The symmetric input-output tables (SIOTs) are complex statistical products that present inter-related statistics in a predefined structure. They are often found in spreadsheets that follow this structure, or in the case Eurostat in a data repository. In both cases they in reproducible research must be downloaded and restructured to programmatically accessible form. Often these highly structured statistics need to be analyzed together with other data, for example, when employment effects and multipliers are calculated. In this case processing the employment data to SIOT conforming format is a significant preprocessing challenge.
The iotables are exactly designed for these tasks. Currently the package downloads and processes standardized European SIOTs conforming to the latest statistical regulations, i.e. SIOTs starting from the year 2010.
The aim of this introduction is not to introduce input-output economics,
or SIOTs in detail. The Eurostat Manual of Supply, Use and Input-Output
and the Eurostat thematic
(for further reference:
Eurostat Manual) in the documentation should
be consulted for further information about the data and the metadata.
In order to test the analytical functions of the package and to have a
manageable sized example data set, we use the real-life data from the
Eurostat manual. The
germany_1995 dataset is a simplified 6x6 sized
SIOT taken from the
Eurostat Manual (
p481). The package function
examples can be checked against published results from Jörg
These calculations can be followed in the Introduction to
The calculation of induced effects (Type-II multipliers) are following the Input-Output Multipliers Specification Sheet and Supporting Material, Spicosa Project Report. The analytical functions are tested against this example, too.
You can install iotables 0.4.7 from CRAN or the latest 0.9 development version with github:
# From CRAN: install.packages("iotables") # From Github (development version) devtools::install_github("rOpenGov/iotables") #with vignettes: #devtools::install_github("rOpenGov/iotables", build_vignettes = TRUE)
See also a long-form documentation (publication candidate) iotables: an R Package for Reproducible Input-Output Economics Analysis, Economic and Environmental Impact Assessment with Empirical Data on Zenodo.
The Introduction to iotables vignette presents most of the examples of the Eurostat Manual of Supply, Use and Input-Output Tables (Eurostat Manual, Chapter 15.) This is a good introduction to understand what will the functions do, and to check that they work correctly. From 0.9.9 it extended with the replication results from the Handbook on Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables with Extensions and Applications published by the United Nations.
testthat infrastructure of the package checks the proper working
of the functions against the published results from the
The Working with Eurostat Data vignette shows how you can download, pre-process and use real data from Eurostat.
The United Kingdom Input-Output Analytical Tables
are used for testing the
iotables package, because they are
well-documented and detailed, organized data is available with them.
These calculations can be followed in the United Kingdom Input-Output
Eurostat’s data can be downloaded in several tidy, long-form, files, and a lot of filtering is needed to start working with it.
Currently the following Eurostat SIOTs can be used:
|Table type||source code|
|product x product SIOTs||
|industry x industry SIOTs||
|use tables at basic prices||
|trade and transport margins||
|net taxes less subsidies||
|Supply table at basic prices||
|Use table at purchasers’ price||
cp element refers to basic prices and the
pyp to previous years’
Contributions are very welcome:
Kindly cite this work as follows:
Daniel Antal. (2022, February 10). rOpenGov/iotables: Importing and Manipulating Symmetric Input-Output Tables (Version 0.9). Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6033771 for released version. Development version URL: https://ropengov.github.io/iotables/
Code of Conduct
Please note that the iotables project is released with a Contributor Code of Conduct. By contributing to this project, you agree to abide by its terms.