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# -*- encoding: binary -*-
require 'fileutils'
require 'set'
require 'tempfile'
require 'rack/multipart'
require 'time'
require 'uri/common'
module Rack
# Rack::Utils contains a grab-bag of useful methods for writing web
# applications adopted from all kinds of Ruby libraries.
module Utils
# ParameterTypeError is the error that is raised when incoming structural
# parameters (parsed by parse_nested_query) contain conflicting types.
class ParameterTypeError < TypeError; end
# InvalidParameterError is the error that is raised when incoming structural
# parameters (parsed by parse_nested_query) contain invalid format or byte
# sequence.
class InvalidParameterError < ArgumentError; end
# URI escapes. (CGI style space to +)
def escape(s)
URI.encode_www_form_component(s)
end
module_function :escape
# Like URI escaping, but with %20 instead of +. Strictly speaking this is
# true URI escaping.
def escape_path(s)
escape(s).gsub('+', '%20')
end
module_function :escape_path
# Unescapes a URI escaped string with +encoding+. +encoding+ will be the
# target encoding of the string returned, and it defaults to UTF-8
def unescape(s, encoding = Encoding::UTF_8)
URI.decode_www_form_component(s, encoding)
end
module_function :unescape
DEFAULT_SEP = /[&;] */n
COMMON_SEP = { ";" => /[;] */n, ";," => /[;,] */n, "&" => /[&] */n }
class << self
attr_accessor :key_space_limit
attr_accessor :multipart_part_limit
end
# The default number of bytes to allow parameter keys to take up.
# This helps prevent a rogue client from flooding a Request.
self.key_space_limit = 65536
# The maximum number of parts a request can contain. Accepting too many part
# can lead to the server running out of file handles.
# Set to `0` for no limit.
# FIXME: RACK_MULTIPART_LIMIT was introduced by mistake and it will be removed in 1.7.0
self.multipart_part_limit = (ENV['RACK_MULTIPART_PART_LIMIT'] || ENV['RACK_MULTIPART_LIMIT'] || 128).to_i
# Stolen from Mongrel, with some small modifications:
# Parses a query string by breaking it up at the '&'
# and ';' characters. You can also use this to parse
# cookies by changing the characters used in the second
# parameter (which defaults to '&;').
def parse_query(qs, d = nil, &unescaper)
unescaper ||= method(:unescape)
params = KeySpaceConstrainedParams.new
(qs || '').split(d ? (COMMON_SEP[d] || /[#{d}] */n) : DEFAULT_SEP).each do |p|
next if p.empty?
k, v = p.split('='.freeze, 2).map!(&unescaper)
if cur = params[k]
if cur.class == Array
params[k] << v
else
params[k] = [cur, v]
end
else
params[k] = v
end
end
return params.to_params_hash
end
module_function :parse_query
# parse_nested_query expands a query string into structural types. Supported
# types are Arrays, Hashes and basic value types. It is possible to supply
# query strings with parameters of conflicting types, in this case a
# ParameterTypeError is raised. Users are encouraged to return a 400 in this
# case.
def parse_nested_query(qs, d = nil)
return {} if qs.nil? || qs.empty?
params = KeySpaceConstrainedParams.new
(qs || '').split(d ? (COMMON_SEP[d] || /[#{d}] */n) : DEFAULT_SEP).each do |p|
k, v = p.split('='.freeze, 2).map! { |s| unescape(s) }
normalize_params(params, k, v)
end
return params.to_params_hash
rescue ArgumentError => e
raise InvalidParameterError, e.message
end
module_function :parse_nested_query
# normalize_params recursively expands parameters into structural types. If
# the structural types represented by two different parameter names are in
# conflict, a ParameterTypeError is raised.
def normalize_params(params, name, v = nil)
name =~ %r(\A[\[\]]*([^\[\]]+)\]*)
k = $1 || ''
after = $' || ''
return if k.empty?
if after == ""
params[k] = v
elsif after == "["
params[name] = v
elsif after == "[]"
params[k] ||= []
raise ParameterTypeError, "expected Array (got #{params[k].class.name}) for param `#{k}'" unless params[k].is_a?(Array)
params[k] << v
elsif after =~ %r(^\[\]\[([^\[\]]+)\]$) || after =~ %r(^\[\](.+)$)
child_key = $1
params[k] ||= []
raise ParameterTypeError, "expected Array (got #{params[k].class.name}) for param `#{k}'" unless params[k].is_a?(Array)
if params_hash_type?(params[k].last) && !params[k].last.key?(child_key)
normalize_params(params[k].last, child_key, v)
else
params[k] << normalize_params(params.class.new, child_key, v)
end
else
params[k] ||= params.class.new
raise ParameterTypeError, "expected Hash (got #{params[k].class.name}) for param `#{k}'" unless params_hash_type?(params[k])
params[k] = normalize_params(params[k], after, v)
end
return params
end
module_function :normalize_params
def params_hash_type?(obj)
obj.kind_of?(KeySpaceConstrainedParams) || obj.kind_of?(Hash)
end
module_function :params_hash_type?
def build_query(params)
params.map { |k, v|
if v.class == Array
build_query(v.map { |x| [k, x] })
else
v.nil? ? escape(k) : "#{escape(k)}=#{escape(v)}"
end
}.join("&")
end
module_function :build_query
def build_nested_query(value, prefix = nil)
case value
when Array
value.map { |v|
build_nested_query(v, "#{prefix}[]")
}.join("&")
when Hash
value.map { |k, v|
build_nested_query(v, prefix ? "#{prefix}[#{escape(k)}]" : escape(k))
}.reject(&:empty?).join('&')
when nil
prefix
else
raise ArgumentError, "value must be a Hash" if prefix.nil?
"#{prefix}=#{escape(value)}"
end
end
module_function :build_nested_query
def q_values(q_value_header)
q_value_header.to_s.split(/\s*,\s*/).map do |part|
value, parameters = part.split(/\s*;\s*/, 2)
quality = 1.0
if md = /\Aq=([\d.]+)/.match(parameters)
quality = md[1].to_f
end
[value, quality]
end
end
module_function :q_values
def best_q_match(q_value_header, available_mimes)
values = q_values(q_value_header)
matches = values.map do |req_mime, quality|
match = available_mimes.find { |am| Rack::Mime.match?(am, req_mime) }
next unless match
[match, quality]
end.compact.sort_by do |match, quality|
(match.split('/', 2).count('*') * -10) + quality
end.last
matches && matches.first
end
module_function :best_q_match
ESCAPE_HTML = {
"&" => "&amp;",
"<" => "&lt;",
">" => "&gt;",
"'" => "&#x27;",
'"' => "&quot;",
"/" => "&#x2F;"
}
ESCAPE_HTML_PATTERN = Regexp.union(*ESCAPE_HTML.keys)
# Escape ampersands, brackets and quotes to their HTML/XML entities.
def escape_html(string)
string.to_s.gsub(ESCAPE_HTML_PATTERN){|c| ESCAPE_HTML[c] }
end
module_function :escape_html
def select_best_encoding(available_encodings, accept_encoding)
# http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html
expanded_accept_encoding =
accept_encoding.map { |m, q|
if m == "*"
(available_encodings - accept_encoding.map { |m2, _| m2 }).map { |m2| [m2, q] }
else
[[m, q]]
end
}.inject([]) { |mem, list|
mem + list
}
encoding_candidates = expanded_accept_encoding.sort_by { |_, q| -q }.map { |m, _| m }
unless encoding_candidates.include?("identity")
encoding_candidates.push("identity")
end
expanded_accept_encoding.each { |m, q|
encoding_candidates.delete(m) if q == 0.0
}
return (encoding_candidates & available_encodings)[0]
end
module_function :select_best_encoding
def parse_cookies(env)
# According to RFC 2109:
# If multiple cookies satisfy the criteria above, they are ordered in
# the Cookie header such that those with more specific Path attributes
# precede those with less specific. Ordering with respect to other
# attributes (e.g., Domain) is unspecified.
Hash[].tap do |hash|
cookies = parse_query(env[HTTP_COOKIE], ';,') { |s| unescape(s) rescue s }
cookies.each { |k,v| hash[k] = Array === v ? v.first : v }
end
end
module_function :parse_cookies
def set_cookie_header!(header, key, value)
case value
when Hash
domain = "; domain=#{value[:domain]}" if value[:domain]
path = "; path=#{value[:path]}" if value[:path]
max_age = "; max-age=#{value[:max_age]}" if value[:max_age]
# There is an RFC mess in the area of date formatting for Cookies. Not
# only are there contradicting RFCs and examples within RFC text, but
# there are also numerous conflicting names of fields and partially
# cross-applicable specifications.
#
# These are best described in RFC 2616 3.3.1. This RFC text also
# specifies that RFC 822 as updated by RFC 1123 is preferred. That is a
# fixed length format with space-date delimeted fields.
#
# See also RFC 1123 section 5.2.14.
#
# RFC 6265 also specifies "sane-cookie-date" as RFC 1123 date, defined
# in RFC 2616 3.3.1. RFC 6265 also gives examples that clearly denote
# the space delimited format. These formats are compliant with RFC 2822.
#
# For reference, all involved RFCs are:
# RFC 822
# RFC 1123
# RFC 2109
# RFC 2616
# RFC 2822
# RFC 2965
# RFC 6265
expires = "; expires=" +
rfc2822(value[:expires].clone.gmtime) if value[:expires]
secure = "; secure" if value[:secure]
httponly = "; HttpOnly" if (value.key?(:httponly) ? value[:httponly] : value[:http_only])
value = value[:value]
end
value = [value] unless Array === value
cookie = "#{escape(key)}=#{value.map { |v| escape v }.join('&')}#{domain}" \
"#{path}#{max_age}#{expires}#{secure}#{httponly}"
case header[SET_COOKIE]
when nil, ''
header[SET_COOKIE] = cookie
when String
header[SET_COOKIE] = [header[SET_COOKIE], cookie].join("\n")
when Array
header[SET_COOKIE] = (header[SET_COOKIE] + [cookie]).join("\n")
end
nil
end
module_function :set_cookie_header!
def delete_cookie_header!(header, key, value = {})
case header[SET_COOKIE]
when nil, ''
cookies = []
when String
cookies = header[SET_COOKIE].split("\n")
when Array
cookies = header[SET_COOKIE]
end
cookies.reject! { |cookie|
if value[:domain]
cookie =~ /\A#{escape(key)}=.*domain=#{value[:domain]}/
elsif value[:path]
cookie =~ /\A#{escape(key)}=.*path=#{value[:path]}/
else
cookie =~ /\A#{escape(key)}=/
end
}
header[SET_COOKIE] = cookies.join("\n")
set_cookie_header!(header, key,
{:value => '', :path => nil, :domain => nil,
:max_age => '0',
:expires => Time.at(0) }.merge(value))
nil
end
module_function :delete_cookie_header!
def rfc2822(time)
time.rfc2822
end
module_function :rfc2822
# Modified version of stdlib time.rb Time#rfc2822 to use '%d-%b-%Y' instead
# of '% %b %Y'.
# It assumes that the time is in GMT to comply to the RFC 2109.
#
# NOTE: I'm not sure the RFC says it requires GMT, but is ambiguous enough
# that I'm certain someone implemented only that option.
# Do not use %a and %b from Time.strptime, it would use localized names for
# weekday and month.
#
def rfc2109(time)
wday = Time::RFC2822_DAY_NAME[time.wday]
mon = Time::RFC2822_MONTH_NAME[time.mon - 1]
time.strftime("#{wday}, %d-#{mon}-%Y %H:%M:%S GMT")
end
module_function :rfc2109
# Parses the "Range:" header, if present, into an array of Range objects.
# Returns nil if the header is missing or syntactically invalid.
# Returns an empty array if none of the ranges are satisfiable.
def byte_ranges(env, size)
# See <http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html#sec14.35>
http_range = env['HTTP_RANGE']
return nil unless http_range && http_range =~ /bytes=([^;]+)/
ranges = []
$1.split(/,\s*/).each do |range_spec|
return nil unless range_spec =~ /(\d*)-(\d*)/
r0,r1 = $1, $2
if r0.empty?
return nil if r1.empty?
# suffix-byte-range-spec, represents trailing suffix of file
r0 = size - r1.to_i
r0 = 0 if r0 < 0
r1 = size - 1
else
r0 = r0.to_i
if r1.empty?
r1 = size - 1
else
r1 = r1.to_i
return nil if r1 < r0 # backwards range is syntactically invalid
r1 = size-1 if r1 >= size
end
end
ranges << (r0..r1) if r0 <= r1
end
ranges
end
module_function :byte_ranges
# Constant time string comparison.
#
# NOTE: the values compared should be of fixed length, such as strings
# that have already been processed by HMAC. This should not be used
# on variable length plaintext strings because it could leak length info
# via timing attacks.
def secure_compare(a, b)
return false unless a.bytesize == b.bytesize
l = a.unpack("C*")
r, i = 0, -1
b.each_byte { |v| r |= v ^ l[i+=1] }
r == 0
end
module_function :secure_compare
# Context allows the use of a compatible middleware at different points
# in a request handling stack. A compatible middleware must define
# #context which should take the arguments env and app. The first of which
# would be the request environment. The second of which would be the rack
# application that the request would be forwarded to.
class Context
attr_reader :for, :app
def initialize(app_f, app_r)
raise 'running context does not respond to #context' unless app_f.respond_to? :context
@for, @app = app_f, app_r
end
def call(env)
@for.context(env, @app)
end
def recontext(app)
self.class.new(@for, app)
end
def context(env, app=@app)
recontext(app).call(env)
end
end
# A case-insensitive Hash that preserves the original case of a
# header when set.
class HeaderHash < Hash
def self.new(hash={})
HeaderHash === hash ? hash : super(hash)
end
def initialize(hash={})
super()
@names = {}
hash.each { |k, v| self[k] = v }
end
# on dup/clone, we need to duplicate @names hash
def initialize_copy(other)
super
@names = other.names.dup
end
def each
super do |k, v|
yield(k, v.respond_to?(:to_ary) ? v.to_ary.join("\n") : v)
end
end
def to_hash
hash = {}
each { |k,v| hash[k] = v }
hash
end
def [](k)
super(k) || super(@names[k.downcase])
end
def []=(k, v)
canonical = k.downcase.freeze
delete k if @names[canonical] && @names[canonical] != k # .delete is expensive, don't invoke it unless necessary
@names[canonical] = k
super k, v
end
def delete(k)
canonical = k.downcase
result = super @names.delete(canonical)
result
end
def include?(k)
super || @names.include?(k.downcase)
end
alias_method :has_key?, :include?
alias_method :member?, :include?
alias_method :key?, :include?
def merge!(other)
other.each { |k, v| self[k] = v }
self
end
def merge(other)
hash = dup
hash.merge! other
end
def replace(other)
clear
other.each { |k, v| self[k] = v }
self
end
protected
def names
@names
end
end
class KeySpaceConstrainedParams
def initialize(limit = Utils.key_space_limit)
@limit = limit
@size = 0
@params = {}
end
def [](key)
@params[key]
end
def []=(key, value)
@size += key.size if key && !@params.key?(key)
raise RangeError, 'exceeded available parameter key space' if @size > @limit
@params[key] = value
end
def key?(key)
@params.key?(key)
end
def to_params_hash
hash = @params
hash.keys.each do |key|
value = hash[key]
if value.kind_of?(self.class)
if value.object_id == self.object_id
hash[key] = hash
else
hash[key] = value.to_params_hash
end
elsif value.kind_of?(Array)
value.map! {|x| x.kind_of?(self.class) ? x.to_params_hash : x}
end
end
hash
end
end
# Every standard HTTP code mapped to the appropriate message.
# Generated with:
# curl -s https://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes/http-status-codes-1.csv | \
# ruby -ne 'm = /^(\d{3}),(?!Unassigned|\(Unused\))([^,]+)/.match($_) and \
# puts "#{m[1]} => \x27#{m[2].strip}\x27,"'
HTTP_STATUS_CODES = {
100 => 'Continue',
101 => 'Switching Protocols',
102 => 'Processing',
200 => 'OK',
201 => 'Created',
202 => 'Accepted',
203 => 'Non-Authoritative Information',
204 => 'No Content',
205 => 'Reset Content',
206 => 'Partial Content',
207 => 'Multi-Status',
208 => 'Already Reported',
226 => 'IM Used',
300 => 'Multiple Choices',
301 => 'Moved Permanently',
302 => 'Found',
303 => 'See Other',
304 => 'Not Modified',
305 => 'Use Proxy',
307 => 'Temporary Redirect',
308 => 'Permanent Redirect',
400 => 'Bad Request',
401 => 'Unauthorized',
402 => 'Payment Required',
403 => 'Forbidden',
404 => 'Not Found',
405 => 'Method Not Allowed',
406 => 'Not Acceptable',
407 => 'Proxy Authentication Required',
408 => 'Request Timeout',
409 => 'Conflict',
410 => 'Gone',
411 => 'Length Required',
412 => 'Precondition Failed',
413 => 'Payload Too Large',
414 => 'URI Too Long',
415 => 'Unsupported Media Type',
416 => 'Range Not Satisfiable',
417 => 'Expectation Failed',
422 => 'Unprocessable Entity',
423 => 'Locked',
424 => 'Failed Dependency',
426 => 'Upgrade Required',
428 => 'Precondition Required',
429 => 'Too Many Requests',
431 => 'Request Header Fields Too Large',
500 => 'Internal Server Error',
501 => 'Not Implemented',
502 => 'Bad Gateway',
503 => 'Service Unavailable',
504 => 'Gateway Timeout',
505 => 'HTTP Version Not Supported',
506 => 'Variant Also Negotiates',
507 => 'Insufficient Storage',
508 => 'Loop Detected',
510 => 'Not Extended',
511 => 'Network Authentication Required'
}
# Responses with HTTP status codes that should not have an entity body
STATUS_WITH_NO_ENTITY_BODY = Set.new((100..199).to_a << 204 << 205 << 304)
SYMBOL_TO_STATUS_CODE = Hash[*HTTP_STATUS_CODES.map { |code, message|
[message.downcase.gsub(/\s|-|'/, '_').to_sym, code]
}.flatten]
def status_code(status)
if status.is_a?(Symbol)
SYMBOL_TO_STATUS_CODE[status] || 500
else
status.to_i
end
end
module_function :status_code
Multipart = Rack::Multipart
PATH_SEPS = Regexp.union(*[::File::SEPARATOR, ::File::ALT_SEPARATOR].compact)
def clean_path_info(path_info)
parts = path_info.split PATH_SEPS
clean = []
parts.each do |part|
next if part.empty? || part == '.'
part == '..' ? clean.pop : clean << part
end
clean.unshift '/' if parts.empty? || parts.first.empty?
::File.join(*clean)
end
module_function :clean_path_info
end
end
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