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STAC Item Specification

This document explains the structure and content of a SpatioTemporal Asset Catalog (STAC) Item. Each is a GeoJSON feature, plus a few required fields that identify the time range and assets of the item. An Item is the core granular entity in a STAC, containing the core metadata that enables any client to search or crawl online catalogs of spatial 'assets' - satellite imagery, derived data, DEM's, etc.

The same Item definition is used in both STAC catalogs and the /stac/search endpoint. Catalogs are simply sets of items that are linked online, generally served by simple web servers and used for crawling data. The search endpoint enables dynamic queries, for example selecting all Items in Hawaii on June 3, 2015, but the results they return are FeatureCollections of items.

Items are represented in JSON format and are very flexible. Any JSON object that contains all the required fields is a valid STAC Item.


This is still an early version of the STAC spec, expect that there may be some changes before everything is finalized.

Implementations are encouraged, however, as good effort will be made to not change anything too drastically. Using the specification now will ensure that needed changes can be made before everything is locked in. So now is an ideal time to implement, as your feedback will be directly incorporated.

Item fields

This object describes a STAC Item. The fields id, type, bbox, geometry and properties are inherited from GeoJSON.

Field Name Type Description
id string REQUIRED. Provider identifier. As most geospatial assets are already defined by some identification scheme by the data provider it is recommended to simply use that ID. Data providers are advised to include sufficient information to make their IDs globally unique, including things like unique satellite IDs.
type string REQUIRED. Type of the GeoJSON Object. MUST be set to Feature.
geometry GeoJSON Geometry Object REQUIRED. Defines the full footprint of the asset represented by this item, formatted according to RFC 7946, section 3.1. The footprint should be the default GeoJSON geometry, though additional geometries can be included. Specified in Longitude/Latitude based on EPSG:4326.
bbox [number] REQUIRED. Bounding Box of the asset represented by this item. Specified in Longitude/Latitude based on EPSG:4326 - first two numbers are longitude and latitude of lower left corner, followed by longitude and latitude of upper right corner. This field enables more naive clients to easily index and search geospatially. Most software can easily generate them for footprints. STAC compliant APIs are required to compute intersection operations with the item's geometry field, not its bbox.
properties Properties Object REQUIRED. A dictionary of additional metadata for the item.
links [Link Object] REQUIRED. List of link objects to resources and related URLs. A link with the rel set to self is required.
assets Map<string, Asset Object> REQUIRED. Dictionary of asset objects that can be downloaded, each with a unique key. Some pre-defined keys are listed in the chapter 'Asset types'.
collection string The id of the STAC Collection this Item references to (see collection relation type below). This field is required if such a relation type is present. This field provides an easy way for a user to search for any Items that belong in a specified Collection.

assets should include the main asset, as well as any 'sidecar' files that are related and help a client make sense of the data. Examples of this include extended metadata (in XML, JSON, etc.), unusable data masks, satellite ephemeris data, etc. Some assets (like Landsat data) are represented by multiple files - all should be linked to. It is generally recommended that different processing levels or formats are not exhaustively listed in an Item, but instead are represented by related Items that are linked to, but the best practices around this are still emerging.

Properties Object

The Properties object adds additional metadata to the GeoJSON Object. Basically, each entry is a key-value pair. The values SHOULD not be an array or object to avoid GIS systems mis-rendering them. Metadata that require an object or array SHOULD be placed a level up, directly in the GeoJSON/STAC Item object. Additional fields can be introduced through extensions. It is generally allowed to add custom fields.

Field Name Type Description
datetime string REQUIRED. The searchable date and time of the assets, in UTC. It is formatted according to RFC 3339, section 5.6.
title string A human readable title describing the item.

datetime is likely the acquisition (in the case of single camera type captures) or the 'nominal' or representative time in the case of assets that are combined together. Though time can be a complex thing to capture, for this purpose keep in mind the STAC spec is primarily searching for data, so use whatever single date and time is most useful for a user to search for. STAC content extensions may further specify the meaning of the main datetime field, and many will also add more datetime fields.

Link Object

This object describes a relationship with another entity. Data providers are advised to be liberal with the links section, to describe things like the catalog an item is in, related items, parent or child items (modeled in different ways, like an 'acquisition' or derived data). It is allowed to add additional fields such as a title and type.

Field Name Type Description
href string REQUIRED. The actual link in the format of an URL. Relative and absolute links are both allowed.
rel string REQUIRED. Relationship between the current document and the linked document. See chapter "Relation types" for more information.
type string Media type of the referenced entity.
title string A human readable title to be used in rendered displays of the link.

Relative vs Absolute links

Currently, the JSON schema for links does not require them to be formatted as URIs, to allow implementors to provide relative links. In general, Catalog APIs should aim to provide absolute links whenever possible. Static Catalogs are potentially more portable if they incorporate only relative links, so that every link doesn't need to be rewritten when the data is copied. Additional recommendations for particular rel types are given in the rel type description.

Relation types

The following types are commonly used as rel types in the Link Object of an Item:

Type Description
self STRONGLY RECOMMENDED. Absolute URL to the Item if it is available at a public URL. This is particularly useful when in a download package that includes metadata, so that the downstream user can know where the data has come from.
root URL to the root STAC Catalog or Collection.
parent URL to the parent STAC Catalog or Collection.
collection STRONGLY RECOMMENDED. URL to a Collection, which may hold common fields of this and other Items (see chapter 'Collections' for more explanations). Absolute URLs should be used whenever possible.
derived_from URL to a STAC Item that was used as input data in the creation of this Item.

A more complete list of possible 'rel' types can be seen at the IANA page of Link Relation Types.

Note regarding the type derived_from: A full provenance model is far beyond the scope of STAC, and the goal is to align with any good independent spec that comes along for that. But the derived_from field is seen as a way to encourage fuller specs and at least start a linking structure that can be used as a jumping off point for more experiments in provenance tracking


Items are strongly recommended to provide a link to a STAC Collection definition. It is important as Collections provide additional information about a set of items, for example the license, provider and other information giving context on the overall set of data that an individual Item is a part of.

If Items are part of a STAC Collection, the STAC Collection spec requires Items to link back to the Collection. Linking back must happen in two places:

  1. The field collection in an Item must be filled (see section 'Item fields'). It is the id of a STAC Collection.
  2. An Item must also provide a link to the STAC Collection using the collection relation type (see section 'Relation types'):
    "links": [
      { "rel": "collection", "href": "link/to/collection/record.json" }

Asset Object

An asset is an object that contains a link to data associated with the Item that can be downloaded or streamed. It is allowed to add additional fields.

Field Name Type Description
href string REQUIRED. Link to the asset object. Relative and absolute links are both allowed.
title string The displayed title for clients and users.
type string Media type of the asset (see chapter on Media Types below).

Asset types

The following types are common for assets and are used as the key for the Asset Object:

Type Description
thumbnail STRONGLY RECOMMENDED. A downsampled image of the core asset, for direct display online in a web page or interactive search application. Even assets that are less easily translated in to a visual image should provide some visual representation, that users can browse. For example a SAR asset can render an elevation mask or hillshade for display. If at all possible it should be included for a better user experience in searching data.

Media Types

The media type of an Asset can be used by STAC browsers to better determine what to render and display to users searching and browsing the catalog. Media types are often referred to by the now-deprecated term "MIME types".

Registered Media Types are preferred. In cases where custom vendor-specific media types are necessary, they should use the vnd. prefix.

STAC Items that have sidecar metadata files associated with a data asset (e.g, .tfw, Landsat 8 MTL files) should use media types appropriate for the the metadata file. For example, if it is a plain text file, then text/plain would be appropriate; if it is an XML, then text/xml is appropriate.

Common STAC Item Media Types:

Media Type Description
image/tiff or image/vnd.stac.geotiff GeoTIFF with standardized georeferencing metadata
image/vnd.stac.geotiff; cloud-optimized=true Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF
image/jp2 JPEG 2000
image/png Visual PNGs (e.g. thumbnails)
image/jpeg Visual JPEGs (e.g. thumbnails, oblique)
text/xml or application/xml XML metadata RFC 7303
application/json JSON metadata
text/plain Plain text metadata
application/geo+json GeoJSON
application/geopackage+sqlite3 GeoPackage
application/x-hdf5 Hierarchical Data Format version 5
application/x-hdf Hierarchical Data Format versions 4 and earlier.

Note: should GeoTIFF become an IANA-registered type in the future (e.g., image/geotiff), this will be added as a recommended media type.


There are emerging best practices, which in time will evolve in to specification extensions for particular domains or uses.

The extensions page gives an overview about relevant extensions for STAC Items.


Metadata Linking

In general STAC aims to be oriented around search, centered on the core fields that users will want to search on to find imagery. The core is space and time, but there are often other metadata attributes that are useful. While the specification is flexible enough that providers can fill it with tens or even hundreds of fields of metadata that is not recommended. If providers have lots of metadata then that should be linked to in the Asset Object or in a Link Object, or even a new Asset Object could be added that is potentially easier to parse. There is a lot of metadata that is only of relevance to advanced processing algorithms, and while that is important it should not be in the core STAC items.

HTML versions of Items

It is recommended to have a complementary HTML version of each Item available for easy human consumption and search engine crawlability. The exact nature of the HTML is not part of the specification, but it is recommended to use common ecosystem tools like STAC Browser to generate it. More information on creating HTML versions of STAC can be found in the STAC on the Web section of the catalog best practices document.

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