates to README.markdown

Version 1.5.2

  • Release Date: 2014-06-03
  • Changes:
    • Minor updates to README.markdown

Version 1.5.1

  • Release Date: 2014-06-03
  • Changes:
    • Minor updates to README.markdown

Version 1.5

  • Release Date: 2014-06-03
  • Changes:

Version 1.4

Version 1.3.7

  • Release Date: 2014-04-21
  • Changes:
    • Updated MANIFEST.in and setup.py so the licence and readme are properly included in the distribution.

Version 1.3.6

  • Release Date: 2014-04-21
  • Changes:
    • Added MANIFEST.in to include the LICENCE.txt and README.markdown files in the distribution, as per issue #15.

Version 1.3.5

  • Release Date: 2014-04-14
  • Changes:
    • dicttoxml() accepts [None] as a parameter and returns a valid XML object, as per issue #13.

Version 1.3.4

  • Release Date: 2014-04-14
  • Changes:
    • dicttoxml() now accepts None as a parameter and returns a valid XML object, as per issue #13.

Version 1.3.3

  • Release Date: 2014-04-14
  • Changes:
    • Automatically converts spaces in key names to underscores, as per issue #12.

Version 1.3.2

  • Release Date: 2014-04-14
  • Changes:
    • Added convert_none() function to convert a null value into XML
    • Added key_is_valid_xml() function to test if a key is valid XML
    • Updated convert_kv(), convert_bool() and convert_none() functions to test whether the key is a valid XML name and, if it is not, to render it as <key name="{invalidname}">value</key>. This addresses issue 10.

Version 1.3.1

  • Release Date: 2013-07-12
  • Changes:
    • Updated README to note support for dict-like and iterable objects.

Version 1.3

  • Release Date: 2013-07-12
  • Changes:
    • changed test for dict type from type(x)=dict to isinstance(x,dict) to include dict-like subclases derived from dict, as per issue 9.
    • Added test for isinstance(x,collections.Iterable) to test for list, set, tuple to accommodate iterable objects, as per issue 9.

Version 1.2

  • Release Date: 2013-07-11
  • Changes:
    • Fixed typo in convert_list() exception raise as per issue 8.

Version 1.1.2

  • Release Date: 2013-05-06
  • Changes:
    • Renamed github repo from dict2xml to dicttoxml to match PyPI name.

Version 1.1.1

  • Release Date: 2013-05-06
  • Changes:
    • Fixed README.markdown

Version 1.1

  • Release Date: 2013-05-06
  • Changes:
    • Added an optional ids argument to give each element a unique, randomly generated id attribute.
    • All elements now inlcude a type attribute.
    • Updated readme with more examples and Python 3 compatible syntax.
    • Thanks to cpetz for suggesting this feature.

Verson 1.0

  • Release Date: 2013-03-04
  • Changes:
    • Replaced debug function with logging module.
    • Converted code to work in Python 2.6+ and Python 3.
    • Fixed unresolved isoformat reference in convert_list.
    • Bug thanks to regisd for forking code and making several important fixes!

Version 0.9.1

  • Release Date: 2013-03-03
  • Changes:

Version 0.9

  • Release Date: 2013-02-27
  • Changes:
    • Added support for tuples.

Version 0.8

  • Release Date: 2013-02-23
  • Changes:
    • Changed name to dicttoxml and published to the Python Package Index (PyPI).

Version 0.7

  • Release Date: 2012-09-12
  • Changes:
    • Fixed issue #4 - thanks to PaulMdx for finding it and suggesting a fix.

Version 0.6

  • Release Date: 2012-07-13
  • Changes:
    • Merged pull request from 0902horn on github to escape special XML characters.

Version 0.5

  • Release Date: 2012-02-28
  • Changes:
    • Added support for datetime objects (converts them into ISO format strings) and sets (converts them into lists).
    • Fixed bug 2 by raising an exception on unsupported data types.

Version 0.4

  • Release Date: 2012-01-26
  • Changes:
    • Added optional root argument (default True) on whether to wrap the generated XML in an XML declaration and a root element.
    • Added ability to convert a root object of other data types - int, float, str, unicode, list - as well as dict.
    • Corrected license attribute in setup.py.
    • Renamed notify() function to debug_notify() and made it more comprehensive.

Version 0.3

  • Release Date: 2012-01-24
  • Changes:
    • Fixed inconsistent str/string attributes.

Version 0.2

  • Release Date: 2012-01-24
  • Changes:
    • Fixed bug in list items.
    • Added element attribute with data type.

Version 0.1

  • Release Date: 2012-01-24
  • Changes:
    • First commit.

Copyright and Licence

Copyright 2012 by Ryan McGreal.

Released under the GNU General Public Licence, Version 2:
http://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/gpl-2.0.html

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