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1 require 'yaml'
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2 require 'active_record/deprecated_finders'
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3
4 module ActiveRecord #:nodoc:
5 class ActiveRecordError < StandardError #:nodoc:
6 end
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7 class SubclassNotFound < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
8 end
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9 class AssociationTypeMismatch < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
10 end
11 class SerializationTypeMismatch < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
12 end
13 class AdapterNotSpecified < ActiveRecordError # :nodoc:
14 end
15 class AdapterNotFound < ActiveRecordError # :nodoc:
16 end
17 class ConnectionNotEstablished < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
18 end
19 class ConnectionFailed < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
20 end
21 class RecordNotFound < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
22 end
23 class StatementInvalid < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
24 end
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25 class PreparedStatementInvalid < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
26 end
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27 class StaleObjectError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
28 end
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29
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30 class AttributeAssignmentError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
31 attr_reader :exception, :attribute
32 def initialize(message, exception, attribute)
33 @exception = exception
34 @attribute = attribute
35 @message = message
36 end
37 end
38
39 class MultiparameterAssignmentErrors < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
40 attr_reader :errors
41 def initialize(errors)
42 @errors = errors
43 end
44 end
45
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46 # Active Record objects doesn't specify their attributes directly, but rather infer them from the table definition with
47 # which they're linked. Adding, removing, and changing attributes and their type is done directly in the database. Any change
48 # is instantly reflected in the Active Record objects. The mapping that binds a given Active Record class to a certain
49 # database table will happen automatically in most common cases, but can be overwritten for the uncommon ones.
50 #
51 # See the mapping rules in table_name and the full example in link:files/README.html for more insight.
52 #
53 # == Creation
54 #
55 # Active Records accepts constructor parameters either in a hash or as a block. The hash method is especially useful when
56 # you're receiving the data from somewhere else, like a HTTP request. It works like this:
57 #
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58 # user = User.new(:name => "David", :occupation => "Code Artist")
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59 # user.name # => "David"
60 #
61 # You can also use block initialization:
62 #
63 # user = User.new do |u|
64 # u.name = "David"
65 # u.occupation = "Code Artist"
66 # end
67 #
68 # And of course you can just create a bare object and specify the attributes after the fact:
69 #
70 # user = User.new
71 # user.name = "David"
72 # user.occupation = "Code Artist"
73 #
74 # == Conditions
75 #
76 # Conditions can either be specified as a string or an array representing the WHERE-part of an SQL statement.
77 # The array form is to be used when the condition input is tainted and requires sanitization. The string form can
78 # be used for statements that doesn't involve tainted data. Examples:
79 #
80 # User < ActiveRecord::Base
81 # def self.authenticate_unsafely(user_name, password)
82 # find_first("user_name = '#{user_name}' AND password = '#{password}'")
83 # end
84 #
85 # def self.authenticate_safely(user_name, password)
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86 # find_first([ "user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password ])
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87 # end
88 # end
89 #
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90 # The <tt>authenticate_unsafely</tt> method inserts the parameters directly into the query and is thus susceptible to SQL-injection
91 # attacks if the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+ parameters come directly from a HTTP request. The <tt>authenticate_safely</tt> method,
92 # on the other hand, will sanitize the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+ before inserting them in the query, which will ensure that
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93 # an attacker can't escape the query and fake the login (or worse).
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94 #
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95 # When using multiple parameters in the conditions, it can easily become hard to read exactly what the fourth or fifth
96 # question mark is supposed to represent. In those cases, you can resort to named bind variables instead. That's done by replacing
97 # the question marks with symbols and supplying a hash with values for the matching symbol keys:
98 #
99 # Company.find_first([
100 # "id = :id AND name = :name AND division = :division AND created_at > :accounting_date",
101 # { :id => 3, :name => "37signals", :division => "First", :accounting_date => '2005-01-01' }
102 # ])
103 #
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104 # == Overwriting default accessors
105 #
106 # All column values are automatically available through basic accessors on the Active Record object, but some times you
107 # want to specialize this behavior. This can be done by either by overwriting the default accessors (using the same
108 # name as the attribute) calling read_attribute(attr_name) and write_attribute(attr_name, value) to actually change things.
109 # Example:
110 #
111 # class Song < ActiveRecord::Base
112 # # Uses an integer of seconds to hold the length of the song
113 #
114 # def length=(minutes)
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115 # write_attribute(:length, minutes * 60)
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116 # end
117 #
118 # def length
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119 # read_attribute(:length) / 60
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120 # end
121 # end
122 #
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123 # You can alternatively use self[:attribute]=(value) and self[:attribute] instead of write_attribute(:attribute, vaule) and
124 # read_attribute(:attribute) as a shorter form.
125 #
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126 # == Accessing attributes before they have been type casted
127 #
128 # Some times you want to be able to read the raw attribute data without having the column-determined type cast run its course first.
129 # That can be done by using the <attribute>_before_type_cast accessors that all attributes have. For example, if your Account model
130 # has a balance attribute, you can call account.balance_before_type_cast or account.id_before_type_cast.
131 #
132 # This is especially useful in validation situations where the user might supply a string for an integer field and you want to display
133 # the original string back in an error message. Accessing the attribute normally would type cast the string to 0, which isn't what you
134 # want.
135 #
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136 # == Dynamic attribute-based finders
137 #
138 # Dynamic attribute-based finders are a cleaner way of getting objects by simple queries without turning to SQL. They work by
139 # appending the name of an attribute to <tt>find_by_</tt>, so you get finders like <tt>Person.find_by_user_name, Payment.find_by_transaction_id</tt>.
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140 # So instead of writing <tt>Person.find(:first, ["user_name = ?", user_name])</tt>, you just do <tt>Person.find_by_user_name(user_name)</tt>.
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141 #
142 # It's also possible to use multiple attributes in the same find by separating them with "_and_", so you get finders like
143 # <tt>Person.find_by_user_name_and_password</tt> or even <tt>Payment.find_by_purchaser_and_state_and_country</tt>. So instead of writing
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144 # <tt>Person.find(:first, ["user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password])</tt>, you just do
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145 # <tt>Person.find_by_user_name_and_password(user_name, password)</tt>.
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146 #
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147 # It's even possible to use all the additional parameters to find. For example, the full interface for Payment.find_all_by_amount
148 # is actually Payment.find_all_by_amount(amount, options). And the full interface to Person.find_by_user_name is
149 # actually Person.find_by_user_name(user_name, options). So you could call <tt>Payment.find_all_by_amount(50, :order => "created_on")</tt>.
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150 #
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151 # == Saving arrays, hashes, and other non-mappable objects in text columns
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152 #
153 # Active Record can serialize any object in text columns using YAML. To do so, you must specify this with a call to the class method +serialize+.
154 # This makes it possible to store arrays, hashes, and other non-mappeable objects without doing any additional work. Example:
155 #
156 # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
157 # serialize :preferences
158 # end
159 #
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160 # user = User.create(:preferences) => { "background" => "black", "display" => large })
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161 # User.find(user.id).preferences # => { "background" => "black", "display" => large }
162 #
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163 # You can also specify an class option as the second parameter that'll raise an exception if a serialized object is retrieved as a
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164 # descendent of a class not in the hierarchy. Example:
165 #
166 # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
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167 # serialize :preferences, Hash
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168 # end
169 #
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170 # user = User.create(:preferences => %w( one two three ))
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171 # User.find(user.id).preferences # raises SerializationTypeMismatch
172 #
173 # == Single table inheritance
174 #
175 # Active Record allows inheritance by storing the name of the class in a column that by default is called "type" (can be changed
176 # by overwriting <tt>Base.inheritance_column</tt>). This means that an inheritance looking like this:
177 #
178 # class Company < ActiveRecord::Base; end
179 # class Firm < Company; end
180 # class Client < Company; end
181 # class PriorityClient < Client; end
182 #
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183 # When you do Firm.create(:name => "37signals"), this record will be saved in the companies table with type = "Firm". You can then
184 # fetch this row again using Company.find(:first, "name = '37signals'") and it will return a Firm object.
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185 #
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186 # If you don't have a type column defined in your table, single-table inheritance won't be triggered. In that case, it'll work just
187 # like normal subclasses with no special magic for differentiating between them or reloading the right type with find.
188 #
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189 # Note, all the attributes for all the cases are kept in the same table. Read more:
190 # http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/singleTableInheritance.html
191 #
192 # == Connection to multiple databases in different models
193 #
194 # Connections are usually created through ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection and retrieved by ActiveRecord::Base.connection.
195 # All classes inheriting from ActiveRecord::Base will use this connection. But you can also set a class-specific connection.
196 # For example, if Course is a ActiveRecord::Base, but resides in a different database you can just say Course.establish_connection
197 # and Course *and all its subclasses* will use this connection instead.
198 #
199 # This feature is implemented by keeping a connection pool in ActiveRecord::Base that is a Hash indexed by the class. If a connection is
200 # requested, the retrieve_connection method will go up the class-hierarchy until a connection is found in the connection pool.
201 #
202 # == Exceptions
203 #
204 # * +ActiveRecordError+ -- generic error class and superclass of all other errors raised by Active Record
205 # * +AdapterNotSpecified+ -- the configuration hash used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> didn't include a
206 # <tt>:adapter</tt> key.
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207 # * +AdapterNotSpecified+ -- the <tt>:adapter</tt> key used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> specified an non-existent adapter
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208 # (or a bad spelling of an existing one).
209 # * +AssociationTypeMismatch+ -- the object assigned to the association wasn't of the type specified in the association definition.
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210 # * +SerializationTypeMismatch+ -- the object serialized wasn't of the class specified as the second parameter.
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211 # * +ConnectionNotEstablished+ -- no connection has been established. Use <tt>establish_connection</tt> before querying.
212 # * +RecordNotFound+ -- no record responded to the find* method.
213 # Either the row with the given ID doesn't exist or the row didn't meet the additional restrictions.
214 # * +StatementInvalid+ -- the database server rejected the SQL statement. The precise error is added in the message.
215 # Either the record with the given ID doesn't exist or the record didn't meet the additional restrictions.
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216 # * +MultiparameterAssignmentErrors+ -- collection of errors that occurred during a mass assignment using the
217 # +attributes=+ method. The +errors+ property of this exception contains an array of +AttributeAssignmentError+
218 # objects that should be inspected to determine which attributes triggered the errors.
219 # * +AttributeAssignmentError+ -- an error occurred while doing a mass assignment through the +attributes=+ method.
220 # You can inspect the +attribute+ property of the exception object to determine which attribute triggered the error.
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221 # *Note*: The attributes listed are class-level attributes (accessible from both the class and instance level).
222 # So it's possible to assign a logger to the class through Base.logger= which will then be used by all
223 # instances in the current object space.
224 class Base
225 include ClassInheritableAttributes
226
227 # Accepts a logger conforming to the interface of Log4r or the default Ruby 1.8+ Logger class, which is then passed
228 # on to any new database connections made and which can be retrieved on both a class and instance level by calling +logger+.
229 cattr_accessor :logger
230
231 # Returns the connection currently associated with the class. This can
232 # also be used to "borrow" the connection to do database work unrelated
233 # to any of the specific Active Records.
234 def self.connection
235 retrieve_connection
236 end
237
238 # Returns the connection currently associated with the class. This can
239 # also be used to "borrow" the connection to do database work that isn't
240 # easily done without going straight to SQL.
241 def connection
242 self.class.connection
243 end
244
245 def self.inherited(child) #:nodoc:
246 @@subclasses[self] ||= []
247 @@subclasses[self] << child
248 super
249 end
250
251 @@subclasses = {}
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252
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253 cattr_accessor :configurations
254 @@primary_key_prefix_type = {}
255
256 # Accessor for the prefix type that will be prepended to every primary key column name. The options are :table_name and
257 # :table_name_with_underscore. If the first is specified, the Product class will look for "productid" instead of "id" as
258 # the primary column. If the latter is specified, the Product class will look for "product_id" instead of "id". Remember
259 # that this is a global setting for all Active Records.
260 cattr_accessor :primary_key_prefix_type
261 @@primary_key_prefix_type = nil
262
263 # Accessor for the name of the prefix string to prepend to every table name. So if set to "basecamp_", all
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264 # table names will be named like "basecamp_projects", "basecamp_people", etc. This is a convenient way of creating a namespace
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265 # for tables in a shared database. By default, the prefix is the empty string.
266 cattr_accessor :table_name_prefix
267 @@table_name_prefix = ""
268
269 # Works like +table_name_prefix+, but appends instead of prepends (set to "_basecamp" gives "projects_basecamp",
270 # "people_basecamp"). By default, the suffix is the empty string.
271 cattr_accessor :table_name_suffix
272 @@table_name_suffix = ""
273
274 # Indicate whether or not table names should be the pluralized versions of the corresponding class names.
275 # If true, this the default table name for a +Product+ class will be +products+. If false, it would just be +product+.
276 # See table_name for the full rules on table/class naming. This is true, by default.
277 cattr_accessor :pluralize_table_names
278 @@pluralize_table_names = true
279
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280 # Determines whether or not to use ANSI codes to colorize the logging statements committed by the connection adapter. These colors
281 # makes it much easier to overview things during debugging (when used through a reader like +tail+ and on a black background), but
282 # may complicate matters if you use software like syslog. This is true, by default.
283 cattr_accessor :colorize_logging
284 @@colorize_logging = true
285
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286 # Determines whether to use Time.local (using :local) or Time.utc (using :utc) when pulling dates and times from the database.
287 # This is set to :local by default.
288 cattr_accessor :default_timezone
289 @@default_timezone = :local
290
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291 class << self # Class methods
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292 # Find operates with three different retreval approaches:
293 #
294 # * Find by id: This can either be a specific id (1), a list of ids (1, 5, 6), or an array of ids ([5, 6, 10]).
295 # If no record can be found for all of the listed ids, then RecordNotFound will be raised.
296 # * Find first: This will return the first record matched by the options used. These options can either be specific
297 # conditions or merely an order. If no record can matched, nil is returned.
298 # # Find all: This will return all the records matched by the options used. If no records are found, an empty array is returned.
299 #
300 # All approaches accepts an option hash as their last parameter. The options are:
301 #
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302 # * <tt>:conditions</tt>: An SQL fragment like "administrator = 1" or [ "user_name = ?", username ]. See conditions in the intro.
303 # * <tt>:order</tt>: An SQL fragment like "created_at DESC, name".
304 # * <tt>:limit</tt>: An integer determining the limit on the number of rows that should be returned.
305 # * <tt>:offset</tt>: An integer determining the offset from where the rows should be fetched. So at 5, it would skip the first 4 rows.
306 # * <tt>:joins</tt>: An SQL fragment for additional joins like "LEFT JOIN comments ON comments.post_id = id". (Rarely needed).
307 # * <tt>:include</tt>: Names associations that should be loaded alongside using LEFT OUTER JOINs. The symbols named refer
308 # to already defined associations. See eager loading under Associations.
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309 #
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310 # Examples for find by id:
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311 # Person.find(1) # returns the object for ID = 1
312 # Person.find(1, 2, 6) # returns an array for objects with IDs in (1, 2, 6)
313 # Person.find([7, 17]) # returns an array for objects with IDs in (7, 17)
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314 # Person.find([1]) # returns an array for objects the object with ID = 1
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315 # Person.find(1, :conditions => "administrator = 1", :order => "created_on DESC")
316 #
317 # Examples for find first:
318 # Person.find(:first) # returns the first object fetched by SELECT * FROM people
319 # Person.find(:first, :conditions => [ "user_name = ?", user_name])
320 # Person.find(:first, :order => "created_on DESC", :offset => 5)
321 #
322 # Examples for find all:
323 # Person.find(:all) # returns an array of objects for all the rows fetched by SELECT * FROM people
324 # Person.find(:all, :conditions => [ "category IN (?)", categories], :limit => 50)
325 # Person.find(:all, :offset => 10, :limit => 10)
326 # Person.find(:all, :include => [ :account, :friends ])
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327 def find(*args)
328 options = extract_options_from_args!(args)
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329
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330 case args.first
331 when :first
332 find(:all, options.merge({ :limit => 1 })).first
333 when :all
334 options[:include] ? find_with_associations(options) : find_by_sql(construct_finder_sql(options))
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335 else
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336 expects_array = args.first.kind_of?(Array)
337 conditions = " AND #{sanitize_sql(options[:conditions])}" if options[:conditions]
338
339 ids = args.flatten.compact.uniq
340 case ids.size
341 when 0
342 raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find #{name} without an ID#{conditions}"
343 when 1
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344 if result = find(:first, options.merge({ :conditions => "#{table_name}.#{primary_key} = #{sanitize(ids.first)}#{conditions}" }))
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345 return expects_array ? [ result ] : result
346 else
347 raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find #{name} with ID=#{ids.first}#{conditions}"
348 end
349 else
350 # Find multiple ids
351 ids_list = ids.map { |id| sanitize(id) }.join(',')
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352 result = find(:all, options.merge({ :conditions => "#{table_name}.#{primary_key} IN (#{ids_list})#{conditions}", :order => primary_key }))
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353 if result.size == ids.size
354 return result
355 else
356 raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find all #{name.pluralize} with IDs (#{ids_list})#{conditions}"
357 end
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358 end
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359 end
360 end
361
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362 # Works like find_all, but requires a complete SQL string. Examples:
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363 # Post.find_by_sql "SELECT p.*, c.author FROM posts p, comments c WHERE p.id = c.post_id"
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364 # Post.find_by_sql ["SELECT * FROM posts WHERE author = ? AND created > ?", author_id, start_date]
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365 def find_by_sql(sql)
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366 connection.select_all(sanitize_sql(sql), "#{name} Load").inject([]) { |objects, record| objects << instantiate(record) }
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367 end
368
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369 # Returns true if the given +id+ represents the primary key of a record in the database, false otherwise.
370 # Example:
371 # Person.exists?(5)
372 def exists?(id)
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373 !find(:first, :conditions => ["#{primary_key} = ?", id]).nil? rescue false
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374 end
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375
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376 # Creates an object, instantly saves it as a record (if the validation permits it), and returns it. If the save
377 # fail under validations, the unsaved object is still returned.
378 def create(attributes = nil)
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379 if attributes.is_a?(Array)
380 attributes.collect { |attr| create(attr) }
381 else
382 object = new(attributes)
383 object.save
384 object
385 end
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386 end
387
388 # Finds the record from the passed +id+, instantly saves it with the passed +attributes+ (if the validation permits it),
389 # and returns it. If the save fail under validations, the unsaved object is still returned.
390 def update(id, attributes)
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391 if id.is_a?(Array)
392 idx = -1
393 id.collect { |id| idx += 1; update(id, attributes[idx]) }
394 else
395 object = find(id)
396 object.update_attributes(attributes)
397 object
398 end
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399 end
400
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401 # Deletes the record with the given +id+ without instantiating an object first. If an array of ids is provided, all of them
402 # are deleted.
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403 def delete(id)
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404 delete_all([ "#{primary_key} IN (?)", id ])
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405 end
406
407 # Destroys the record with the given +id+ by instantiating the object and calling #destroy (all the callbacks are the triggered).
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408 # If an array of ids is provided, all of them are destroyed.
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409 def destroy(id)
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410 id.is_a?(Array) ? id.each { |id| destroy(id) } : find(id).destroy
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411 end
412
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413 # Updates all records with the SET-part of an SQL update statement in +updates+ and returns an integer with the number of rows updates.
414 # A subset of the records can be selected by specifying +conditions+. Example:
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415 # Billing.update_all "category = 'authorized', approved = 1", "author = 'David'"
416 def update_all(updates, conditions = nil)
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417 sql = "UPDATE #{table_name} SET #{sanitize_sql(updates)} "
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418 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
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419 return connection.update(sql, "#{name} Update")
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420 end
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421
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422 # Destroys the objects for all the records that matches the +condition+ by instantiating each object and calling
423 # the destroy method. Example:
424 # Person.destroy_all "last_login < '2004-04-04'"
425 def destroy_all(conditions = nil)
426 find_all(conditions).each { |object| object.destroy }
427 end
428
429 # Deletes all the records that matches the +condition+ without instantiating the objects first (and hence not
430 # calling the destroy method). Example:
431 # Post.destroy_all "person_id = 5 AND (category = 'Something' OR category = 'Else')"
432 def delete_all(conditions = nil)
433 sql = "DELETE FROM #{table_name} "
434 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
435 connection.delete(sql, "#{name} Delete all")
436 end
437
438 # Returns the number of records that meets the +conditions+. Zero is returned if no records match. Example:
439 # Product.count "sales > 1"
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440 def count(conditions = nil, joins = nil)
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441 tbl_var_name = joins ? table_name[0,1].downcase : ""
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442 sql = "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM #{table_name} #{tbl_var_name} "
443 sql << ", #{joins} " if joins
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444 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
445 count_by_sql(sql)
446 end
447
448 # Returns the result of an SQL statement that should only include a COUNT(*) in the SELECT part.
449 # Product.count "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM sales s, customers c WHERE s.customer_id = c.id"
450 def count_by_sql(sql)
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451 sql = sanitize_conditions(sql)
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452 rows = connection.select_one(sql, "#{name} Count")
453
454 if rows.nil?
455 return 0
456 else
457 count = rows.values.first
458 return count ? count.to_i : 0
459 end
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460 end
461
462 # Increments the specified counter by one. So <tt>DiscussionBoard.increment_counter("post_count",
463 # discussion_board_id)</tt> would increment the "post_count" counter on the board responding to discussion_board_id.
464 # This is used for caching aggregate values, so that they doesn't need to be computed every time. Especially important
465 # for looping over a collection where each element require a number of aggregate values. Like the DiscussionBoard
466 # that needs to list both the number of posts and comments.
467 def increment_counter(counter_name, id)
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468 update_all "#{counter_name} = #{counter_name} + 1", "#{primary_key} = #{quote(id)}"
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469 end
470
471 # Works like increment_counter, but decrements instead.
472 def decrement_counter(counter_name, id)
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473 update_all "#{counter_name} = #{counter_name} - 1", "#{primary_key} = #{quote(id)}"
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474 end
475
476 # Attributes named in this macro are protected from mass-assignment, such as <tt>new(attributes)</tt> and
477 # <tt>attributes=(attributes)</tt>. Their assignment will simply be ignored. Instead, you can use the direct writer
478 # methods to do assignment. This is meant to protect sensitive attributes to be overwritten by URL/form hackers. Example:
479 #
480 # class Customer < ActiveRecord::Base
481 # attr_protected :credit_rating
482 # end
483 #
484 # customer = Customer.new("name" => David, "credit_rating" => "Excellent")
485 # customer.credit_rating # => nil
486 # customer.attributes = { "description" => "Jolly fellow", "credit_rating" => "Superb" }
487 # customer.credit_rating # => nil
488 #
489 # customer.credit_rating = "Average"
490 # customer.credit_rating # => "Average"
491 def attr_protected(*attributes)
492 write_inheritable_array("attr_protected", attributes)
493 end
494
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495 # Returns an array of all the attributes that have been protected from mass-assignment.
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496 def protected_attributes # :nodoc:
497 read_inheritable_attribute("attr_protected")
498 end
499
500 # If this macro is used, only those attributed named in it will be accessible for mass-assignment, such as
501 # <tt>new(attributes)</tt> and <tt>attributes=(attributes)</tt>. This is the more conservative choice for mass-assignment
502 # protection. If you'd rather start from an all-open default and restrict attributes as needed, have a look at
503 # attr_protected.
504 def attr_accessible(*attributes)
505 write_inheritable_array("attr_accessible", attributes)
506 end
507
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508 # Returns an array of all the attributes that have been made accessible to mass-assignment.
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509 def accessible_attributes # :nodoc:
510 read_inheritable_attribute("attr_accessible")
511 end
512
513 # Specifies that the attribute by the name of +attr_name+ should be serialized before saving to the database and unserialized
514 # after loading from the database. The serialization is done through YAML. If +class_name+ is specified, the serialized
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515 # object must be of that class on retrieval or +SerializationTypeMismatch+ will be raised.
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516 def serialize(attr_name, class_name = Object)
517 write_inheritable_attribute("attr_serialized", serialized_attributes.update(attr_name.to_s => class_name))
518 end
519
520 # Returns a hash of all the attributes that have been specified for serialization as keys and their class restriction as values.
521 def serialized_attributes
522 read_inheritable_attribute("attr_serialized") || { }
523 end
524
525 # Guesses the table name (in forced lower-case) based on the name of the class in the inheritance hierarchy descending
526 # directly from ActiveRecord. So if the hierarchy looks like: Reply < Message < ActiveRecord, then Message is used
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527 # to guess the table name from even when called on Reply. The rules used to do the guess are handled by the Inflector class
528 # in Active Support, which knows almost all common English inflections (report a bug if your inflection isn't covered).
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529 #
530 # Additionally, the class-level table_name_prefix is prepended to the table_name and the table_name_suffix is appended.
531 # So if you have "myapp_" as a prefix, the table name guess for an Account class becomes "myapp_accounts".
532 #
533 # You can also overwrite this class method to allow for unguessable links, such as a Mouse class with a link to a
534 # "mice" table. Example:
535 #
536 # class Mouse < ActiveRecord::Base
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537 # set_table_name "mice"
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538 # end
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539 def table_name
540 table_name_prefix + undecorated_table_name(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self)) + table_name_suffix
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541 end
542
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543 # Defines the primary key field -- can be overridden in subclasses. Overwriting will negate any effect of the
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544 # primary_key_prefix_type setting, though.
545 def primary_key
546 case primary_key_prefix_type
547 when :table_name
548 Inflector.foreign_key(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self), false)
549 when :table_name_with_underscore
550 Inflector.foreign_key(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self))
551 else
552 "id"
553 end
554 end
555
556 # Defines the column name for use with single table inheritance -- can be overridden in subclasses.
557 def inheritance_column
558 "type"
559 end
560
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561 # Sets the table name to use to the given value, or (if the value
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562 # is nil or false) to the value returned by the given block.
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563 #
564 # Example:
565 #
566 # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
567 # set_table_name "project"
568 # end
569 def set_table_name( value=nil, &block )
570 define_attr_method :table_name, value, &block
571 end
572 alias :table_name= :set_table_name
573
574 # Sets the name of the primary key column to use to the given value,
575 # or (if the value is nil or false) to the value returned by the given
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576 # block.
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577 #
578 # Example:
579 #
580 # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
581 # set_primary_key "sysid"
582 # end
583 def set_primary_key( value=nil, &block )
584 define_attr_method :primary_key, value, &block
585 end
586 alias :primary_key= :set_primary_key
587
588 # Sets the name of the inheritance column to use to the given value,
589 # or (if the value # is nil or false) to the value returned by the
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590 # given block.
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591 #
592 # Example:
593 #
594 # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
595 # set_inheritance_column do
596 # original_inheritance_column + "_id"
597 # end
598 # end
599 def set_inheritance_column( value=nil, &block )
600 define_attr_method :inheritance_column, value, &block
601 end
602 alias :inheritance_column= :set_inheritance_column
603
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604 # Turns the +table_name+ back into a class name following the reverse rules of +table_name+.
605 def class_name(table_name = table_name) # :nodoc:
606 # remove any prefix and/or suffix from the table name
607 class_name = Inflector.camelize(table_name[table_name_prefix.length..-(table_name_suffix.length + 1)])
608 class_name = Inflector.singularize(class_name) if pluralize_table_names
609 return class_name
610 end
611
612 # Returns an array of column objects for the table associated with this class.
613 def columns
614 @columns ||= connection.columns(table_name, "#{name} Columns")
615 end
616
617 # Returns an array of column objects for the table associated with this class.
618 def columns_hash
619 @columns_hash ||= columns.inject({}) { |hash, column| hash[column.name] = column; hash }
620 end
621
622 # Returns an array of columns objects where the primary id, all columns ending in "_id" or "_count",
623 # and columns used for single table inheritance has been removed.
624 def content_columns
625 @content_columns ||= columns.reject { |c| c.name == primary_key || c.name =~ /(_id|_count)$/ || c.name == inheritance_column }
626 end
627
628 # Returns a hash of all the methods added to query each of the columns in the table with the name of the method as the key
629 # and true as the value. This makes it possible to do O(1) lookups in respond_to? to check if a given method for attribute
630 # is available.
631 def column_methods_hash
632 @dynamic_methods_hash ||= columns_hash.keys.inject(Hash.new(false)) do |methods, attr|
633 methods[attr.to_sym] = true
634 methods["#{attr}=".to_sym] = true
635 methods["#{attr}?".to_sym] = true
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636 methods["#{attr}_before_type_cast".to_sym] = true
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637 methods
638 end
639 end
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640
641 # Resets all the cached information about columns, which will cause they to be reloaded on the next request.
642 def reset_column_information
643 @columns = @columns_hash = @content_columns = @dynamic_methods_hash = nil
644 end
645
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646 def reset_column_information_and_inheritable_attributes_for_all_subclasses#:nodoc:
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647 subclasses.each { |klass| klass.reset_inheritable_attributes; klass.reset_column_information }
648 end
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649
650 # Transforms attribute key names into a more humane format, such as "First name" instead of "first_name". Example:
651 # Person.human_attribute_name("first_name") # => "First name"
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652 # Deprecated in favor of just calling "first_name".humanize
653 def human_attribute_name(attribute_key_name) #:nodoc:
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654 attribute_key_name.humanize
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655 end
656
657 def descends_from_active_record? # :nodoc:
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658 superclass == Base || !columns_hash.has_key?(inheritance_column)
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659 end
660
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661 def quote(object) #:nodoc:
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662 connection.quote(object)
663 end
664
665 # Used to sanitize objects before they're used in an SELECT SQL-statement. Delegates to <tt>connection.quote</tt>.
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666 def sanitize(object) #:nodoc:
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667 connection.quote(object)
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668 end
669
670 # Used to aggregate logging and benchmark, so you can measure and represent multiple statements in a single block.
671 # Usage (hides all the SQL calls for the individual actions and calculates total runtime for them all):
672 #
673 # Project.benchmark("Creating project") do
674 # project = Project.create("name" => "stuff")
675 # project.create_manager("name" => "David")
676 # project.milestones << Milestone.find_all
677 # end
678 def benchmark(title)
679 result = nil
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680 bm = Benchmark.measure { result = silence { yield } }
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681 logger.info "#{title} (#{sprintf("%f", bm.real)})" if logger
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682 return result
683 end
684
685 # Silences the logger for the duration of the block.
686 def silence
687 result = nil
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688 old_logger_level = logger.level if logger
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689 logger.level = Logger::ERROR if logger
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690 result = yield
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691 logger.level = old_logger_level if logger
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692 return result
693 end
694
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695 # Overwrite the default class equality method to provide support for association proxies.
696 def ===(object)
697 object.is_a?(self)
698 end
699
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700 private
701 # Finder methods must instantiate through this method to work with the single-table inheritance model
702 # that makes it possible to create objects of different types from the same table.
703 def instantiate(record)
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704 require_association_class(record[inheritance_column])
705
706 begin
707 object = record_with_type?(record) ? compute_type(record[inheritance_column]).allocate : allocate
708 rescue NameError
709 raise(
710 SubclassNotFound,
711 "The single-table inheritance mechanism failed to locate the subclass: '#{record[inheritance_column]}'. " +
712 "This error is raised because the column '#{inheritance_column}' is reserved for storing the class in case of inheritance. " +
713 "Please rename this column if you didn't intend it to be used for storing the inheritance class " +
714 "or overwrite #{self.to_s}.inheritance_column to use another column for that information."
715 )
716 end
717
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718 object.instance_variable_set("@attributes", record)
719 return object
720 end
721
722 # Returns true if the +record+ has a single table inheritance column and is using it.
723 def record_with_type?(record)
724 record.include?(inheritance_column) && !record[inheritance_column].nil? &&
725 !record[inheritance_column].empty?
726 end
727
728 # Returns the name of the type of the record using the current module as a prefix. So descendents of
729 # MyApp::Business::Account would be appear as "MyApp::Business::AccountSubclass".
730 def type_name_with_module(type_name)
731 self.name =~ /::/ ? self.name.scan(/(.*)::/).first.first + "::" + type_name : type_name
732 end
733
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734 def construct_finder_sql(options)
735 sql = "SELECT * FROM #{table_name} "
736 sql << "#{options[:joins]} " if options[:joins]
737 add_conditions!(sql, options[:conditions])
738 sql << "ORDER BY #{options[:order]} " if options[:order]
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739 add_limit!(sql, options)
740
741 return sql
742 end
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743
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744 def add_limit!(sql, options)
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745 if options[:limit] && options[:offset]
746 connection.add_limit_with_offset!(sql, options[:limit].to_i, options[:offset].to_i)
747 elsif options[:limit]
748 connection.add_limit_without_offset!(sql, options[:limit].to_i)
749 end
750 end
751
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752 # Adds a sanitized version of +conditions+ to the +sql+ string. Note that it's the passed +sql+ string is changed.
753 def add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
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754 sql << "WHERE #{sanitize_sql(conditions)} " unless conditions.nil?
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755 sql << (conditions.nil? ? "WHERE " : " AND ") + type_condition unless descends_from_active_record?
756 end
757
758 def type_condition
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759 type_condition = subclasses.inject("#{table_name}.#{inheritance_column} = '#{name.demodulize}' ") do |condition, subclass|
760 condition << "OR #{table_name}.#{inheritance_column} = '#{subclass.name.demodulize}' "
761 end
762
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763 return " (#{type_condition}) "
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764 end
765
766 # Guesses the table name, but does not decorate it with prefix and suffix information.
767 def undecorated_table_name(class_name = class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self))
768 table_name = Inflector.underscore(Inflector.demodulize(class_name))
769 table_name = Inflector.pluralize(table_name) if pluralize_table_names
770 return table_name
771 end
772
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773 # Enables dynamic finders like find_by_user_name(user_name) and find_by_user_name_and_password(user_name, password) that are turned into
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774 # find_first(["user_name = ?", user_name]) and find_first(["user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password]) respectively. Also works
775 # for find_all, but using find_all_by_amount(50) that are turned into find_all(["amount = ?", 50]).
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776 #
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777 # It's even possible to use all the additional parameters to find. For example, the full interface for find_all_by_amount
778 # is actually find_all_by_amount(amount, options).
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779 def method_missing(method_id, *arguments)
780 method_name = method_id.id2name
781
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782 if method_name =~ /find_(all_by|by)_([_a-z][_a-z\d]*)/
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783 finder, attributes = ($1 == "all_by" ? :all : :first), $2.split("_and_")
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784 attributes.each { |attr_name| super unless column_methods_hash[attr_name.intern] }
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785
786 attr_index = -1
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787 conditions = attributes.collect { |attr_name| attr_index += 1; "#{attr_name} #{arguments[attr_index].nil? ? "IS" : "="} ? " }.join(" AND ")
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788
789 if arguments[attributes.length].is_a?(Hash)
790 find(finder, { :conditions => [conditions, *arguments[0...attributes.length]]}.merge(arguments[attributes.length]))
791 else
792 # deprecated API
793 send("find_#{finder}", [conditions, *arguments[0...attributes.length]], *arguments[attributes.length..-1])
794 end
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795 else
796 super
797 end
798 end
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799
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800 # Defines an "attribute" method (like #inheritance_column or
801 # #table_name). A new (class) method will be created with the
802 # given name. If a value is specified, the new method will
803 # return that value (as a string). Otherwise, the given block
804 # will be used to compute the value of the method.
805 #
806 # The original method will be aliased, with the new name being
807 # prefixed with "original_". This allows the new method to
808 # access the original value.
809 #
810 # Example:
811 #
812 # class A < ActiveRecord::Base
813 # define_attr_method :primary_key, "sysid"
814 # define_attr_method( :inheritance_column ) do
815 # original_inheritance_column + "_id"
816 # end
817 # end
818 def define_attr_method(name, value=nil, &block)
819 sing = class << self; self; end
820 block = proc { value.to_s } if value
821 sing.send( :alias_method, "original_#{name}", name )
822 sing.send( :define_method, name, &block )
823 end
824
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825 protected
826 def subclasses
827 @@subclasses[self] ||= []
828 @@subclasses[self] + extra = @@subclasses[self].inject([]) {|list, subclass| list + subclass.subclasses }
829 end
830
831 # Returns the class type of the record using the current module as a prefix. So descendents of
832 # MyApp::Business::Account would be appear as MyApp::Business::AccountSubclass.
833 def compute_type(type_name)
834 type_name_with_module(type_name).split("::").inject(Object) do |final_type, part|
835 final_type = final_type.const_get(part)
836 end
837 end
838
839 # Returns the name of the class descending directly from ActiveRecord in the inheritance hierarchy.
840 def class_name_of_active_record_descendant(klass)
841 if klass.superclass == Base
842 return klass.name
843 elsif klass.superclass.nil?
844 raise ActiveRecordError, "#{name} doesn't belong in a hierarchy descending from ActiveRecord"
845 else
846 class_name_of_active_record_descendant(klass.superclass)
847 end
848 end
849
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850 # Accepts an array or string. The string is returned untouched, but the array has each value
851 # sanitized and interpolated into the sql statement.
852 # ["name='%s' and group_id='%s'", "foo'bar", 4] returns "name='foo''bar' and group_id='4'"
853 def sanitize_sql(ary)
854 return ary unless ary.is_a?(Array)
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855
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856 statement, *values = ary
857 if values.first.is_a?(Hash) and statement =~ /:\w+/
858 replace_named_bind_variables(statement, values.first)
859 elsif statement.include?('?')
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860 replace_bind_variables(statement, values)
861 else
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862 statement % values.collect { |value| connection.quote_string(value.to_s) }
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863 end
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864 end
865
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866 alias_method :sanitize_conditions, :sanitize_sql
867
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868 def replace_bind_variables(statement, values)
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869 raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, statement.count('?'), values.size)
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870 bound = values.dup
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871 statement.gsub('?') { quote_bound_value(bound.shift) }
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872 end
873
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874 def replace_named_bind_variables(statement, bind_vars)
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875 raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, statement.scan(/:(\w+)/).uniq.size, bind_vars.size)
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876 statement.gsub(/:(\w+)/) do
877 match = $1.to_sym
878 if bind_vars.has_key?(match)
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879 quote_bound_value(bind_vars[match])
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880 else
881 raise PreparedStatementInvalid, "missing value for :#{match} in #{statement}"
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882 end
883 end
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884 end
885
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886 def quote_bound_value(value)
887 case value
888 when Array
889 value.map { |v| connection.quote(v) }.join(',')
890 else
891 connection.quote(value)
892 end
893 end
894
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895 def raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, expected, provided)
896 unless expected == provided
897 raise PreparedStatementInvalid, "wrong number of bind variables (#{provided} for #{expected}) in: #{statement}"
898 end
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899 end
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900
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901 def extract_options_from_args!(args)
902 if args.last.is_a?(Hash) then args.pop else {} end
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903 end
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904
905 def encode_quoted_value(value)
906 quoted_value = connection.quote(value)
907 quoted_value = "'#{quoted_value[1..-2].gsub(/\'/, "\\\\'")}'" if quoted_value.include?("\\\'")
908 quoted_value
909 end
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910 end
911
912 public
913 # New objects can be instantiated as either empty (pass no construction parameter) or pre-set with
914 # attributes but not yet saved (pass a hash with key names matching the associated table column names).
915 # In both instances, valid attribute keys are determined by the column names of the associated table --
916 # hence you can't have attributes that aren't part of the table columns.
917 def initialize(attributes = nil)
918 @attributes = attributes_from_column_definition
919 @new_record = true
920 ensure_proper_type
921 self.attributes = attributes unless attributes.nil?
922 yield self if block_given?
923 end
924
925 # Every Active Record class must use "id" as their primary ID. This getter overwrites the native
926 # id method, which isn't being used in this context.
927 def id
928 read_attribute(self.class.primary_key)
929 end
930
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931 # Enables Active Record objects to be used as URL parameters in Action Pack automatically.
932 alias_method :to_param, :id
933
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934 def id_before_type_cast #:nodoc:
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935 read_attribute_before_type_cast(self.class.primary_key)
936 end
937
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938 def quoted_id #:nodoc:
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939 quote(id, self.class.columns_hash[self.class.primary_key])
940 end
941
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942 # Sets the primary ID.
943 def id=(value)
944 write_attribute(self.class.primary_key, value)
945 end
946
947 # Returns true if this object hasn't been saved yet -- that is, a record for the object doesn't exist yet.
948 def new_record?
949 @new_record
950 end
951
952 # * No record exists: Creates a new record with values matching those of the object attributes.
953 # * A record does exist: Updates the record with values matching those of the object attributes.
954 def save
955 create_or_update
956 end
957
958 # Deletes the record in the database and freezes this instance to reflect that no changes should
959 # be made (since they can't be persisted).
960 def destroy
961 unless new_record?
962 connection.delete(
963 "DELETE FROM #{self.class.table_name} " +
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964 "WHERE #{self.class.primary_key} = #{quote(id)}",
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965 "#{self.class.name} Destroy"
966 )
967 end
968
969 freeze
970 end
971
972 # Returns a clone of the record that hasn't been assigned an id yet and is treated as a new record.
973 def clone
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974 attrs = self.attributes
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975 attrs.delete(self.class.primary_key)
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976 cloned_record = self.class.new(attrs)
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977 cloned_record
978 end
979
980 # Updates a single attribute and saves the record. This is especially useful for boolean flags on existing records.
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981 # Note: This method is overwritten by the Validation module that'll make sure that updates made with this method
982 # doesn't get subjected to validation checks. Hence, attributes can be updated even if the full object isn't valid.
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983 def update_attribute(name, value)
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984 self[name] = value
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985 save
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986 end
987
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988 # Updates all the attributes in from the passed hash and saves the record. If the object is invalid, the saving will
989 # fail and false will be returned.
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990 def update_attributes(attributes)
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991 self.attributes = attributes
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992 return save
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993 end
994
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995 # Initializes the +attribute+ to zero if nil and adds one. Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns self.
996 def increment(attribute)
997 self[attribute] ||= 0
998 self[attribute] += 1
999 self
1000 end
1001
1002 # Increments the +attribute+ and saves the record.
1003 def increment!(attribute)
1004 increment(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
1005 end
1006
1007 # Initializes the +attribute+ to zero if nil and subtracts one. Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns self.
1008 def decrement(attribute)
1009 self[attribute] ||= 0
1010 self[attribute] -= 1
1011 self
1012 end
1013
1014 # Decrements the +attribute+ and saves the record.
1015 def decrement!(attribute)
1016 decrement(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
1017 end
1018
1019 # Turns an +attribute+ that's currently true into false and vice versa. Returns self.
1020 def toggle(attribute)
1021 self[attribute] = quote(!send("#{attribute}?", column_for_attribute(attribute)))
1022 self
1023 end
1024
1025 # Toggles the +attribute+ and saves the record.
1026 def toggle!(attribute)
1027 toggle(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
1028 end
1029
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1030 # Reloads the attributes of this object from the database.
1031 def reload
1032 clear_association_cache
1033 @attributes.update(self.class.find(self.id).instance_variable_get('@attributes'))
1034 return self
1035 end
1036
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1037 # Returns the value of attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> after it has been type cast (for example,
1038 # "2004-12-12" in a data column is cast to a date object, like Date.new(2004, 12, 12)).
1039 # (Alias for the protected read_attribute method).
1040 def [](attr_name)
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1041 read_attribute(attr_name.to_s)
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1042 end
1043
1044 # Updates the attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> with the specified +value+.
1045 # (Alias for the protected write_attribute method).
1046 def []= (attr_name, value)
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1047 write_attribute(attr_name.to_s, value)
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1048 end
1049
1050 # Allows you to set all the attributes at once by passing in a hash with keys
1051 # matching the attribute names (which again matches the column names). Sensitive attributes can be protected
1052 # from this form of mass-assignment by using the +attr_protected+ macro. Or you can alternatively
1053 # specify which attributes *can* be accessed in with the +attr_accessible+ macro. Then all the
1054 # attributes not included in that won't be allowed to be mass-assigned.
1055 def attributes=(attributes)
1056 return if attributes.nil?
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1057 attributes.stringify_keys!
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1058
1059 multi_parameter_attributes = []
1060 remove_attributes_protected_from_mass_assignment(attributes).each do |k, v|
1061 k.include?("(") ? multi_parameter_attributes << [ k, v ] : send(k + "=", v)
1062 end
1063 assign_multiparameter_attributes(multi_parameter_attributes)
1064 end
1065
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1066 # Returns a hash of all the attributes with their names as keys and clones of their objects as values.
1067 def attributes
1068 self.attribute_names.inject({}) do |attributes, name|
1069 begin
1070 attributes[name] = read_attribute(name).clone
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1071 rescue TypeError, NoMethodError
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1072 attributes[name] = read_attribute(name)
1073 end
1074 attributes
1075 end
1076 end
1077
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1078 # Returns true if the specified +attribute+ has been set by the user or by a database load and is neither
1079 # nil nor empty? (the latter only applies to objects that responds to empty?, most notably Strings).
1080 def attribute_present?(attribute)
1081 is_empty = read_attribute(attribute).respond_to?("empty?") ? read_attribute(attribute).empty? : false
1082 @attributes.include?(attribute) && !@attributes[attribute].nil? && !is_empty
1083 end
1084
1085 # Returns an array of names for the attributes available on this object sorted alphabetically.
1086 def attribute_names
1087 @attributes.keys.sort
1088 end
1089
1090 # Returns the column object for the named attribute.
1091 def column_for_attribute(name)
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1092 self.class.columns_hash[name.to_s]
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1093 end
1094
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1095 # Returns true if the +comparison_object+ is the same object, or is of the same type and has the same id.
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1096 def ==(comparison_object)
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1097 comparison_object.equal?(self) or (comparison_object.instance_of?(self.class) and comparison_object.id == id)
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1098 end
1099
1100 # Delegates to ==
1101 def eql?(comparison_object)
1102 self == (comparison_object)
1103 end
1104
1105 # Delegates to id in order to allow two records of the same type and id to work with something like:
1106 # [ Person.find(1), Person.find(2), Person.find(3) ] & [ Person.find(1), Person.find(4) ] # => [ Person.find(1) ]
1107 def hash
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1108 id.hash
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1109 end
1110
1111 # For checking respond_to? without searching the attributes (which is faster).
1112 alias_method :respond_to_without_attributes?, :respond_to?
1113
1114 # A Person object with a name attribute can ask person.respond_to?("name"), person.respond_to?("name="), and
1115 # person.respond_to?("name?") which will all return true.
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1116 def respond_to?(method, include_priv = false)
1117 self.class.column_methods_hash[method.to_sym] || respond_to_without_attributes?(method, include_priv)
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1118 end
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1119
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1120 private
1121 def create_or_update
1122 if new_record? then create else update end
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1123 return true
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1124 end
1125
1126 # Updates the associated record with values matching those of the instant attributes.
1127 def update
1128 connection.update(
1129 "UPDATE #{self.class.table_name} " +
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1130 "SET #{quoted_comma_pair_list(connection, attributes_with_quotes(false))} " +
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1131 "WHERE #{self.class.primary_key} = #{quote(id)}",
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1132 "#{self.class.name} Update"
1133 )
1134 end
1135
1136 # Creates a new record with values matching those of the instant attributes.
1137 def create
1138 self.id = connection.insert(
1139 "INSERT INTO #{self.class.table_name} " +
1140 "(#{quoted_column_names.join(', ')}) " +
1141 "VALUES(#{attributes_with_quotes.values.join(', ')})",
1142 "#{self.class.name} Create",
1143 self.class.primary_key, self.id
1144 )
1145
1146 @new_record = false
1147 end
1148
1149 # Sets the attribute used for single table inheritance to this class name if this is not the ActiveRecord descendant.
1150 # Considering the hierarchy Reply < Message < ActiveRecord, this makes it possible to do Reply.new without having to
1151 # set Reply[Reply.inheritance_column] = "Reply" yourself. No such attribute would be set for objects of the
1152 # Message class in that example.
1153 def ensure_proper_type
1154 unless self.class.descends_from_active_record?
1155 write_attribute(self.class.inheritance_column, Inflector.demodulize(self.class.name))
1156 end
1157 end
1158
1159 # Allows access to the object attributes, which are held in the @attributes hash, as were
1160 # they first-class methods. So a Person class with a name attribute can use Person#name and
1161 # Person#name= and never directly use the attributes hash -- except for multiple assigns with
1162 # ActiveRecord#attributes=. A Milestone class can also ask Milestone#completed? to test that
1163 # the completed attribute is not nil or 0.
1164 #
1165 # It's also possible to instantiate related objects, so a Client class belonging to the clients
1166 # table with a master_id foreign key can instantiate master through Client#master.
1167 def method_missing(method_id, *arguments)
1168 method_name = method_id.id2name
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1169
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1170 if method_name =~ read_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1171 return read_attribute($1)
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1172 elsif method_name =~ read_untyped_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1173 return read_attribute_before_type_cast($1)
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1174 elsif method_name =~ write_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1175 write_attribute($1, arguments[0])
1176 elsif method_name =~ query_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1177 return query_attribute($1)
1178 else
1179 super
1180 end
1181 end
1182
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1183 def read_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)[^=?]*$/ end
1184 def read_untyped_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)_before_type_cast$/ end
1185 def write_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)=.*$/ end
1186 def query_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)\?$/ end
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1187
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1188 # Returns the value of attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> after it has been type cast (for example,
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1189 # "2004-12-12" in a data column is cast to a date object, like Date.new(2004, 12, 12)).
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1190 def read_attribute(attr_name)
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1191 if @attributes.keys.include? attr_name
1192 if column = column_for_attribute(attr_name)
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1193 unserializable_attribute?(attr_name, column) ?
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1194 unserialize_attribute(attr_name) : column.type_cast(@attributes[attr_name])
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1195 else
1196 @attributes[attr_name]
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1197 end
1198 else
1199 nil
1200 end
1201 end
1202
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1203 def read_attribute_before_type_cast(attr_name)
1204 @attributes[attr_name]
1205 end
1206
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1207 # Returns true if the attribute is of a text column and marked for serialization.
1208 def unserializable_attribute?(attr_name, column)
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1209 @attributes[attr_name] && [:text, :string].include?(column.send(:type)) && @attributes[attr_name].is_a?(String) && self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name]
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1210 end
1211
1212 # Returns the unserialized object of the attribute.
1213 def unserialize_attribute(attr_name)
1214 unserialized_object = object_from_yaml(@attributes[attr_name])
1215
1216 if unserialized_object.is_a?(self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name])
1217 @attributes[attr_name] = unserialized_object
1218 else
1219 raise(
1220 SerializationTypeMismatch,
1221 "#{attr_name} was supposed to be a #{self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name]}, " +
1222 "but was a #{unserialized_object.class.to_s}"
1223 )
1224 end
1225 end
1226
1227 # Updates the attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> with the specified +value+. Empty strings for fixnum and float
1228 # columns are turned into nil.
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1229 def write_attribute(attr_name, value)
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1230 @attributes[attr_name] = empty_string_for_number_column?(attr_name, value) ? nil : value
1231 end
1232
1233 def empty_string_for_number_column?(attr_name, value)
1234 column = column_for_attribute(attr_name)
1235 column && (column.klass == Fixnum || column.klass == Float) && value == ""
1236 end
1237
1238 def query_attribute(attr_name)
1239 attribute = @attributes[attr_name]
1240 if attribute.kind_of?(Fixnum) && attribute == 0
1241 false
1242 elsif attribute.kind_of?(String) && attribute == "0"
1243 false
1244 elsif attribute.kind_of?(String) && attribute.empty?
1245 false
1246 elsif attribute.nil?
1247 false
1248 elsif attribute == false
1249 false
1250 elsif attribute == "f"
1251 false
1252 elsif attribute == "false"
1253 false
1254 else
1255 true
1256 end
1257 end
1258
1259 def remove_attributes_protected_from_mass_assignment(attributes)
1260 if self.class.accessible_attributes.nil? && self.class.protected_attributes.nil?
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1261 attributes.reject { |key, value| attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
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1262 elsif self.class.protected_attributes.nil?
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1263 attributes.reject { |key, value| !self.class.accessible_attributes.include?(key.intern) || attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
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1264 elsif self.class.accessible_attributes.nil?
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1265 attributes.reject { |key, value| self.class.protected_attributes.include?(key.intern) || attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
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1266 end
1267 end
1268
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1269 # The primary key and inheritance column can never be set by mass-assignment for security reasons.
1270 def attributes_protected_by_default
1271 [ self.class.primary_key, self.class.inheritance_column ]
1272 end
1273
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1274 # Returns copy of the attributes hash where all the values have been safely quoted for use in
1275 # an SQL statement.
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1276 def attributes_with_quotes(include_primary_key = true)
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1277 columns_hash = self.class.columns_hash
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1278
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1279 attrs_quoted = attributes.inject({}) do |attrs_quoted, pair|
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1280 attrs_quoted[pair.first] = quote(pair.last, columns_hash[pair.first]) unless !include_primary_key && pair.first == self.class.primary_key
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1281 attrs_quoted
1282 end
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1283
1284 attrs_quoted.delete_if { |key, value| !self.class.columns_hash.keys.include?(key) }
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1285 end
1286
1287 # Quote strings appropriately for SQL statements.
1288 def quote(value, column = nil)
1289 connection.quote(value, column)
1290 end
1291
1292 # Interpolate custom sql string in instance context.
1293 # Optional record argument is meant for custom insert_sql.
1294 def interpolate_sql(sql, record = nil)
1295 instance_eval("%(#{sql})")
1296 end
1297
1298 # Initializes the attributes array with keys matching the columns from the linked table and
1299 # the values matching the corresponding default value of that column, so
1300 # that a new instance, or one populated from a passed-in Hash, still has all the attributes
1301 # that instances loaded from the database would.
1302 def attributes_from_column_definition
1303 connection.columns(self.class.table_name, "#{self.class.name} Columns").inject({}) do |attributes, column|
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1304 attributes[column.name] = column.default unless column.name == self.class.primary_key
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1305 attributes
1306 end
1307 end
1308
1309 # Instantiates objects for all attribute classes that needs more than one constructor parameter. This is done
1310 # by calling new on the column type or aggregation type (through composed_of) object with these parameters.
1311 # So having the pairs written_on(1) = "2004", written_on(2) = "6", written_on(3) = "24", will instantiate
1312 # written_on (a date type) with Date.new("2004", "6", "24"). You can also specify a typecast character in the
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1313 # parentheses to have the parameters typecasted before they're used in the constructor. Use i for Fixnum, f for Float,
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1314 # s for String, and a for Array. If all the values for a given attribute is empty, the attribute will be set to nil.
1315 def assign_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
1316 execute_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(
1317 extract_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
1318 )
1319 end
1320
1321 # Includes an ugly hack for Time.local instead of Time.new because the latter is reserved by Time itself.
1322 def execute_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(callstack)
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1323 errors = []
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1324 callstack.each do |name, values|
1325 klass = (self.class.reflect_on_aggregation(name) || column_for_attribute(name)).klass
1326 if values.empty?
1327 send(name + "=", nil)
1328 else
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1329 begin
1330 send(name + "=", Time == klass ? klass.local(*values) : klass.new(*values))
1331 rescue => ex
1332 errors << AttributeAssignmentError.new("error on assignment #{values.inspect} to #{name}", ex, name)
1333 end
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1334 end
1335 end
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1336 unless errors.empty?
1337 raise MultiparameterAssignmentErrors.new(errors), "#{errors.size} error(s) on assignment of multiparameter attributes"
1338 end
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1339 end
1340
1341 def extract_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
1342 attributes = { }
1343
1344 for pair in pairs
1345 multiparameter_name, value = pair
1346 attribute_name = multiparameter_name.split("(").first
1347 attributes[attribute_name] = [] unless attributes.include?(attribute_name)
1348
1349 unless value.empty?
1350 attributes[attribute_name] <<
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1351 [ find_parameter_position(multiparameter_name), type_cast_attribute_value(multiparameter_name, value) ]
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1352 end
1353 end
1354
1355 attributes.each { |name, values| attributes[name] = values.sort_by{ |v| v.first }.collect { |v| v.last } }
1356 end
1357
1358 def type_cast_attribute_value(multiparameter_name, value)
1359 multiparameter_name =~ /\([0-9]*([a-z])\)/ ? value.send("to_" + $1) : value
1360 end
1361
1362 def find_parameter_position(multiparameter_name)
1363 multiparameter_name.scan(/\(([0-9]*).*\)/).first.first
1364 end
1365
1366 # Returns a comma-separated pair list, like "key1 = val1, key2 = val2".
1367 def comma_pair_list(hash)
1368 hash.inject([]) { |list, pair| list << "#{pair.first} = #{pair.last}" }.join(", ")
1369 end
1370
1371 def quoted_column_names(attributes = attributes_with_quotes)
1372 attributes.keys.collect { |column_name| connection.quote_column_name(column_name) }
1373 end
1374
1375 def quote_columns(column_quoter, hash)
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1376 hash.inject({}) do |list, pair|
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1377 list[column_quoter.quote_column_name(pair.first)] = pair.last
1378 list
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1379 end
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1380 end
1381
1382 def quoted_comma_pair_list(column_quoter, hash)
1383 comma_pair_list(quote_columns(column_quoter, hash))
1384 end
1385
1386 def object_from_yaml(string)
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1387 return string unless string.is_a?(String)
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1388 if has_yaml_encoding_header?(string)
1389 begin
1390 YAML::load(string)
1391 rescue Object
1392 # Apparently wasn't YAML anyway
1393 string
1394 end
1395 else
1396 string
1397 end
1398 end
1399
1400 def has_yaml_encoding_header?(string)
1401 string[0..3] == "--- "
1402 end
1403 end
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1404 end
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