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require 'set'
require 'tempfile'
module Rack
# Rack::Utils contains a grab-bag of useful methods for writing web
# applications adopted from all kinds of Ruby libraries.
module Utils
# Performs URI escaping so that you can construct proper
# query strings faster. Use this rather than the cgi.rb
# version since it's faster. (Stolen from Camping).
def escape(s)
s.to_s.gsub(/([^ a-zA-Z0-9_.-]+)/n) {
'%'+$1.unpack('H2'*$1.size).join('%').upcase
}.tr(' ', '+')
end
module_function :escape
# Unescapes a URI escaped string. (Stolen from Camping).
def unescape(s)
s.tr('+', ' ').gsub(/((?:%[0-9a-fA-F]{2})+)/n){
[$1.delete('%')].pack('H*')
}
end
module_function :unescape
# Stolen from Mongrel, with some small modifications:
# Parses a query string by breaking it up at the '&'
# and ';' characters. You can also use this to parse
# cookies by changing the characters used in the second
# parameter (which defaults to '&;').
def parse_query(qs, d = '&;')
params = {}
(qs || '').split(/[#{d}] */n).each do |p|
k, v = unescape(p).split('=', 2)
if cur = params[k]
if cur.class == Array
params[k] << v
else
params[k] = [cur, v]
end
else
params[k] = v
end
end
return params
end
module_function :parse_query
def build_query(params)
params.map { |k, v|
if v.class == Array
build_query(v.map { |x| [k, x] })
else
escape(k) + "=" + escape(v)
end
}.join("&")
end
module_function :build_query
# Escape ampersands, brackets and quotes to their HTML/XML entities.
def escape_html(string)
string.to_s.gsub("&", "&amp;").
gsub("<", "&lt;").
gsub(">", "&gt;").
gsub("'", "&#39;").
gsub('"', "&quot;")
end
module_function :escape_html
def select_best_encoding(available_encodings, accept_encoding)
# http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html
expanded_accept_encoding =
accept_encoding.map { |m, q|
if m == "*"
(available_encodings - accept_encoding.map { |m2, _| m2 }).map { |m2| [m2, q] }
else
[[m, q]]
end
}.inject([]) { |mem, list|
mem + list
}
encoding_candidates = expanded_accept_encoding.sort_by { |_, q| -q }.map { |m, _| m }
unless encoding_candidates.include?("identity")
encoding_candidates.push("identity")
end
expanded_accept_encoding.find_all { |m, q|
q == 0.0
}.each { |m, _|
encoding_candidates.delete(m)
}
return (encoding_candidates & available_encodings)[0]
end
module_function :select_best_encoding
# Context allows the use of a compatible middleware at different points
# in a request handling stack. A compatible middleware must define
# #context which should take the arguments env and app. The first of which
# would be the request environment. The second of which would be the rack
# application that the request would be forwarded to.
class Context
attr_reader :for, :app
def initialize(app_f, app_r)
raise 'running context does not respond to #context' unless app_f.respond_to? :context
@for, @app = app_f, app_r
end
def call(env)
@for.context(env, @app)
end
def recontext(app)
self.class.new(@for, app)
end
def context(env, app=@app)
recontext(app).call(env)
end
end
# A case-insensitive Hash that preserves the original case of a
# header when set.
class HeaderHash < Hash
def initialize(hash={})
@names = {}
hash.each { |k, v| self[k] = v }
end
def to_hash
{}.replace(self)
end
def [](k)
super @names[k.downcase]
end
def []=(k, v)
delete k
@names[k.downcase] = k
super k, v
end
def delete(k)
super @names.delete(k.downcase)
end
def include?(k)
@names.has_key? k.downcase
end
alias_method :has_key?, :include?
alias_method :member?, :include?
alias_method :key?, :include?
def merge!(other)
other.each { |k, v| self[k] = v }
self
end
def merge(other)
hash = dup
hash.merge! other
end
end
# Every standard HTTP code mapped to the appropriate message.
# Stolen from Mongrel.
HTTP_STATUS_CODES = {
100 => 'Continue',
101 => 'Switching Protocols',
200 => 'OK',
201 => 'Created',
202 => 'Accepted',
203 => 'Non-Authoritative Information',
204 => 'No Content',
205 => 'Reset Content',
206 => 'Partial Content',
300 => 'Multiple Choices',
301 => 'Moved Permanently',
302 => 'Found',
303 => 'See Other',
304 => 'Not Modified',
305 => 'Use Proxy',
307 => 'Temporary Redirect',
400 => 'Bad Request',
401 => 'Unauthorized',
402 => 'Payment Required',
403 => 'Forbidden',
404 => 'Not Found',
405 => 'Method Not Allowed',
406 => 'Not Acceptable',
407 => 'Proxy Authentication Required',
408 => 'Request Timeout',
409 => 'Conflict',
410 => 'Gone',
411 => 'Length Required',
412 => 'Precondition Failed',
413 => 'Request Entity Too Large',
414 => 'Request-URI Too Large',
415 => 'Unsupported Media Type',
416 => 'Requested Range Not Satisfiable',
417 => 'Expectation Failed',
500 => 'Internal Server Error',
501 => 'Not Implemented',
502 => 'Bad Gateway',
503 => 'Service Unavailable',
504 => 'Gateway Timeout',
505 => 'HTTP Version Not Supported'
}
# Responses with HTTP status codes that should not have an entity body
STATUS_WITH_NO_ENTITY_BODY = Set.new((100..199).to_a << 204 << 304)
# A multipart form data parser, adapted from IOWA.
#
# Usually, Rack::Request#POST takes care of calling this.
module Multipart
EOL = "\r\n"
def self.parse_multipart(env)
unless env['CONTENT_TYPE'] =~
%r|\Amultipart/form-data.*boundary=\"?([^\";,]+)\"?|n
nil
else
boundary = "--#{$1}"
params = {}
buf = ""
content_length = env['CONTENT_LENGTH'].to_i
input = env['rack.input']
boundary_size = boundary.size + EOL.size
bufsize = 16384
content_length -= boundary_size
status = input.read(boundary_size)
raise EOFError, "bad content body" unless status == boundary + EOL
rx = /(?:#{EOL})?#{Regexp.quote boundary}(#{EOL}|--)/
loop {
head = nil
body = ''
filename = content_type = name = nil
until head && buf =~ rx
if !head && i = buf.index("\r\n\r\n")
head = buf.slice!(0, i+2) # First \r\n
buf.slice!(0, 2) # Second \r\n
filename = head[/Content-Disposition:.* filename="?([^\";]*)"?/ni, 1]
content_type = head[/Content-Type: (.*)\r\n/ni, 1]
name = head[/Content-Disposition:.* name="?([^\";]*)"?/ni, 1]
if filename
body = Tempfile.new("RackMultipart")
body.binmode if body.respond_to?(:binmode)
end
next
end
# Save the read body part.
if head && (boundary_size+4 < buf.size)
body << buf.slice!(0, buf.size - (boundary_size+4))
end
c = input.read(bufsize < content_length ? bufsize : content_length)
raise EOFError, "bad content body" if c.nil? || c.empty?
buf << c
content_length -= c.size
end
# Save the rest.
if i = buf.index(rx)
body << buf.slice!(0, i)
buf.slice!(0, boundary_size+2)
content_length = -1 if $1 == "--"
end
if filename
body.rewind
data = {:filename => filename, :type => content_type,
:name => name, :tempfile => body, :head => head}
else
data = body
end
if name
if name =~ /\[\]\z/
params[name] ||= []
params[name] << data
else
params[name] = data
end
end
break if buf.empty? || content_length == -1
}
begin
input.rewind if input.respond_to?(:rewind)
rescue Errno::ESPIPE
# Handles exceptions raised by input streams that cannot be rewound
# such as when using plain CGI under Apache
end
params
end
end
end
end
end
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