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README.md

GeoSpark: Bring sf to spark

CRAN version Build Status

Introduction & Philosophy

Goal: make traditional GISer handle geospatial big data easier.

The origin idea comes from Uber, which proposed a ESRI Hive UDF + Presto solution to solve large-scale geospatial data processing problem with spatial index in production.

However, The Uber solution is not open source yet and Presto is not popular than Spark.

In that, geospark R package aims at bringing local sf functions to distributed spark mode with GeoSpark scala package.

Currently, geospark support the most of important sf functions in spark, here is a summary comparison. And the geospark R package is keeping close with geospatial and big data community, which powered by sparklyr, sf, dplyr and dbplyr.

Installation

This package requires Apache Spark 2.X which you can install using sparklyr::install_spark("2.3"), and spark2.4 is not supported yet; in addition, you can install geospark as follows:

pak::pkg_install("harryprince/geospark")

Getting Started

In this example we will join spatial data using quadrad tree indexing. First, we will initialize the geospark extension and connect to Spark using sparklyr:

library(sparklyr)
library(geospark)

sc <- spark_connect(master = "local")

Next we will load some spatial dataset containing as polygons and points.

polygons <- read.table(system.file(package="geospark","examples/polygons.txt"), sep="|", col.names=c("area","geom"))
points <- read.table(system.file(package="geospark","examples/points.txt"), sep="|", col.names=c("city","state","geom"))

polygons_wkt <- copy_to(sc, polygons)
points_wkt <- copy_to(sc, points)

And we can quickly visulize the dataset by mapview and sf.

M1 = polygons %>%
sf::st_as_sf(wkt="geom") %>% mapview::mapview()


M2 = points %>%
sf::st_as_sf(wkt="geom") %>% mapview::mapview()

M1+M2

The SQL Mode

Now we can perform a GeoSpatial join using the st_contains which converts wkt into geometry object. To get the original data from wkt format, we will use the st_geomfromwkt functions. We can execute this spatial query using DBI:

DBI::dbGetQuery(sc, "
  SELECT area, state, count(*) cnt FROM
    (SELECT area, ST_GeomFromWKT(polygons.geom) as y FROM polygons) polygons
  INNER JOIN
    (SELECT ST_GeomFromWKT (points.geom) as x, state, city FROM points) points
  WHERE ST_Contains(polygons.y,points.x) GROUP BY area, state")
             area state cnt
1      texas area    TX  10
2     dakota area    SD   1
3     dakota area    ND  10
4 california area    CA  10
5   new york area    NY   9

The Tidyverse Mode

You can also perform this query using dplyr as follows:

library(dplyr)
polygons_wkt <- mutate(polygons_wkt, y = st_geomfromwkt(geom))
points_wkt <- mutate(points_wkt, x = st_geomfromwkt(geom))

sc_res <- inner_join(polygons_wkt,
                     points_wkt,
                     sql_on = sql("st_contains(y,x)")) %>% 
  group_by(area, state) %>%
  summarise(cnt = n()) 
  
sc_res %>%
  head()
# Source: spark<?> [?? x 3]
# Groups: area
  area            state   cnt
  <chr>           <chr> <dbl>
1 texas area      TX       10
2 dakota area     SD        1
3 dakota area     ND       10
4 california area CA       10
5 new york area   NY        9

The final result can be present by leaflet.

Idx_df = collect(sc_res) %>% 
right_join(polygons,by = (c("area"="area"))) %>% 
sf::st_as_sf(wkt="geom")

Idx_df %>% 
leaflet::leaflet() %>% 
leaflet::addTiles() %>% 
leaflet::addPolygons(popup = ~as.character(cnt),color=~colormap::colormap_pal()(cnt)) 

Finally, we can disconnect:

spark_disconnect_all()

Performance

Configuration

To improve performance, it is recommended to use the KryoSerializer and the GeoSparkKryoRegistrator before connecting as follows:

conf <- spark_config()
conf$spark.serializer <- "org.apache.spark.serializer.KryoSerializer"
conf$spark.kryo.registrator <- "org.datasyslab.geospark.serde.GeoSparkKryoRegistrator"

Benchmarks

This performance comparison is an extract from the original GeoSpark: A Cluster Computing Framework for Processing Spatial Data paper:

No. test case the number of records
1 SELECT IDCODE FROM zhenlongxiang WHERE ST_Disjoint(geom,ST_GeomFromText(‘POLYGON((517000 1520000,619000 1520000,619000 2530000,517000 2530000,517000 1520000))’)); 85,236 rows
2 SELECT fid FROM cyclonepoint WHERE ST_Disjoint(geom,ST_GeomFromText(‘POLYGON((90 3,170 3,170 55,90 55,90 3))’,4326)) 60,591 rows

Query performance(ms),

No. PostGIS/PostgreSQL GeoSpark SQL ESRI Spatial Framework for Hadoop
1 9631 480 40,784
2 110872 394 64,217

According to this paper, the Geospark SQL definitely outperforms PG and ESRI UDF under a very large data set.

If you are wondering how the spatial index accelerate the query process, here is a good Uber example: Unwinding Uber’s Most Efficient Service and the Chinese translation version

Functions

Constructor

name desc
ST_GeomFromWKT Construct a Geometry from Wkt.
ST_GeomFromWKB Construct a Geometry from Wkb.
ST_GeomFromGeoJSON Construct a Geometry from GeoJSON.
ST_Point Construct a Point from X and Y.
ST_PointFromText Construct a Point from Text, delimited by Delimiter.
ST_PolygonFromText Construct a Polygon from Text, delimited by Delimiter.
ST_LineStringFromText Construct a LineString from Text, delimited by Delimiter.
ST_PolygonFromEnvelope Construct a Polygon from MinX, MinY, MaxX, MaxY.

Geometry Measurement

name desc
ST_Length Return the perimeter of A
ST_Area Return the area of A
ST_Distance Return the Euclidean distance between A and B

Spatial Join

name desc
ST_Contains
ST_Intersects
ST_Within
ST_Equals
ST_Crosses
ST_Touches
ST_Overlaps

Distance join

ST_Distance:

Spark GIS SQL mode example:

SELECT *
FROM pointdf1, pointdf2
WHERE ST_Distance(pointdf1.pointshape1,pointdf2.pointshape2) <= 2

Tidyverse style example:

st_join(x = pointdf1,
           y = pointdf2,
           join = sql("ST_Distance(pointshape1, pointshape2) <= 2"))

Aggregation

name desc
ST_Envelope_Aggr Return the entire envelope boundary of all geometries in A
ST_Union_Aggr Return the polygon union of all polygons in A

More Advacned Functions

name desc
ST_ConvexHull Return the Convex Hull of polgyon A
ST_Envelope Return the envelop boundary of A
ST_Centroid Return the centroid point of A
ST_Transform Transform the Spatial Reference System / Coordinate Reference System of A, from SourceCRS to TargetCRS
ST_IsValid Test if a geometry is well formed
ST_PrecisionReduce Reduce the decimals places in the coordinates of the geometry to the given number of decimal places. The last decimal place will be rounded.
ST_IsSimple Test if geometry's only self-intersections are at boundary points.
ST_Buffer Returns a geometry/geography that represents all points whose distance from this Geometry/geography is less than or equal to distance.
ST_AsText Return the Well-Known Text string representation of a geometry

Architecture

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