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The Enchaining and Obdurate Kestrels

Wherein we look at an interesting way to implement method chaining and meet a new Ruby kestrel.

The Enchaining Kestrel

In Kestrels, we looked at #tap from Ruby 1.9 and returning from Ruby on Rails. Today we're going to look at another use for tap.

Kestrel Composite (c) 2007 Mark Kilner

As already explained, Ruby 1.9 includes the new method Object#tap. It passes the receiver to a block, then returns the receiver no matter what the block contains. The canonical example inserts some logging in the middle of a chain of method invocations:

address = Person.find(...).tap { |p| logger.log "person #{p} found" }.address

Object#tap is also useful when you want to execute several method on the same object without having to create a lot of temporary variables, a practice Martin Fowler calls Method Chaining. Typically, you design such an object so that it returns itself in response to every modifier message. This allows you to write things like:

Instead of:

hd =
hd.capacity = 150
hd.external = true
hd.speed = 7200

And if you are a real fan of the Kestrel, you would design your class with an object initializer block so you could write:

hd = do
    @capacity = 150
    @external = true
    @speed = 7200

But what do you do when handed a class that was not designed with method chaining in mind? For example, Array#pop returns the object being popped, not the array. Before you validate every criticism leveled against Ruby for allowing programmers to rewrite methods in core classes, consider using #tap with Symbol#to_proc or String#to_proc to chain methods without rewriting them.

So instead of

def fizz(arr)
    arr.pop! { |n| n * 2 }

We can write:

def fizz(arr)
  arr.tap(&:pop).map! { |n| n * 2 }

I often use #tap to enchain methods for those pesky array methods that sometimes do what you expect and sometimes don't. My most hated example is Array#uniq!:

arr = [1,2,3,3,4,5]
arr.uniq, arr
    => [1,2,3,4,5], [1,2,3,3,4,5]
arr = [1,2,3,3,4,5]
arr.uniq!, arr
    => [1,2,3,4,5], [1,2,3,4,5]
arr = [1,2,3,4,5]
arr.uniq, arr
    => [1,2,3,4,5], [1,2,3,4,5]
arr = [1,2,3,4,5]
arr.uniq!, arr
    => nil, [1,2,3,4,5]

Let's replay that last one in slow motion:

[  1,  2,  3,  4,  5  ].uniq!
    => nil

That might be a problem. For example:

    => NoMethodError: undefined method `sort!' for nil:NilClass

Object#tap to the rescue: When using a method like #uniq! that modifies the array in place and sometimes returns the modified array but sometimes helpfully returns nil, I can use #tap to make sure I always get the array, which allows me to enchain methods:

    => [1,2,3,4,5]

So there's another use for #tap (along with Symbol#to_proc for simple cases): We can use it when we want to enchain methods, but the methods do not return the receiver.

In Ruby 1.9, #tap works exactly as described above. Ruby 1.8 does not have #tap, but you can obtain it by installing the andand gem. This version of #tap also works like a quirky bird, so you can write things like for enchaining methods that take parameters and/or blocks. To get andand, sudo gem install andand. Rails users can also drop andand.rb in config/initializers.

The Obdurate Kestrel

Kestrel (c) 2007 The Hounds of Shadow

The andand gem includes Object#tap for Ruby 1.8. It also includes another kestrel called #dont. Which does what it says, or rather doesn't do what it says.

:foo.tap { p 'bar' }
    => :foo # printed 'bar' before returning a value!

:foo.dont { p 'bar' }
    => :foo # without printing 'bar'!

Object#dont simply ignores the block passed to it. So what is it good for? Well, remember our logging example for #tap?

address = Person.find(...).tap { |p| logger.log "person #{p} found" }.address

Let's turn the logging off for a moment:

address = Person.find(...).dont { |p| logger.log "person #{p} found" }.address

And back on:

address = Person.find(...).tap { |p| logger.log "person #{p} found" }.address

I typically use it when doing certain kinds of primitive debugging. And it has another trick up its sleeve:


Look at that, it works with method calls like a quirky bird! So you can use it to NOOP methods. Now, you could have done that with Symbol#to_proc:


But what about methods that take parameters and blocks?

JoinBetweenTwoModels.dont.create!(...) do |new_join|
    # ...

Object#dont is the Ruby-semantic equivalent of commenting out a method call, only it can be inserted inside of an existing expression. That's why it's called the obdurate kestrel. It refuses to do anything!

If you want to try Object#dont, or want to use Object#tap with Ruby 1.8, sudo gem install andand. Rails users can also drop andand.rb in config/initializers as mentioned above. Enjoy!

More on combinators: Kestrels, The Thrush, Songs of the Cardinal, Quirky Birds and Meta-Syntactic Programming, Aspect-Oriented Programming in Ruby using Combinator Birds, The Enchaining and Obdurate Kestrels, Finding Joy in Combinators, Refactoring Methods with Recursive Combinators, Practical Recursive Combinators, The Hopelessly Egocentric Blog Post, Wrapping Combinators, and Mockingbirds and Simple Recursive Combinators in Ruby.

My recent work:

JavaScript AllongéCoffeeScript RistrettoKestrels, Quirky Birds, and Hopeless Egocentricity

(Spot a bug or a spelling mistake? This is a Github repo, fork it and send me a pull request!)

Reg Braithwaite | @raganwald

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