Skip to content
Switch branches/tags
Go to file
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

gargle (development version)

We have switched to newer OAuth2 URIs, moving away from the and equivalents.

credentials_gce() no longer validates the requested scopes against instance scopes. In practice, it's easy for this check to be more of a nuisance than a help (#161, #185 @craigcitro).

request_retry() retries for an expanded set of HTTP codes: 408, 429, 500, 502, 503. Previously, retries were limited to 429 (#169).

gargle 1.2.0

Workload identity federation

credentials_external_account() is a new function that implements "workload identity federation", a new (as of April 2021) keyless authentication mechanism. This allows applications running on a non-Google Cloud platform, such as AWS, to access Google Cloud resources without using a conventional service account token, eliminating the security problem posed by long-lived, powerful service account credential files.

credentials_external_account() has been inserted into the default registry of credential-fetchers tried by token_fetch(), which makes it automatically available in certain wrapper packages, such as bigrquery. credentials_app_default() recognizes the JSON configuration for an external account and passes such a call along to credentials_external_account().

This new feature is still experimental and currently only supports AWS. This blog post provides a good high-level introduction to workload identity federation.

Other changes

The email argument of credentials_user_oauth2() accepts domain-only email specification via a glob pattern. The goal is to make it possible for code like PKG_auth(email = "*") to identify a suitable cached token when executed on the machine of either or

gargle now throws errors via cli::cli_abort(), which means error messages now have the same styling as informational messages.

Dependency changes

aws.ec2metadata and aws.signature are new in Suggests.

gargle 1.1.0

OAuth token cache

Two changes affect stored user OAuth tokens:

  • The default cache location has moved, to better align with general conventions around where to cache user data. Here's how that looks for a typical user:
    • Typical before, macOS: ~/.R/gargle/gargle-oauth
    • Typical after, macOS: ~/Library/Caches/gargle
    • Typical before, Windows: C:/Users/jane/.R/gargle/gargle-oauth
    • Typical after, Windows: C:/Users/jane/AppData/Local/gargle/gargle/Cache
  • Tokens created with one of the built-in OAuth apps provided by the tidyverse packages are checked for validity. Tokens made with an old app are deleted. Note that we introduced a new OAuth app in gargle v1.0.0 and the previous app could be disabled at any time.
    • Nickname of previous tidyverse OAuth app: tidyverse-calliope
    • Nickname of tidyverse OAuth app as of gargle v1.0.0: tidyverse-clio

For users who accept all default behaviour around OAuth, these changes just mean you will see some messages about cleaning and moving the token cache. These users can also expect to go through interactive auth (approximately once per package / API), to obtain fresh tokens made with the current tidyverse OAuth app.

If the rolling of the tidyverse OAuth app is highly disruptive to your workflow, this is a good wake-up call that you should be using your own OAuth app or, perhaps, an entirely different auth method, such as using a service account token in non-interactive settings. As always, these articles explain how to take more control of auth:

User interface

The user interface has gotten more stylish, thanks to the cli package (

All errors thrown by gargle route through rlang::abort(), providing better access to the backtrace and, potentially, error data. These errors have, at the very least, the gargle_error class and may also have additional subclasses.

gargle_verbosity() replaces gargle_quiet(). Each such function is (or was) a convenience wrapper to query the option with that name. Therefore, the option named "gargle_verbosity" now replaces "gargle_quiet". If "gargle_verbosity" is unset, the old "gargle_quiet" is still consulted, but the user is advised to update their usage.

The new "gargle_verbosity" option is more expressive and has three levels:

  • "debug", equivalent to the previous gargle_quiet = FALSE. Use for debugging and troubleshooting.
  • "info" (the default), basically equivalent to the previous gargle_quiet = TRUE. Since gargle is not a user-facing package, it has very little to say and only emits messages that end users really need to see.
  • "silent", no previous equivalent and of little practical significance. But it can be used to suppress all gargle messages.

The helpers with_gargle_verbosity() and local_gargle_verbosity() make it easy to temporarily modify the verbosity level, in the spirit of the withr package.

Other changes

There is special error handling when OAuth token refresh fails, due to deletion of the associated OAuth app. This should help users who are relying on the default app provided by a package and, presumably, they need to update that package (#168).

gargle_oob_default() returns TRUE unconditionally when running in RStudio Server.

response_process() gains a remember argument. When TRUE (the default), gargle stores the most recent response internally (with auth tokens redacted). Unexported functions gargle:::gargle_last_response() and gargle:::gargle_last_content() facilitate post mortem analysis of, e.g., a failed request (#152).

google.rpc.ErrorInfo errors are explicitly handled now, resulting in a more informative error message.

request_retry() is better able to detect when the per-user quota has been exhausted (vs. the per-project quota), resulting in a more informed choice of backoff.

Dependency changes

cli is new in Imports.

rstudioapi is new in Imports.

rappdirs is new in Imports.

httpuv is new in Suggests. We encourage its installation in interactive sessions, if we're about to initiate OAuth flow, unless it's clear that out-of-band auth is inevitable.

gargle now relies on testthat >= 3.0.0 and, specifically, uses third edition features.

mockr is new in Suggests, since testthat::use_mock() is superseded.

gargle 1.0.0

  • Better handling of BadRequest errors, i.e. more specifics are revealed.

  • oauth_app_from_json now supports JSON files from the "Web application" client type (#155).

  • request_retry() is a drop-in substitute for request_make() that uses (modified) exponential backoff to retry requests that fail with error 429 RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED (#63).

  • Credentials used in selected client packages have been rolled. Users of bigrquery, googledrive, and googlesheets4 can expect a prompt to re-authorize the "Tidyverse API Packages" when using an OAuth user token. This has no impact on users who use their own OAuth app (i.e. client ID and secret) or those who use service account tokens.

gargle 0.5.0

  • Troubleshooting gargle auth is a new vignette.

  • All user-facing messaging routes through rlang::inform(), which (as of rlang 0.4.2) prints to standard output in interactive sessions and to standard error in non-interactive sessions (#133). Messaging remains under the control of the "gargle_quiet" option, which defaults to TRUE.

  • The Gargle2.0 class gains its own $refresh() method, which removes a token from gargle's cache when it cannot be refreshed (#79).

  • credentials_service_account() and credentials_app_default() gain an optional subject argument, which can be used to pass a subject claim along to httr::oauth_service_token() (#131, @samterfa).

  • request_make() defaults to encode = "json", which differs from the httr default, but aligns better with Google APIs (#124).

  • field_mask() is a utility function for constructing a Protocol-Buffers-style, JSON-encoded field mask from a named R list.

  • All R6 classes use the new documentation capabilities that appeared in roxygen2 7.0.0.

  • OAuth2 flow can only be initiated when rlang::is_interactive() is TRUE. If a new token is needed in a non-interactive session, gargle now throws an error (#113).

  • The application default credentials path is fixed on non-Windows platforms (#115, @acroz).

  • request_develop() can accept a parameter that appears in both the path and the body (#123).

  • response_process() explicitly declares the UTF-8 encoding of the content in Google API responses tidyverse/googlesheets4#26.

  • response_process() is able to expose details for a wider set of errors.

gargle 0.4.0

  • Eliminated uninformative failure when OAuth tokens cached on R <= 3.5 are re-loaded on R >= 3.6. The change to the default serialization version (2 vs. 3) creates an apparent mismatch between a token's hash and its key. Instead of inexplicably failing, now we attempt to repair the cache and carry on (#109, tidyverse/googledrive#274.

  • In a non-interactive context, gargle will use a cached OAuth token, if it discovers (at least) one, even if the user has not given explicit instructions. We emit a recommendation that the user make their intent unambiguous and link to the vignette on non-interactive auth (#92).

  • gargle consults the option "httr_oob_default", if the option "gargle_oob_default" is unset. This is part of an effort to automatically detect the need for out-of-bound auth in more situations (#102).

  • credentials_service_account() checks explicitly that type is "service_account". This makes it easier to detect a common mistake, where the JSON for an OAuth client is provided instead of the JSON representing a service account (#93).

  • credentials_gce() gains cloud-platform as a default scope, assuming that the typical user wants to "View and manage your data across Google Cloud Platform services" (#110, @MarkEdmondson1234).

gargle 0.3.1

  • Non-interactive auth is a new vignette that serves as a guide for any client packages that use gargle for auth.

  • credentials_gce() might actually work now (#97, @wlongabaugh).

  • credentials_app_default() got a small bug fix relating to putting the token in the header (r-dbi/bigrquery#336)

  • token_fetch() silently catches warnings, in addition to errors, as it falls through the registry of credential-fetching methods (#89).

  • The yes/no asking if it's OK to cache OAuth tokens prints fully now (r-dbi/bigrquery#333).

gargle 0.3.0

  • The unexported functions available for generating standardized docs for PKG_auth functions in client packages have been updated.

  • token_userinfo(), token_email(), and token_tokeninfo() are newly exported helpers that retrieve information for a token.

  • AuthState$set_app() and AuthState$set_api_key() now allow setting a value of NULL, i.e. these fields are easier to clear.

  • credentials_byo_oauth2() gains the ability to ingest a token from an object of class httr::request, i.e. to retrieve the auth_token component that holds an object of class httr::Token2.0 that has been processed with httr::config().

gargle 0.2.0

  • All built-in API credentials have been rotated and are stored internally in a way that reinforces appropriate use. There is a new Privacy policy as well as a policy for authors of packages or other applications. This is related to a process to get the gargle project verified, which affects the OAuth2 capabilities and the consent screen.

  • New vignette on "How to get your own API credentials", to help other package authors or users obtain their own API key or OAuth client ID and secret.

  • credentials_byo_oauth2() is a new credential function. It is included in the default registry consulted by token_fetch() and is tried just before credentials_user_oauth2().

gargle 0.1.3

  • Initial CRAN release