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1 require 'yaml'
2
3 module ActiveRecord #:nodoc:
4 class ActiveRecordError < StandardError #:nodoc:
5 end
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6 class SubclassNotFound < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
7 end
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8 class AssociationTypeMismatch < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
9 end
10 class SerializationTypeMismatch < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
11 end
12 class AdapterNotSpecified < ActiveRecordError # :nodoc:
13 end
14 class AdapterNotFound < ActiveRecordError # :nodoc:
15 end
16 class ConnectionNotEstablished < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
17 end
18 class ConnectionFailed < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
19 end
20 class RecordNotFound < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
21 end
22 class StatementInvalid < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
23 end
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24 class PreparedStatementInvalid < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
25 end
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26 class StaleObjectError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
27 end
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28
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29 class AttributeAssignmentError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
30 attr_reader :exception, :attribute
31 def initialize(message, exception, attribute)
32 @exception = exception
33 @attribute = attribute
34 @message = message
35 end
36 end
37
38 class MultiparameterAssignmentErrors < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
39 attr_reader :errors
40 def initialize(errors)
41 @errors = errors
42 end
43 end
44
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45 # Active Record objects doesn't specify their attributes directly, but rather infer them from the table definition with
46 # which they're linked. Adding, removing, and changing attributes and their type is done directly in the database. Any change
47 # is instantly reflected in the Active Record objects. The mapping that binds a given Active Record class to a certain
48 # database table will happen automatically in most common cases, but can be overwritten for the uncommon ones.
49 #
50 # See the mapping rules in table_name and the full example in link:files/README.html for more insight.
51 #
52 # == Creation
53 #
54 # Active Records accepts constructor parameters either in a hash or as a block. The hash method is especially useful when
55 # you're receiving the data from somewhere else, like a HTTP request. It works like this:
56 #
57 # user = User.new("name" => "David", "occupation" => "Code Artist")
58 # user.name # => "David"
59 #
60 # You can also use block initialization:
61 #
62 # user = User.new do |u|
63 # u.name = "David"
64 # u.occupation = "Code Artist"
65 # end
66 #
67 # And of course you can just create a bare object and specify the attributes after the fact:
68 #
69 # user = User.new
70 # user.name = "David"
71 # user.occupation = "Code Artist"
72 #
73 # == Conditions
74 #
75 # Conditions can either be specified as a string or an array representing the WHERE-part of an SQL statement.
76 # The array form is to be used when the condition input is tainted and requires sanitization. The string form can
77 # be used for statements that doesn't involve tainted data. Examples:
78 #
79 # User < ActiveRecord::Base
80 # def self.authenticate_unsafely(user_name, password)
81 # find_first("user_name = '#{user_name}' AND password = '#{password}'")
82 # end
83 #
84 # def self.authenticate_safely(user_name, password)
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85 # find_first([ "user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password ])
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86 # end
87 # end
88 #
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89 # The <tt>authenticate_unsafely</tt> method inserts the parameters directly into the query and is thus susceptible to SQL-injection
90 # attacks if the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+ parameters come directly from a HTTP request. The <tt>authenticate_safely</tt> method,
91 # on the other hand, will sanitize the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+ before inserting them in the query, which will ensure that
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92 # an attacker can't escape the query and fake the login (or worse).
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93 #
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94 # When using multiple parameters in the conditions, it can easily become hard to read exactly what the fourth or fifth
95 # question mark is supposed to represent. In those cases, you can resort to named bind variables instead. That's done by replacing
96 # the question marks with symbols and supplying a hash with values for the matching symbol keys:
97 #
98 # Company.find_first([
99 # "id = :id AND name = :name AND division = :division AND created_at > :accounting_date",
100 # { :id => 3, :name => "37signals", :division => "First", :accounting_date => '2005-01-01' }
101 # ])
102 #
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103 # == Overwriting default accessors
104 #
105 # All column values are automatically available through basic accessors on the Active Record object, but some times you
106 # want to specialize this behavior. This can be done by either by overwriting the default accessors (using the same
107 # name as the attribute) calling read_attribute(attr_name) and write_attribute(attr_name, value) to actually change things.
108 # Example:
109 #
110 # class Song < ActiveRecord::Base
111 # # Uses an integer of seconds to hold the length of the song
112 #
113 # def length=(minutes)
114 # write_attribute("length", minutes * 60)
115 # end
116 #
117 # def length
118 # read_attribute("length") / 60
119 # end
120 # end
121 #
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122 # == Accessing attributes before they have been type casted
123 #
124 # Some times you want to be able to read the raw attribute data without having the column-determined type cast run its course first.
125 # That can be done by using the <attribute>_before_type_cast accessors that all attributes have. For example, if your Account model
126 # has a balance attribute, you can call account.balance_before_type_cast or account.id_before_type_cast.
127 #
128 # This is especially useful in validation situations where the user might supply a string for an integer field and you want to display
129 # the original string back in an error message. Accessing the attribute normally would type cast the string to 0, which isn't what you
130 # want.
131 #
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132 # == Dynamic attribute-based finders
133 #
134 # Dynamic attribute-based finders are a cleaner way of getting objects by simple queries without turning to SQL. They work by
135 # appending the name of an attribute to <tt>find_by_</tt>, so you get finders like <tt>Person.find_by_user_name, Payment.find_by_transaction_id</tt>.
136 # So instead of writing <tt>Person.find_first(["user_name = ?", user_name])</tt>, you just do <tt>Person.find_by_user_name(user_name)</tt>.
137 #
138 # It's also possible to use multiple attributes in the same find by separating them with "_and_", so you get finders like
139 # <tt>Person.find_by_user_name_and_password</tt> or even <tt>Payment.find_by_purchaser_and_state_and_country</tt>. So instead of writing
140 # <tt>Person.find_first(["user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password])</tt>, you just do
141 # <tt>Person.find_by_user_name_and_password(user_name, password)</tt>.
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142 #
143 # It's even possible to use all the additional parameters to find_first and find_all. For example, the full interface for Payment.find_all_by_amount
144 # is actually Payment.find_all_by_amount(amount, orderings = nil, limit = nil, joins = nil). And the full interface to Person.find_by_user_name is
145 # actually Person.find_by_user_name(user_name, orderings = nil)
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146 #
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147 # == Saving arrays, hashes, and other non-mappable objects in text columns
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148 #
149 # Active Record can serialize any object in text columns using YAML. To do so, you must specify this with a call to the class method +serialize+.
150 # This makes it possible to store arrays, hashes, and other non-mappeable objects without doing any additional work. Example:
151 #
152 # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
153 # serialize :preferences
154 # end
155 #
156 # user = User.create("preferences" => { "background" => "black", "display" => large })
157 # User.find(user.id).preferences # => { "background" => "black", "display" => large }
158 #
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159 # You can also specify an class option as the second parameter that'll raise an exception if a serialized object is retrieved as a
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160 # descendent of a class not in the hierarchy. Example:
161 #
162 # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
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163 # serialize :preferences, Hash
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164 # end
165 #
166 # user = User.create("preferences" => %w( one two three ))
167 # User.find(user.id).preferences # raises SerializationTypeMismatch
168 #
169 # == Single table inheritance
170 #
171 # Active Record allows inheritance by storing the name of the class in a column that by default is called "type" (can be changed
172 # by overwriting <tt>Base.inheritance_column</tt>). This means that an inheritance looking like this:
173 #
174 # class Company < ActiveRecord::Base; end
175 # class Firm < Company; end
176 # class Client < Company; end
177 # class PriorityClient < Client; end
178 #
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179 # When you do Firm.create("name" => "37signals"), this record will be saved in the companies table with type = "Firm". You can then
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180 # fetch this row again using Company.find_first "name = '37signals'" and it will return a Firm object.
181 #
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182 # If you don't have a type column defined in your table, single-table inheritance won't be triggered. In that case, it'll work just
183 # like normal subclasses with no special magic for differentiating between them or reloading the right type with find.
184 #
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185 # Note, all the attributes for all the cases are kept in the same table. Read more:
186 # http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/singleTableInheritance.html
187 #
188 # == Connection to multiple databases in different models
189 #
190 # Connections are usually created through ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection and retrieved by ActiveRecord::Base.connection.
191 # All classes inheriting from ActiveRecord::Base will use this connection. But you can also set a class-specific connection.
192 # For example, if Course is a ActiveRecord::Base, but resides in a different database you can just say Course.establish_connection
193 # and Course *and all its subclasses* will use this connection instead.
194 #
195 # This feature is implemented by keeping a connection pool in ActiveRecord::Base that is a Hash indexed by the class. If a connection is
196 # requested, the retrieve_connection method will go up the class-hierarchy until a connection is found in the connection pool.
197 #
198 # == Exceptions
199 #
200 # * +ActiveRecordError+ -- generic error class and superclass of all other errors raised by Active Record
201 # * +AdapterNotSpecified+ -- the configuration hash used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> didn't include a
202 # <tt>:adapter</tt> key.
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203 # * +AdapterNotSpecified+ -- the <tt>:adapter</tt> key used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> specified an non-existent adapter
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204 # (or a bad spelling of an existing one).
205 # * +AssociationTypeMismatch+ -- the object assigned to the association wasn't of the type specified in the association definition.
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206 # * +SerializationTypeMismatch+ -- the object serialized wasn't of the class specified as the second parameter.
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207 # * +ConnectionNotEstablished+ -- no connection has been established. Use <tt>establish_connection</tt> before querying.
208 # * +RecordNotFound+ -- no record responded to the find* method.
209 # Either the row with the given ID doesn't exist or the row didn't meet the additional restrictions.
210 # * +StatementInvalid+ -- the database server rejected the SQL statement. The precise error is added in the message.
211 # Either the record with the given ID doesn't exist or the record didn't meet the additional restrictions.
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212 # * +MultiparameterAssignmentErrors+ -- collection of errors that occurred during a mass assignment using the
213 # +attributes=+ method. The +errors+ property of this exception contains an array of +AttributeAssignmentError+
214 # objects that should be inspected to determine which attributes triggered the errors.
215 # * +AttributeAssignmentError+ -- an error occurred while doing a mass assignment through the +attributes=+ method.
216 # You can inspect the +attribute+ property of the exception object to determine which attribute triggered the error.
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217 # *Note*: The attributes listed are class-level attributes (accessible from both the class and instance level).
218 # So it's possible to assign a logger to the class through Base.logger= which will then be used by all
219 # instances in the current object space.
220 class Base
221 include ClassInheritableAttributes
222
223 # Accepts a logger conforming to the interface of Log4r or the default Ruby 1.8+ Logger class, which is then passed
224 # on to any new database connections made and which can be retrieved on both a class and instance level by calling +logger+.
225 cattr_accessor :logger
226
227 # Returns the connection currently associated with the class. This can
228 # also be used to "borrow" the connection to do database work unrelated
229 # to any of the specific Active Records.
230 def self.connection
231 retrieve_connection
232 end
233
234 # Returns the connection currently associated with the class. This can
235 # also be used to "borrow" the connection to do database work that isn't
236 # easily done without going straight to SQL.
237 def connection
238 self.class.connection
239 end
240
241 def self.inherited(child) #:nodoc:
242 @@subclasses[self] ||= []
243 @@subclasses[self] << child
244 super
245 end
246
247 @@subclasses = {}
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248
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249 cattr_accessor :configurations
250 @@primary_key_prefix_type = {}
251
252 # Accessor for the prefix type that will be prepended to every primary key column name. The options are :table_name and
253 # :table_name_with_underscore. If the first is specified, the Product class will look for "productid" instead of "id" as
254 # the primary column. If the latter is specified, the Product class will look for "product_id" instead of "id". Remember
255 # that this is a global setting for all Active Records.
256 cattr_accessor :primary_key_prefix_type
257 @@primary_key_prefix_type = nil
258
259 # Accessor for the name of the prefix string to prepend to every table name. So if set to "basecamp_", all
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260 # table names will be named like "basecamp_projects", "basecamp_people", etc. This is a convenient way of creating a namespace
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261 # for tables in a shared database. By default, the prefix is the empty string.
262 cattr_accessor :table_name_prefix
263 @@table_name_prefix = ""
264
265 # Works like +table_name_prefix+, but appends instead of prepends (set to "_basecamp" gives "projects_basecamp",
266 # "people_basecamp"). By default, the suffix is the empty string.
267 cattr_accessor :table_name_suffix
268 @@table_name_suffix = ""
269
270 # Indicate whether or not table names should be the pluralized versions of the corresponding class names.
271 # If true, this the default table name for a +Product+ class will be +products+. If false, it would just be +product+.
272 # See table_name for the full rules on table/class naming. This is true, by default.
273 cattr_accessor :pluralize_table_names
274 @@pluralize_table_names = true
275
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276 # Determines whether or not to use ANSI codes to colorize the logging statements committed by the connection adapter. These colors
277 # makes it much easier to overview things during debugging (when used through a reader like +tail+ and on a black background), but
278 # may complicate matters if you use software like syslog. This is true, by default.
279 cattr_accessor :colorize_logging
280 @@colorize_logging = true
281
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282 # Determines whether to use Time.local (using :local) or Time.utc (using :utc) when pulling dates and times from the database.
283 # This is set to :local by default.
284 cattr_accessor :default_timezone
285 @@default_timezone = :local
286
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287 class << self # Class methods
288 # Returns objects for the records responding to either a specific id (1), a list of ids (1, 5, 6) or an array of ids.
289 # If only one ID is specified, that object is returned directly. If more than one ID is specified, an array is returned.
290 # Examples:
291 # Person.find(1) # returns the object for ID = 1
292 # Person.find(1, 2, 6) # returns an array for objects with IDs in (1, 2, 6)
293 # Person.find([7, 17]) # returns an array for objects with IDs in (7, 17)
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294 # Person.find([1]) # returns an array for objects the object with ID = 1
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295 #
296 # The last argument may be a Hash of find options. Currently, +conditions+ is the only option, behaving the same as with +find_all+.
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297 # Person.find(1, :conditions => "associate_id = 5"
298 # Person.find(1, 2, 6, :conditions => "status = 'active'"
299 # Person.find([7, 17], :conditions => ["sanitize_me = ?", "bare'quote"]
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300 # Person.find(25, :conditions => ["name = :name AND age = :age", { :name => "Mary", :age => 22 }]
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301 #
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302 # +RecordNotFound+ is raised if no record can be found.
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303 def find(*args)
304 # Return an Array if ids are passed in an Array.
305 expects_array = args.first.kind_of?(Array)
306
307 # Extract options hash from argument list.
308 options = extract_options_from_args!(args)
309 conditions = " AND #{sanitize_sql(options[:conditions])}" if options[:conditions]
310
311 ids = args.flatten.compact.uniq
312 case ids.size
313
314 # Raise if no ids passed.
315 when 0
316 raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find #{name} without an ID#{conditions}"
317
318 # Find a single id.
319 when 1
320 unless result = find_first("#{primary_key} = #{sanitize(ids.first)}#{conditions}")
321 raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find #{name} with ID=#{ids.first}#{conditions}"
322 end
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323
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324 # Box result if expecting array.
325 expects_array ? [result] : result
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326
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327 # Find multiple ids.
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328 else
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329 ids_list = ids.map { |id| sanitize(id) }.join(',')
330 result = find_all("#{primary_key} IN (#{ids_list})#{conditions}", primary_key)
331 if result.size == ids.size
332 result
333 else
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334 raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find all #{name.pluralize} with IDs (#{ids_list})#{conditions}"
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335 end
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336 end
337 end
338
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339 # Returns true if the given +id+ represents the primary key of a record in the database, false otherwise.
340 # Example:
341 # Person.exists?(5)
342 def exists?(id)
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343 !find_first("#{primary_key} = #{sanitize(id)}").nil? rescue false
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344 end
345
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346 # This method is deprecated in favor of find with the :conditions option.
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347 # Works like find, but the record matching +id+ must also meet the +conditions+.
348 # +RecordNotFound+ is raised if no record can be found matching the +id+ or meeting the condition.
349 # Example:
350 # Person.find_on_conditions 5, "first_name LIKE '%dav%' AND last_name = 'heinemeier'"
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351 def find_on_conditions(ids, conditions)
352 find(ids, :conditions => conditions)
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353 end
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354
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355 # Returns an array of all the objects that could be instantiated from the associated
356 # table in the database. The +conditions+ can be used to narrow the selection of objects (WHERE-part),
357 # such as by "color = 'red'", and arrangement of the selection can be done through +orderings+ (ORDER BY-part),
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358 # such as by "last_name, first_name DESC". A maximum of returned objects and their offset can be specified in
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359 # +limit+ with either just a single integer as the limit or as an array with the first element as the limit,
360 # the second as the offset. Examples:
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361 # Project.find_all "category = 'accounts'", "last_accessed DESC", 15
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362 # Project.find_all ["category = ?", category_name], "created ASC", [15, 20]
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363 def find_all(conditions = nil, orderings = nil, limit = nil, joins = nil)
364 sql = "SELECT * FROM #{table_name} "
365 sql << "#{joins} " if joins
366 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
367 sql << "ORDER BY #{orderings} " unless orderings.nil?
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368
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369 limit = sanitize_sql(limit) if limit.is_a? Array and limit.first.is_a? String
370 connection.add_limit!(sql, limit) if limit
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371
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372 find_by_sql(sql)
373 end
374
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375 # Works like find_all, but requires a complete SQL string. Examples:
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376 # Post.find_by_sql "SELECT p.*, c.author FROM posts p, comments c WHERE p.id = c.post_id"
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377 # Post.find_by_sql ["SELECT * FROM posts WHERE author = ? AND created > ?", author_id, start_date]
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378 def find_by_sql(sql)
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379 connection.select_all(sanitize_sql(sql), "#{name} Load").inject([]) { |objects, record| objects << instantiate(record) }
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380 end
381
382 # Returns the object for the first record responding to the conditions in +conditions+,
383 # such as "group = 'master'". If more than one record is returned from the query, it's the first that'll
384 # be used to create the object. In such cases, it might be beneficial to also specify
385 # +orderings+, like "income DESC, name", to control exactly which record is to be used. Example:
386 # Employee.find_first "income > 50000", "income DESC, name"
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387 def find_first(conditions = nil, orderings = nil, joins = nil)
388 find_all(conditions, orderings, 1, joins).first
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389 end
390
391 # Creates an object, instantly saves it as a record (if the validation permits it), and returns it. If the save
392 # fail under validations, the unsaved object is still returned.
393 def create(attributes = nil)
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394 if attributes.is_a?(Array)
395 attributes.collect { |attr| create(attr) }
396 else
397 object = new(attributes)
398 object.save
399 object
400 end
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401 end
402
403 # Finds the record from the passed +id+, instantly saves it with the passed +attributes+ (if the validation permits it),
404 # and returns it. If the save fail under validations, the unsaved object is still returned.
405 def update(id, attributes)
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406 if id.is_a?(Array)
407 idx = -1
408 id.collect { |id| idx += 1; update(id, attributes[idx]) }
409 else
410 object = find(id)
411 object.update_attributes(attributes)
412 object
413 end
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414 end
415
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416 # Deletes the record with the given +id+ without instantiating an object first. If an array of ids is provided, all of them
417 # are deleted.
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418 def delete(id)
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419 delete_all([ "#{primary_key} IN (?)", id ])
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420 end
421
422 # Destroys the record with the given +id+ by instantiating the object and calling #destroy (all the callbacks are the triggered).
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423 # If an array of ids is provided, all of them are destroyed.
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424 def destroy(id)
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425 id.is_a?(Array) ? id.each { |id| destroy(id) } : find(id).destroy
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426 end
427
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428 # Updates all records with the SET-part of an SQL update statement in +updates+ and returns an integer with the number of rows updates.
429 # A subset of the records can be selected by specifying +conditions+. Example:
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430 # Billing.update_all "category = 'authorized', approved = 1", "author = 'David'"
431 def update_all(updates, conditions = nil)
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432 sql = "UPDATE #{table_name} SET #{sanitize_sql(updates)} "
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433 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
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434 return connection.update(sql, "#{name} Update")
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435 end
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436
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437 # Destroys the objects for all the records that matches the +condition+ by instantiating each object and calling
438 # the destroy method. Example:
439 # Person.destroy_all "last_login < '2004-04-04'"
440 def destroy_all(conditions = nil)
441 find_all(conditions).each { |object| object.destroy }
442 end
443
444 # Deletes all the records that matches the +condition+ without instantiating the objects first (and hence not
445 # calling the destroy method). Example:
446 # Post.destroy_all "person_id = 5 AND (category = 'Something' OR category = 'Else')"
447 def delete_all(conditions = nil)
448 sql = "DELETE FROM #{table_name} "
449 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
450 connection.delete(sql, "#{name} Delete all")
451 end
452
453 # Returns the number of records that meets the +conditions+. Zero is returned if no records match. Example:
454 # Product.count "sales > 1"
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455 def count(conditions = nil, joins = nil)
456 tbl_var_name = joins ? table_name[0,1].downcase : ""
457 sql = "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM #{table_name} #{tbl_var_name} "
458 sql << ", #{joins} " if joins
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459 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
460 count_by_sql(sql)
461 end
462
463 # Returns the result of an SQL statement that should only include a COUNT(*) in the SELECT part.
464 # Product.count "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM sales s, customers c WHERE s.customer_id = c.id"
465 def count_by_sql(sql)
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466 sql = sanitize_conditions(sql)
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467 count = connection.select_one(sql, "#{name} Count").values.first
468 return count ? count.to_i : 0
469 end
470
471 # Increments the specified counter by one. So <tt>DiscussionBoard.increment_counter("post_count",
472 # discussion_board_id)</tt> would increment the "post_count" counter on the board responding to discussion_board_id.
473 # This is used for caching aggregate values, so that they doesn't need to be computed every time. Especially important
474 # for looping over a collection where each element require a number of aggregate values. Like the DiscussionBoard
475 # that needs to list both the number of posts and comments.
476 def increment_counter(counter_name, id)
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477 update_all "#{counter_name} = #{counter_name} + 1", "#{primary_key} = #{quote(id)}"
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478 end
479
480 # Works like increment_counter, but decrements instead.
481 def decrement_counter(counter_name, id)
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482 update_all "#{counter_name} = #{counter_name} - 1", "#{primary_key} = #{quote(id)}"
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483 end
484
485 # Attributes named in this macro are protected from mass-assignment, such as <tt>new(attributes)</tt> and
486 # <tt>attributes=(attributes)</tt>. Their assignment will simply be ignored. Instead, you can use the direct writer
487 # methods to do assignment. This is meant to protect sensitive attributes to be overwritten by URL/form hackers. Example:
488 #
489 # class Customer < ActiveRecord::Base
490 # attr_protected :credit_rating
491 # end
492 #
493 # customer = Customer.new("name" => David, "credit_rating" => "Excellent")
494 # customer.credit_rating # => nil
495 # customer.attributes = { "description" => "Jolly fellow", "credit_rating" => "Superb" }
496 # customer.credit_rating # => nil
497 #
498 # customer.credit_rating = "Average"
499 # customer.credit_rating # => "Average"
500 def attr_protected(*attributes)
501 write_inheritable_array("attr_protected", attributes)
502 end
503
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504 # Returns an array of all the attributes that have been protected from mass-assignment.
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505 def protected_attributes # :nodoc:
506 read_inheritable_attribute("attr_protected")
507 end
508
509 # If this macro is used, only those attributed named in it will be accessible for mass-assignment, such as
510 # <tt>new(attributes)</tt> and <tt>attributes=(attributes)</tt>. This is the more conservative choice for mass-assignment
511 # protection. If you'd rather start from an all-open default and restrict attributes as needed, have a look at
512 # attr_protected.
513 def attr_accessible(*attributes)
514 write_inheritable_array("attr_accessible", attributes)
515 end
516
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517 # Returns an array of all the attributes that have been made accessible to mass-assignment.
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518 def accessible_attributes # :nodoc:
519 read_inheritable_attribute("attr_accessible")
520 end
521
522 # Specifies that the attribute by the name of +attr_name+ should be serialized before saving to the database and unserialized
523 # after loading from the database. The serialization is done through YAML. If +class_name+ is specified, the serialized
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524 # object must be of that class on retrieval or +SerializationTypeMismatch+ will be raised.
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525 def serialize(attr_name, class_name = Object)
526 write_inheritable_attribute("attr_serialized", serialized_attributes.update(attr_name.to_s => class_name))
527 end
528
529 # Returns a hash of all the attributes that have been specified for serialization as keys and their class restriction as values.
530 def serialized_attributes
531 read_inheritable_attribute("attr_serialized") || { }
532 end
533
534 # Guesses the table name (in forced lower-case) based on the name of the class in the inheritance hierarchy descending
535 # directly from ActiveRecord. So if the hierarchy looks like: Reply < Message < ActiveRecord, then Message is used
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536 # to guess the table name from even when called on Reply. The rules used to do the guess are handled by the Inflector class
537 # in Active Support, which knows almost all common English inflections (report a bug if your inflection isn't covered).
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538 #
539 # Additionally, the class-level table_name_prefix is prepended to the table_name and the table_name_suffix is appended.
540 # So if you have "myapp_" as a prefix, the table name guess for an Account class becomes "myapp_accounts".
541 #
542 # You can also overwrite this class method to allow for unguessable links, such as a Mouse class with a link to a
543 # "mice" table. Example:
544 #
545 # class Mouse < ActiveRecord::Base
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546 # set_table_name "mice"
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547 # end
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548 def table_name
549 table_name_prefix + undecorated_table_name(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self)) + table_name_suffix
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550 end
551
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552 # Defines the primary key field -- can be overridden in subclasses. Overwriting will negate any effect of the
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553 # primary_key_prefix_type setting, though.
554 def primary_key
555 case primary_key_prefix_type
556 when :table_name
557 Inflector.foreign_key(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self), false)
558 when :table_name_with_underscore
559 Inflector.foreign_key(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self))
560 else
561 "id"
562 end
563 end
564
565 # Defines the column name for use with single table inheritance -- can be overridden in subclasses.
566 def inheritance_column
567 "type"
568 end
569
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570 # Sets the table name to use to the given value, or (if the value
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571 # is nil or false) to the value returned by the given block.
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572 #
573 # Example:
574 #
575 # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
576 # set_table_name "project"
577 # end
578 def set_table_name( value=nil, &block )
579 define_attr_method :table_name, value, &block
580 end
581 alias :table_name= :set_table_name
582
583 # Sets the name of the primary key column to use to the given value,
584 # or (if the value is nil or false) to the value returned by the given
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585 # block.
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586 #
587 # Example:
588 #
589 # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
590 # set_primary_key "sysid"
591 # end
592 def set_primary_key( value=nil, &block )
593 define_attr_method :primary_key, value, &block
594 end
595 alias :primary_key= :set_primary_key
596
597 # Sets the name of the inheritance column to use to the given value,
598 # or (if the value # is nil or false) to the value returned by the
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599 # given block.
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600 #
601 # Example:
602 #
603 # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
604 # set_inheritance_column do
605 # original_inheritance_column + "_id"
606 # end
607 # end
608 def set_inheritance_column( value=nil, &block )
609 define_attr_method :inheritance_column, value, &block
610 end
611 alias :inheritance_column= :set_inheritance_column
612
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613 # Turns the +table_name+ back into a class name following the reverse rules of +table_name+.
614 def class_name(table_name = table_name) # :nodoc:
615 # remove any prefix and/or suffix from the table name
616 class_name = Inflector.camelize(table_name[table_name_prefix.length..-(table_name_suffix.length + 1)])
617 class_name = Inflector.singularize(class_name) if pluralize_table_names
618 return class_name
619 end
620
621 # Returns an array of column objects for the table associated with this class.
622 def columns
623 @columns ||= connection.columns(table_name, "#{name} Columns")
624 end
625
626 # Returns an array of column objects for the table associated with this class.
627 def columns_hash
628 @columns_hash ||= columns.inject({}) { |hash, column| hash[column.name] = column; hash }
629 end
630
631 # Returns an array of columns objects where the primary id, all columns ending in "_id" or "_count",
632 # and columns used for single table inheritance has been removed.
633 def content_columns
634 @content_columns ||= columns.reject { |c| c.name == primary_key || c.name =~ /(_id|_count)$/ || c.name == inheritance_column }
635 end
636
637 # Returns a hash of all the methods added to query each of the columns in the table with the name of the method as the key
638 # and true as the value. This makes it possible to do O(1) lookups in respond_to? to check if a given method for attribute
639 # is available.
640 def column_methods_hash
641 @dynamic_methods_hash ||= columns_hash.keys.inject(Hash.new(false)) do |methods, attr|
642 methods[attr.to_sym] = true
643 methods["#{attr}=".to_sym] = true
644 methods["#{attr}?".to_sym] = true
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645 methods["#{attr}_before_type_cast".to_sym] = true
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646 methods
647 end
648 end
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649
650 # Resets all the cached information about columns, which will cause they to be reloaded on the next request.
651 def reset_column_information
652 @columns = @columns_hash = @content_columns = @dynamic_methods_hash = nil
653 end
654
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655 def reset_column_information_and_inheritable_attributes_for_all_subclasses#:nodoc:
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656 subclasses.each { |klass| klass.reset_inheritable_attributes; klass.reset_column_information }
657 end
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658
659 # Transforms attribute key names into a more humane format, such as "First name" instead of "first_name". Example:
660 # Person.human_attribute_name("first_name") # => "First name"
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661 # Deprecated in favor of just calling "first_name".humanize
662 def human_attribute_name(attribute_key_name) #:nodoc:
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663 attribute_key_name.humanize
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664 end
665
666 def descends_from_active_record? # :nodoc:
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667 superclass == Base || !columns_hash.has_key?(inheritance_column)
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668 end
669
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670 def quote(object) #:nodoc:
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671 connection.quote(object)
672 end
673
674 # Used to sanitize objects before they're used in an SELECT SQL-statement. Delegates to <tt>connection.quote</tt>.
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675 def sanitize(object) #:nodoc:
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676 connection.quote(object)
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677 end
678
679 # Used to aggregate logging and benchmark, so you can measure and represent multiple statements in a single block.
680 # Usage (hides all the SQL calls for the individual actions and calculates total runtime for them all):
681 #
682 # Project.benchmark("Creating project") do
683 # project = Project.create("name" => "stuff")
684 # project.create_manager("name" => "David")
685 # project.milestones << Milestone.find_all
686 # end
687 def benchmark(title)
688 result = nil
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689 bm = Benchmark.measure { result = silence { yield } }
690 logger.info "#{title} (#{sprintf("%f", bm.real)})"
691 return result
692 end
693
694 # Silences the logger for the duration of the block.
695 def silence
696 result = nil
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697 logger.level = Logger::ERROR
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698 result = yield
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699 logger.level = Logger::DEBUG
700 return result
701 end
702
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703 # Overwrite the default class equality method to provide support for association proxies.
704 def ===(object)
705 object.is_a?(self)
706 end
707
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708 private
709 # Finder methods must instantiate through this method to work with the single-table inheritance model
710 # that makes it possible to create objects of different types from the same table.
711 def instantiate(record)
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712 require_association_class(record[inheritance_column])
713
714 begin
715 object = record_with_type?(record) ? compute_type(record[inheritance_column]).allocate : allocate
716 rescue NameError
717 raise(
718 SubclassNotFound,
719 "The single-table inheritance mechanism failed to locate the subclass: '#{record[inheritance_column]}'. " +
720 "This error is raised because the column '#{inheritance_column}' is reserved for storing the class in case of inheritance. " +
721 "Please rename this column if you didn't intend it to be used for storing the inheritance class " +
722 "or overwrite #{self.to_s}.inheritance_column to use another column for that information."
723 )
724 end
725
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726 object.instance_variable_set("@attributes", record)
727 return object
728 end
729
730 # Returns true if the +record+ has a single table inheritance column and is using it.
731 def record_with_type?(record)
732 record.include?(inheritance_column) && !record[inheritance_column].nil? &&
733 !record[inheritance_column].empty?
734 end
735
736 # Returns the name of the type of the record using the current module as a prefix. So descendents of
737 # MyApp::Business::Account would be appear as "MyApp::Business::AccountSubclass".
738 def type_name_with_module(type_name)
739 self.name =~ /::/ ? self.name.scan(/(.*)::/).first.first + "::" + type_name : type_name
740 end
741
742 # Adds a sanitized version of +conditions+ to the +sql+ string. Note that it's the passed +sql+ string is changed.
743 def add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
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744 sql << "WHERE #{sanitize_sql(conditions)} " unless conditions.nil?
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745 sql << (conditions.nil? ? "WHERE " : " AND ") + type_condition unless descends_from_active_record?
746 end
747
748 def type_condition
749 " (" + subclasses.inject("#{inheritance_column} = '#{Inflector.demodulize(name)}' ") do |condition, subclass|
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750 condition << "OR #{inheritance_column} = '#{Inflector.demodulize(subclass.name)}' "
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751 end + ") "
752 end
753
754 # Guesses the table name, but does not decorate it with prefix and suffix information.
755 def undecorated_table_name(class_name = class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self))
756 table_name = Inflector.underscore(Inflector.demodulize(class_name))
757 table_name = Inflector.pluralize(table_name) if pluralize_table_names
758 return table_name
759 end
760
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761 # Enables dynamic finders like find_by_user_name(user_name) and find_by_user_name_and_password(user_name, password) that are turned into
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762 # find_first(["user_name = ?", user_name]) and find_first(["user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password]) respectively. Also works
763 # for find_all, but using find_all_by_amount(50) that are turned into find_all(["amount = ?", 50]).
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764 #
765 # It's even possible to use all the additional parameters to find_first and find_all. For example, the full interface for find_all_by_amount
766 # is actually find_all_by_amount(amount, orderings = nil, limit = nil, joins = nil).
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767 def method_missing(method_id, *arguments)
768 method_name = method_id.id2name
769
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770 if method_name =~ /find_(all_by|by)_([_a-z][_a-z\d]*)/
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771 finder, attributes = ($1 == "all_by" ? :find_all : :find_first), $2.split("_and_")
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772 attributes.each { |attr_name| super unless column_methods_hash[attr_name.intern] }
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773
774 attr_index = -1
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775 conditions = attributes.collect { |attr_name| attr_index += 1; "#{attr_name} #{arguments[attr_index].nil? ? "IS" : "="} ? " }.join(" AND ")
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776 send(finder, [conditions, *arguments[0...attributes.length]], *arguments[attributes.length..-1])
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777 else
778 super
779 end
780 end
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781
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782 # Defines an "attribute" method (like #inheritance_column or
783 # #table_name). A new (class) method will be created with the
784 # given name. If a value is specified, the new method will
785 # return that value (as a string). Otherwise, the given block
786 # will be used to compute the value of the method.
787 #
788 # The original method will be aliased, with the new name being
789 # prefixed with "original_". This allows the new method to
790 # access the original value.
791 #
792 # Example:
793 #
794 # class A < ActiveRecord::Base
795 # define_attr_method :primary_key, "sysid"
796 # define_attr_method( :inheritance_column ) do
797 # original_inheritance_column + "_id"
798 # end
799 # end
800 def define_attr_method(name, value=nil, &block)
801 sing = class << self; self; end
802 block = proc { value.to_s } if value
803 sing.send( :alias_method, "original_#{name}", name )
804 sing.send( :define_method, name, &block )
805 end
806
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807 protected
808 def subclasses
809 @@subclasses[self] ||= []
810 @@subclasses[self] + extra = @@subclasses[self].inject([]) {|list, subclass| list + subclass.subclasses }
811 end
812
813 # Returns the class type of the record using the current module as a prefix. So descendents of
814 # MyApp::Business::Account would be appear as MyApp::Business::AccountSubclass.
815 def compute_type(type_name)
816 type_name_with_module(type_name).split("::").inject(Object) do |final_type, part|
817 final_type = final_type.const_get(part)
818 end
819 end
820
821 # Returns the name of the class descending directly from ActiveRecord in the inheritance hierarchy.
822 def class_name_of_active_record_descendant(klass)
823 if klass.superclass == Base
824 return klass.name
825 elsif klass.superclass.nil?
826 raise ActiveRecordError, "#{name} doesn't belong in a hierarchy descending from ActiveRecord"
827 else
828 class_name_of_active_record_descendant(klass.superclass)
829 end
830 end
831
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832 # Accepts an array or string. The string is returned untouched, but the array has each value
833 # sanitized and interpolated into the sql statement.
834 # ["name='%s' and group_id='%s'", "foo'bar", 4] returns "name='foo''bar' and group_id='4'"
835 def sanitize_sql(ary)
836 return ary unless ary.is_a?(Array)
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837
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838 statement, *values = ary
839 if values.first.is_a?(Hash) and statement =~ /:\w+/
840 replace_named_bind_variables(statement, values.first)
841 elsif statement.include?('?')
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842 replace_bind_variables(statement, values)
843 else
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844 statement % values.collect { |value| connection.quote_string(value.to_s) }
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dhh authored
845 end
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846 end
847
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848 alias_method :sanitize_conditions, :sanitize_sql
849
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850 def replace_bind_variables(statement, values)
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851 raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, statement.count('?'), values.size)
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852 bound = values.dup
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853 statement.gsub('?') { quote_bound_value(bound.shift) }
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854 end
855
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856 def replace_named_bind_variables(statement, bind_vars)
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dhh authored
857 raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, statement.scan(/:(\w+)/).uniq.size, bind_vars.size)
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858 statement.gsub(/:(\w+)/) do
859 match = $1.to_sym
860 if bind_vars.has_key?(match)
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861 quote_bound_value(bind_vars[match])
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862 else
863 raise PreparedStatementInvalid, "missing value for :#{match} in #{statement}"
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dhh authored
864 end
865 end
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dhh authored
866 end
867
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868 def quote_bound_value(value)
869 case value
870 when Array
871 value.map { |v| connection.quote(v) }.join(',')
872 else
873 connection.quote(value)
874 end
875 end
876
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877 def raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, expected, provided)
878 unless expected == provided
879 raise PreparedStatementInvalid, "wrong number of bind variables (#{provided} for #{expected}) in: #{statement}"
880 end
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dhh authored
881 end
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882
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883 def extract_options_from_args!(args)
884 if args.last.is_a?(Hash) then args.pop else {} end
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885 end
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886
887 def encode_quoted_value(value)
888 quoted_value = connection.quote(value)
889 quoted_value = "'#{quoted_value[1..-2].gsub(/\'/, "\\\\'")}'" if quoted_value.include?("\\\'")
890 quoted_value
891 end
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892 end
893
894 public
895 # New objects can be instantiated as either empty (pass no construction parameter) or pre-set with
896 # attributes but not yet saved (pass a hash with key names matching the associated table column names).
897 # In both instances, valid attribute keys are determined by the column names of the associated table --
898 # hence you can't have attributes that aren't part of the table columns.
899 def initialize(attributes = nil)
900 @attributes = attributes_from_column_definition
901 @new_record = true
902 ensure_proper_type
903 self.attributes = attributes unless attributes.nil?
904 yield self if block_given?
905 end
906
907 # Every Active Record class must use "id" as their primary ID. This getter overwrites the native
908 # id method, which isn't being used in this context.
909 def id
910 read_attribute(self.class.primary_key)
911 end
912
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913 # Enables Active Record objects to be used as URL parameters in Action Pack automatically.
914 alias_method :to_param, :id
915
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dhh authored
916 def id_before_type_cast #:nodoc:
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917 read_attribute_before_type_cast(self.class.primary_key)
918 end
919
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dhh authored
920 def quoted_id #:nodoc:
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921 quote(id, self.class.columns_hash[self.class.primary_key])
922 end
923
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924 # Sets the primary ID.
925 def id=(value)
926 write_attribute(self.class.primary_key, value)
927 end
928
929 # Returns true if this object hasn't been saved yet -- that is, a record for the object doesn't exist yet.
930 def new_record?
931 @new_record
932 end
933
934 # * No record exists: Creates a new record with values matching those of the object attributes.
935 # * A record does exist: Updates the record with values matching those of the object attributes.
936 def save
937 create_or_update
938 end
939
940 # Deletes the record in the database and freezes this instance to reflect that no changes should
941 # be made (since they can't be persisted).
942 def destroy
943 unless new_record?
944 connection.delete(
945 "DELETE FROM #{self.class.table_name} " +
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946 "WHERE #{self.class.primary_key} = #{quote(id)}",
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947 "#{self.class.name} Destroy"
948 )
949 end
950
951 freeze
952 end
953
954 # Returns a clone of the record that hasn't been assigned an id yet and is treated as a new record.
955 def clone
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956 attrs = self.attributes
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957 attrs.delete(self.class.primary_key)
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958 cloned_record = self.class.new(attrs)
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959 cloned_record
960 end
961
962 # Updates a single attribute and saves the record. This is especially useful for boolean flags on existing records.
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963 # Note: This method is overwritten by the Validation module that'll make sure that updates made with this method
964 # doesn't get subjected to validation checks. Hence, attributes can be updated even if the full object isn't valid.
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965 def update_attribute(name, value)
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966 self[name] = value
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967 save
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968 end
969
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970 # Updates all the attributes in from the passed hash and saves the record. If the object is invalid, the saving will
971 # fail and false will be returned.
604a094 @dhh Added Base#update_attributes that'll accept a hash of attributes and …
dhh authored
972 def update_attributes(attributes)
3bef4c2 @dhh Made Base#update_attributes actually work
dhh authored
973 self.attributes = attributes
604a094 @dhh Added Base#update_attributes that'll accept a hash of attributes and …
dhh authored
974 return save
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dhh authored
975 end
976
d1abe80 @dhh Added Base#toggle(attribute) and Base#toggle!(attribute) that makes i…
dhh authored
977 # Initializes the +attribute+ to zero if nil and adds one. Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns self.
978 def increment(attribute)
979 self[attribute] ||= 0
980 self[attribute] += 1
981 self
982 end
983
984 # Increments the +attribute+ and saves the record.
985 def increment!(attribute)
986 increment(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
987 end
988
989 # Initializes the +attribute+ to zero if nil and subtracts one. Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns self.
990 def decrement(attribute)
991 self[attribute] ||= 0
992 self[attribute] -= 1
993 self
994 end
995
996 # Decrements the +attribute+ and saves the record.
997 def decrement!(attribute)
998 decrement(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
999 end
1000
1001 # Turns an +attribute+ that's currently true into false and vice versa. Returns self.
1002 def toggle(attribute)
1003 self[attribute] = quote(!send("#{attribute}?", column_for_attribute(attribute)))
1004 self
1005 end
1006
1007 # Toggles the +attribute+ and saves the record.
1008 def toggle!(attribute)
1009 toggle(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
1010 end
1011
3ff5c58 @dhh Added Base#reload that reloads the attributes of an object from the d…
dhh authored
1012 # Reloads the attributes of this object from the database.
1013 def reload
1014 clear_association_cache
1015 @attributes.update(self.class.find(self.id).instance_variable_get('@attributes'))
1016 return self
1017 end
1018
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1019 # Returns the value of attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> after it has been type cast (for example,
1020 # "2004-12-12" in a data column is cast to a date object, like Date.new(2004, 12, 12)).
1021 # (Alias for the protected read_attribute method).
1022 def [](attr_name)
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1023 read_attribute(attr_name.to_s)
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1024 end
1025
1026 # Updates the attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> with the specified +value+.
1027 # (Alias for the protected write_attribute method).
1028 def []= (attr_name, value)
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dhh authored
1029 write_attribute(attr_name.to_s, value)
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dhh authored
1030 end
1031
1032 # Allows you to set all the attributes at once by passing in a hash with keys
1033 # matching the attribute names (which again matches the column names). Sensitive attributes can be protected
1034 # from this form of mass-assignment by using the +attr_protected+ macro. Or you can alternatively
1035 # specify which attributes *can* be accessed in with the +attr_accessible+ macro. Then all the
1036 # attributes not included in that won't be allowed to be mass-assigned.
1037 def attributes=(attributes)
1038 return if attributes.nil?
2bfaa05 @dhh Fixed that symbols can be used on attribute assignment, like page.ema…
dhh authored
1039 attributes.stringify_keys!
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1040
1041 multi_parameter_attributes = []
1042 remove_attributes_protected_from_mass_assignment(attributes).each do |k, v|
1043 k.include?("(") ? multi_parameter_attributes << [ k, v ] : send(k + "=", v)
1044 end
1045 assign_multiparameter_attributes(multi_parameter_attributes)
1046 end
1047
b067bf7 @dhh Added Base#attributes that returns a hash of all the attributes with …
dhh authored
1048 # Returns a hash of all the attributes with their names as keys and clones of their objects as values.
1049 def attributes
1050 self.attribute_names.inject({}) do |attributes, name|
1051 begin
1052 attributes[name] = read_attribute(name).clone
55cb8c8 @dhh Fixed that Active Record objects with float attribute could not be cl…
dhh authored
1053 rescue TypeError, NoMethodError
b067bf7 @dhh Added Base#attributes that returns a hash of all the attributes with …
dhh authored
1054 attributes[name] = read_attribute(name)
1055 end
1056 attributes
1057 end
1058 end
1059
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1060 # Returns true if the specified +attribute+ has been set by the user or by a database load and is neither
1061 # nil nor empty? (the latter only applies to objects that responds to empty?, most notably Strings).
1062 def attribute_present?(attribute)
1063 is_empty = read_attribute(attribute).respond_to?("empty?") ? read_attribute(attribute).empty? : false
1064 @attributes.include?(attribute) && !@attributes[attribute].nil? && !is_empty
1065 end
1066
1067 # Returns an array of names for the attributes available on this object sorted alphabetically.
1068 def attribute_names
1069 @attributes.keys.sort
1070 end
1071
1072 # Returns the column object for the named attribute.
1073 def column_for_attribute(name)
d1abe80 @dhh Added Base#toggle(attribute) and Base#toggle!(attribute) that makes i…
dhh authored
1074 self.class.columns_hash[name.to_s]
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dhh authored
1075 end
1076
823554e @dhh Added support for associating unsaved objects #402 [Tim Bates]
dhh authored
1077 # Returns true if the +comparison_object+ is the same object, or is of the same type and has the same id.
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1078 def ==(comparison_object)
823554e @dhh Added support for associating unsaved objects #402 [Tim Bates]
dhh authored
1079 comparison_object.equal?(self) or (comparison_object.instance_of?(self.class) and comparison_object.id == id)
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1080 end
1081
1082 # Delegates to ==
1083 def eql?(comparison_object)
1084 self == (comparison_object)
1085 end
1086
1087 # Delegates to id in order to allow two records of the same type and id to work with something like:
1088 # [ Person.find(1), Person.find(2), Person.find(3) ] & [ Person.find(1), Person.find(4) ] # => [ Person.find(1) ]
1089 def hash
cfef86c @dhh Fixed bug in Base#hash method that would treat records with the same …
dhh authored
1090 id.hash
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1091 end
1092
1093 # For checking respond_to? without searching the attributes (which is faster).
1094 alias_method :respond_to_without_attributes?, :respond_to?
1095
1096 # A Person object with a name attribute can ask person.respond_to?("name"), person.respond_to?("name="), and
1097 # person.respond_to?("name?") which will all return true.
846f0d5 @dhh Fixed that the overwritten respond_to? method didn't take two paramet…
dhh authored
1098 def respond_to?(method, include_priv = false)
1099 self.class.column_methods_hash[method.to_sym] || respond_to_without_attributes?(method, include_priv)
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1100 end
d82f73e @dhh Abolished ActionController::Base.require_or_load in favor of require_…
dhh authored
1101
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1102 private
1103 def create_or_update
1104 if new_record? then create else update end
823554e @dhh Added support for associating unsaved objects #402 [Tim Bates]
dhh authored
1105 return true
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1106 end
1107
1108 # Updates the associated record with values matching those of the instant attributes.
1109 def update
1110 connection.update(
1111 "UPDATE #{self.class.table_name} " +
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dhh authored
1112 "SET #{quoted_comma_pair_list(connection, attributes_with_quotes(false))} " +
4940383 @dhh Fixed value quoting in all generated SQL statements, so that integers…
dhh authored
1113 "WHERE #{self.class.primary_key} = #{quote(id)}",
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1114 "#{self.class.name} Update"
1115 )
1116 end
1117
1118 # Creates a new record with values matching those of the instant attributes.
1119 def create
1120 self.id = connection.insert(
1121 "INSERT INTO #{self.class.table_name} " +
1122 "(#{quoted_column_names.join(', ')}) " +
1123 "VALUES(#{attributes_with_quotes.values.join(', ')})",
1124 "#{self.class.name} Create",
1125 self.class.primary_key, self.id
1126 )
1127
1128 @new_record = false
1129 end
1130
1131 # Sets the attribute used for single table inheritance to this class name if this is not the ActiveRecord descendant.
1132 # Considering the hierarchy Reply < Message < ActiveRecord, this makes it possible to do Reply.new without having to
1133 # set Reply[Reply.inheritance_column] = "Reply" yourself. No such attribute would be set for objects of the
1134 # Message class in that example.
1135 def ensure_proper_type
1136 unless self.class.descends_from_active_record?
1137 write_attribute(self.class.inheritance_column, Inflector.demodulize(self.class.name))
1138 end
1139 end
1140
1141 # Allows access to the object attributes, which are held in the @attributes hash, as were
1142 # they first-class methods. So a Person class with a name attribute can use Person#name and
1143 # Person#name= and never directly use the attributes hash -- except for multiple assigns with
1144 # ActiveRecord#attributes=. A Milestone class can also ask Milestone#completed? to test that
1145 # the completed attribute is not nil or 0.
1146 #
1147 # It's also possible to instantiate related objects, so a Client class belonging to the clients
1148 # table with a master_id foreign key can instantiate master through Client#master.
1149 def method_missing(method_id, *arguments)
1150 method_name = method_id.id2name
daf3e92 @dhh Added a db2 adapter that only depends on the Ruby/DB2 bindings (http:…
dhh authored
1151
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1152 if method_name =~ read_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1153 return read_attribute($1)
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return …
dhh authored
1154 elsif method_name =~ read_untyped_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1155 return read_attribute_before_type_cast($1)
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1156 elsif method_name =~ write_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1157 write_attribute($1, arguments[0])
1158 elsif method_name =~ query_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1159 return query_attribute($1)
1160 else
1161 super
1162 end
1163 end
1164
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return …
dhh authored
1165 def read_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)[^=?]*$/ end
1166 def read_untyped_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)_before_type_cast$/ end
1167 def write_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)=.*$/ end
1168 def query_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)\?$/ end
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1169
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return …
dhh authored
1170 # Returns the value of attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> after it has been type cast (for example,
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1171 # "2004-12-12" in a data column is cast to a date object, like Date.new(2004, 12, 12)).
4eab375 @dhh Finished polishing API docs
dhh authored
1172 def read_attribute(attr_name)
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1173 if @attributes.keys.include? attr_name
1174 if column = column_for_attribute(attr_name)
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return …
dhh authored
1175 unserializable_attribute?(attr_name, column) ?
db045db @dhh Initial
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1176 unserialize_attribute(attr_name) : column.type_cast(@attributes[attr_name])
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return …
dhh authored
1177 else
1178 @attributes[attr_name]
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1179 end
1180 else
1181 nil
1182 end
1183 end
1184
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return …
dhh authored
1185 def read_attribute_before_type_cast(attr_name)
1186 @attributes[attr_name]
1187 end
1188
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1189 # Returns true if the attribute is of a text column and marked for serialization.
1190 def unserializable_attribute?(attr_name, column)
daf3e92 @dhh Added a db2 adapter that only depends on the Ruby/DB2 bindings (http:…
dhh authored
1191 @attributes[attr_name] && [:text, :string].include?(column.send(:type)) && @attributes[attr_name].is_a?(String) && self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name]
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1192 end
1193
1194 # Returns the unserialized object of the attribute.
1195 def unserialize_attribute(attr_name)
1196 unserialized_object = object_from_yaml(@attributes[attr_name])
1197
1198 if unserialized_object.is_a?(self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name])
1199 @attributes[attr_name] = unserialized_object
1200 else
1201 raise(
1202 SerializationTypeMismatch,
1203 "#{attr_name} was supposed to be a #{self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name]}, " +
1204 "but was a #{unserialized_object.class.to_s}"
1205 )
1206 end
1207 end
1208
1209 # Updates the attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> with the specified +value+. Empty strings for fixnum and float
1210 # columns are turned into nil.
4eab375 @dhh Finished polishing API docs
dhh authored
1211 def write_attribute(attr_name, value)
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1212 @attributes[attr_name] = empty_string_for_number_column?(attr_name, value) ? nil : value
1213 end
1214
1215 def empty_string_for_number_column?(attr_name, value)
1216 column = column_for_attribute(attr_name)
1217 column && (column.klass == Fixnum || column.klass == Float) && value == ""
1218 end
1219
1220 def query_attribute(attr_name)
1221 attribute = @attributes[attr_name]
1222 if attribute.kind_of?(Fixnum) && attribute == 0
1223 false
1224 elsif attribute.kind_of?(String) && attribute == "0"
1225 false
1226 elsif attribute.kind_of?(String) && attribute.empty?
1227 false
1228 elsif attribute.nil?
1229 false
1230 elsif attribute == false
1231 false
1232 elsif attribute == "f"
1233 false
1234 elsif attribute == "false"
1235 false
1236 else
1237 true
1238 end
1239 end
1240
1241 def remove_attributes_protected_from_mass_assignment(attributes)
1242 if self.class.accessible_attributes.nil? && self.class.protected_attributes.nil?
95454bf @dhh Added mass-assignment protection for the inheritance column -- regard…
dhh authored
1243 attributes.reject { |key, value| attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1244 elsif self.class.protected_attributes.nil?
95454bf @dhh Added mass-assignment protection for the inheritance column -- regard…
dhh authored
1245 attributes.reject { |key, value| !self.class.accessible_attributes.include?(key.intern) || attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1246 elsif self.class.accessible_attributes.nil?
95454bf @dhh Added mass-assignment protection for the inheritance column -- regard…
dhh authored
1247 attributes.reject { |key, value| self.class.protected_attributes.include?(key.intern) || attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1248 end
1249 end
1250
95454bf @dhh Added mass-assignment protection for the inheritance column -- regard…
dhh authored
1251 # The primary key and inheritance column can never be set by mass-assignment for security reasons.
1252 def attributes_protected_by_default
1253 [ self.class.primary_key, self.class.inheritance_column ]
1254 end
1255
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1256 # Returns copy of the attributes hash where all the values have been safely quoted for use in
1257 # an SQL statement.
9a248a8 @dhh Dont include the primary key in updates -- its unneeded and SQL Serve…
dhh authored
1258 def attributes_with_quotes(include_primary_key = true)
db045db @dhh Initial
dhh authored
1259 columns_hash = self.class.columns_hash
b29c01e @dhh Added that has_and_belongs_to_many associations with additional attri…
dhh authored
1260
dabf906 @dhh Added type conversion before saving a record, so string-based values …
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1261 attrs_quoted = attributes.inject({}) do |attrs_quoted, pair|
9a248a8 @dhh Dont include the primary key in updates -- its unneeded and SQL Serve…
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1262 attrs_quoted[pair.first] = quote(pair.last, columns_hash[pair.first]) unless !include_primary_key && pair.first == self.class.primary_key
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1263 attrs_quoted
1264 end
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1265
1266 attrs_quoted.delete_if { |key, value| !self.class.columns_hash.keys.include?(key) }
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1267 end
1268
1269 # Quote strings appropriately for SQL statements.
1270 def quote(value, column = nil)
1271 connection.quote(value, column)
1272 end
1273
1274 # Interpolate custom sql string in instance context.
1275 # Optional record argument is meant for custom insert_sql.
1276 def interpolate_sql(sql, record = nil)
1277 instance_eval("%(#{sql})")
1278 end
1279
1280 # Initializes the attributes array with keys matching the columns from the linked table and
1281 # the values matching the corresponding default value of that column, so
1282 # that a new instance, or one populated from a passed-in Hash, still has all the attributes
1283 # that instances loaded from the database would.
1284 def attributes_from_column_definition
1285 connection.columns(self.class.table_name, "#{self.class.name} Columns").inject({}) do |attributes, column|
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1286 attributes[column.name] = column.default unless column.name == self.class.primary_key
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1287 attributes
1288 end
1289 end
1290
1291 # Instantiates objects for all attribute classes that needs more than one constructor parameter. This is done
1292 # by calling new on the column type or aggregation type (through composed_of) object with these parameters.
1293 # So having the pairs written_on(1) = "2004", written_on(2) = "6", written_on(3) = "24", will instantiate
1294 # written_on (a date type) with Date.new("2004", "6", "24"). You can also specify a typecast character in the
098fa94 @dhh Fixed documentation snafus #575, #576, #577, #585
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1295 # parentheses to have the parameters typecasted before they're used in the constructor. Use i for Fixnum, f for Float,
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1296 # s for String, and a for Array. If all the values for a given attribute is empty, the attribute will be set to nil.
1297 def assign_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
1298 execute_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(
1299 extract_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
1300 )
1301 end
1302
1303 # Includes an ugly hack for Time.local instead of Time.new because the latter is reserved by Time itself.
1304 def execute_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(callstack)
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1305 errors = []
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1306 callstack.each do |name, values|
1307 klass = (self.class.reflect_on_aggregation(name) || column_for_attribute(name)).klass
1308 if values.empty?
1309 send(name + "=", nil)
1310 else
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1311 begin
1312 send(name + "=", Time == klass ? klass.local(*values) : klass.new(*values))
1313 rescue => ex
1314 errors << AttributeAssignmentError.new("error on assignment #{values.inspect} to #{name}", ex, name)
1315 end
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1316 end
1317 end
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1318 unless errors.empty?
1319 raise MultiparameterAssignmentErrors.new(errors), "#{errors.size} error(s) on assignment of multiparameter attributes"
1320 end
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1321 end
1322
1323 def extract_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
1324 attributes = { }
1325
1326 for pair in pairs
1327 multiparameter_name, value = pair
1328 attribute_name = multiparameter_name.split("(").first
1329 attributes[attribute_name] = [] unless attributes.include?(attribute_name)
1330
1331 unless value.empty?
1332 attributes[attribute_name] <<
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1333 [ find_parameter_position(multiparameter_name), type_cast_attribute_value(multiparameter_name, value) ]
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1334 end
1335 end
1336
1337 attributes.each { |name, values| attributes[name] = values.sort_by{ |v| v.first }.collect { |v| v.last } }
1338 end
1339
1340 def type_cast_attribute_value(multiparameter_name, value)
1341 multiparameter_name =~ /\([0-9]*([a-z])\)/ ? value.send("to_" + $1) : value
1342 end
1343
1344 def find_parameter_position(multiparameter_name)
1345 multiparameter_name.scan(/\(([0-9]*).*\)/).first.first
1346 end
1347
1348 # Returns a comma-separated pair list, like "key1 = val1, key2 = val2".
1349 def comma_pair_list(hash)
1350 hash.inject([]) { |list, pair| list << "#{pair.first} = #{pair.last}" }.join(", ")
1351 end
1352
1353 def quoted_column_names(attributes = attributes_with_quotes)
1354 attributes.keys.collect { |column_name| connection.quote_column_name(column_name) }
1355 end
1356
1357 def quote_columns(column_quoter, hash)
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1358 hash.inject({}) do |list, pair|
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1359 list[column_quoter.quote_column_name(pair.first)] = pair.last
1360 list
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1361 end
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1362 end
1363
1364 def quoted_comma_pair_list(column_quoter, hash)
1365 comma_pair_list(quote_columns(column_quoter, hash))
1366 end
1367
1368 def object_from_yaml(string)
b40d3c9 @dhh Replaced === checks with is_a? checks #502, #82 [Marcel Molina]
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1369 return string unless string.is_a?(String)
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1370 if has_yaml_encoding_header?(string)
1371 begin
1372 YAML::load(string)
1373 rescue Object
1374 # Apparently wasn't YAML anyway
1375 string
1376 end
1377 else
1378 string
1379 end
1380 end
1381
1382 def has_yaml_encoding_header?(string)
1383 string[0..3] == "--- "
1384 end
1385 end
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1386 end
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