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1 require 'yaml'
2
3 module ActiveRecord #:nodoc:
4 class ActiveRecordError < StandardError #:nodoc:
5 end
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6 class SubclassNotFound < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
7 end
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8 class AssociationTypeMismatch < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
9 end
10 class SerializationTypeMismatch < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
11 end
12 class AdapterNotSpecified < ActiveRecordError # :nodoc:
13 end
14 class AdapterNotFound < ActiveRecordError # :nodoc:
15 end
16 class ConnectionNotEstablished < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
17 end
18 class ConnectionFailed < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
19 end
20 class RecordNotFound < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
21 end
22 class StatementInvalid < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
23 end
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24 class PreparedStatementInvalid < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
25 end
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26 class StaleObjectError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
27 end
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28
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29 class AttributeAssignmentError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
30 attr_reader :exception, :attribute
31 def initialize(message, exception, attribute)
32 @exception = exception
33 @attribute = attribute
34 @message = message
35 end
36 end
37
38 class MultiparameterAssignmentErrors < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
39 attr_reader :errors
40 def initialize(errors)
41 @errors = errors
42 end
43 end
44
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45 # Active Record objects doesn't specify their attributes directly, but rather infer them from the table definition with
46 # which they're linked. Adding, removing, and changing attributes and their type is done directly in the database. Any change
47 # is instantly reflected in the Active Record objects. The mapping that binds a given Active Record class to a certain
48 # database table will happen automatically in most common cases, but can be overwritten for the uncommon ones.
49 #
50 # See the mapping rules in table_name and the full example in link:files/README.html for more insight.
51 #
52 # == Creation
53 #
54 # Active Records accepts constructor parameters either in a hash or as a block. The hash method is especially useful when
55 # you're receiving the data from somewhere else, like a HTTP request. It works like this:
56 #
57 # user = User.new("name" => "David", "occupation" => "Code Artist")
58 # user.name # => "David"
59 #
60 # You can also use block initialization:
61 #
62 # user = User.new do |u|
63 # u.name = "David"
64 # u.occupation = "Code Artist"
65 # end
66 #
67 # And of course you can just create a bare object and specify the attributes after the fact:
68 #
69 # user = User.new
70 # user.name = "David"
71 # user.occupation = "Code Artist"
72 #
73 # == Conditions
74 #
75 # Conditions can either be specified as a string or an array representing the WHERE-part of an SQL statement.
76 # The array form is to be used when the condition input is tainted and requires sanitization. The string form can
77 # be used for statements that doesn't involve tainted data. Examples:
78 #
79 # User < ActiveRecord::Base
80 # def self.authenticate_unsafely(user_name, password)
81 # find_first("user_name = '#{user_name}' AND password = '#{password}'")
82 # end
83 #
84 # def self.authenticate_safely(user_name, password)
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85 # find_first([ "user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password ])
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86 # end
87 # end
88 #
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89 # The <tt>authenticate_unsafely</tt> method inserts the parameters directly into the query and is thus susceptible to SQL-injection
90 # attacks if the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+ parameters come directly from a HTTP request. The <tt>authenticate_safely</tt> method,
91 # on the other hand, will sanitize the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+ before inserting them in the query, which will ensure that
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92 # an attacker can't escape the query and fake the login (or worse).
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93 #
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94 # == Overwriting default accessors
95 #
96 # All column values are automatically available through basic accessors on the Active Record object, but some times you
97 # want to specialize this behavior. This can be done by either by overwriting the default accessors (using the same
98 # name as the attribute) calling read_attribute(attr_name) and write_attribute(attr_name, value) to actually change things.
99 # Example:
100 #
101 # class Song < ActiveRecord::Base
102 # # Uses an integer of seconds to hold the length of the song
103 #
104 # def length=(minutes)
105 # write_attribute("length", minutes * 60)
106 # end
107 #
108 # def length
109 # read_attribute("length") / 60
110 # end
111 # end
112 #
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113 # == Accessing attributes before they have been type casted
114 #
115 # Some times you want to be able to read the raw attribute data without having the column-determined type cast run its course first.
116 # That can be done by using the <attribute>_before_type_cast accessors that all attributes have. For example, if your Account model
117 # has a balance attribute, you can call account.balance_before_type_cast or account.id_before_type_cast.
118 #
119 # This is especially useful in validation situations where the user might supply a string for an integer field and you want to display
120 # the original string back in an error message. Accessing the attribute normally would type cast the string to 0, which isn't what you
121 # want.
122 #
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123 # == Dynamic attribute-based finders
124 #
125 # Dynamic attribute-based finders are a cleaner way of getting objects by simple queries without turning to SQL. They work by
126 # appending the name of an attribute to <tt>find_by_</tt>, so you get finders like <tt>Person.find_by_user_name, Payment.find_by_transaction_id</tt>.
127 # So instead of writing <tt>Person.find_first(["user_name = ?", user_name])</tt>, you just do <tt>Person.find_by_user_name(user_name)</tt>.
128 #
129 # It's also possible to use multiple attributes in the same find by separating them with "_and_", so you get finders like
130 # <tt>Person.find_by_user_name_and_password</tt> or even <tt>Payment.find_by_purchaser_and_state_and_country</tt>. So instead of writing
131 # <tt>Person.find_first(["user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password])</tt>, you just do
132 # <tt>Person.find_by_user_name_and_password(user_name, password)</tt>.
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133 #
134 # It's even possible to use all the additional parameters to find_first and find_all. For example, the full interface for Payment.find_all_by_amount
135 # is actually Payment.find_all_by_amount(amount, orderings = nil, limit = nil, joins = nil). And the full interface to Person.find_by_user_name is
136 # actually Person.find_by_user_name(user_name, orderings = nil)
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137 #
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138 # == Saving arrays, hashes, and other non-mappable objects in text columns
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139 #
140 # Active Record can serialize any object in text columns using YAML. To do so, you must specify this with a call to the class method +serialize+.
141 # This makes it possible to store arrays, hashes, and other non-mappeable objects without doing any additional work. Example:
142 #
143 # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
144 # serialize :preferences
145 # end
146 #
147 # user = User.create("preferences" => { "background" => "black", "display" => large })
148 # User.find(user.id).preferences # => { "background" => "black", "display" => large }
149 #
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150 # You can also specify an class option as the second parameter that'll raise an exception if a serialized object is retrieved as a
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151 # descendent of a class not in the hierarchy. Example:
152 #
153 # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
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154 # serialize :preferences, Hash
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155 # end
156 #
157 # user = User.create("preferences" => %w( one two three ))
158 # User.find(user.id).preferences # raises SerializationTypeMismatch
159 #
160 # == Single table inheritance
161 #
162 # Active Record allows inheritance by storing the name of the class in a column that by default is called "type" (can be changed
163 # by overwriting <tt>Base.inheritance_column</tt>). This means that an inheritance looking like this:
164 #
165 # class Company < ActiveRecord::Base; end
166 # class Firm < Company; end
167 # class Client < Company; end
168 # class PriorityClient < Client; end
169 #
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170 # When you do Firm.create("name" => "37signals"), this record will be saved in the companies table with type = "Firm". You can then
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171 # fetch this row again using Company.find_first "name = '37signals'" and it will return a Firm object.
172 #
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173 # If you don't have a type column defined in your table, single-table inheritance won't be triggered. In that case, it'll work just
174 # like normal subclasses with no special magic for differentiating between them or reloading the right type with find.
175 #
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176 # Note, all the attributes for all the cases are kept in the same table. Read more:
177 # http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/singleTableInheritance.html
178 #
179 # == Connection to multiple databases in different models
180 #
181 # Connections are usually created through ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection and retrieved by ActiveRecord::Base.connection.
182 # All classes inheriting from ActiveRecord::Base will use this connection. But you can also set a class-specific connection.
183 # For example, if Course is a ActiveRecord::Base, but resides in a different database you can just say Course.establish_connection
184 # and Course *and all its subclasses* will use this connection instead.
185 #
186 # This feature is implemented by keeping a connection pool in ActiveRecord::Base that is a Hash indexed by the class. If a connection is
187 # requested, the retrieve_connection method will go up the class-hierarchy until a connection is found in the connection pool.
188 #
189 # == Exceptions
190 #
191 # * +ActiveRecordError+ -- generic error class and superclass of all other errors raised by Active Record
192 # * +AdapterNotSpecified+ -- the configuration hash used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> didn't include a
193 # <tt>:adapter</tt> key.
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194 # * +AdapterNotSpecified+ -- the <tt>:adapter</tt> key used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> specified an non-existent adapter
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195 # (or a bad spelling of an existing one).
196 # * +AssociationTypeMismatch+ -- the object assigned to the association wasn't of the type specified in the association definition.
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197 # * +SerializationTypeMismatch+ -- the object serialized wasn't of the class specified as the second parameter.
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198 # * +ConnectionNotEstablished+ -- no connection has been established. Use <tt>establish_connection</tt> before querying.
199 # * +RecordNotFound+ -- no record responded to the find* method.
200 # Either the row with the given ID doesn't exist or the row didn't meet the additional restrictions.
201 # * +StatementInvalid+ -- the database server rejected the SQL statement. The precise error is added in the message.
202 # Either the record with the given ID doesn't exist or the record didn't meet the additional restrictions.
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203 # * +MultiparameterAssignmentErrors+ -- collection of errors that occurred during a mass assignment using the
204 # +attributes=+ method. The +errors+ property of this exception contains an array of +AttributeAssignmentError+
205 # objects that should be inspected to determine which attributes triggered the errors.
206 # * +AttributeAssignmentError+ -- an error occurred while doing a mass assignment through the +attributes=+ method.
207 # You can inspect the +attribute+ property of the exception object to determine which attribute triggered the error.
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208 # *Note*: The attributes listed are class-level attributes (accessible from both the class and instance level).
209 # So it's possible to assign a logger to the class through Base.logger= which will then be used by all
210 # instances in the current object space.
211 class Base
212 include ClassInheritableAttributes
213
214 # Accepts a logger conforming to the interface of Log4r or the default Ruby 1.8+ Logger class, which is then passed
215 # on to any new database connections made and which can be retrieved on both a class and instance level by calling +logger+.
216 cattr_accessor :logger
217
218 # Returns the connection currently associated with the class. This can
219 # also be used to "borrow" the connection to do database work unrelated
220 # to any of the specific Active Records.
221 def self.connection
222 retrieve_connection
223 end
224
225 # Returns the connection currently associated with the class. This can
226 # also be used to "borrow" the connection to do database work that isn't
227 # easily done without going straight to SQL.
228 def connection
229 self.class.connection
230 end
231
232 def self.inherited(child) #:nodoc:
233 @@subclasses[self] ||= []
234 @@subclasses[self] << child
235 super
236 end
237
238 @@subclasses = {}
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239
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240 cattr_accessor :configurations
241 @@primary_key_prefix_type = {}
242
243 # Accessor for the prefix type that will be prepended to every primary key column name. The options are :table_name and
244 # :table_name_with_underscore. If the first is specified, the Product class will look for "productid" instead of "id" as
245 # the primary column. If the latter is specified, the Product class will look for "product_id" instead of "id". Remember
246 # that this is a global setting for all Active Records.
247 cattr_accessor :primary_key_prefix_type
248 @@primary_key_prefix_type = nil
249
250 # Accessor for the name of the prefix string to prepend to every table name. So if set to "basecamp_", all
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251 # table names will be named like "basecamp_projects", "basecamp_people", etc. This is a convenient way of creating a namespace
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252 # for tables in a shared database. By default, the prefix is the empty string.
253 cattr_accessor :table_name_prefix
254 @@table_name_prefix = ""
255
256 # Works like +table_name_prefix+, but appends instead of prepends (set to "_basecamp" gives "projects_basecamp",
257 # "people_basecamp"). By default, the suffix is the empty string.
258 cattr_accessor :table_name_suffix
259 @@table_name_suffix = ""
260
261 # Indicate whether or not table names should be the pluralized versions of the corresponding class names.
262 # If true, this the default table name for a +Product+ class will be +products+. If false, it would just be +product+.
263 # See table_name for the full rules on table/class naming. This is true, by default.
264 cattr_accessor :pluralize_table_names
265 @@pluralize_table_names = true
266
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267 # Determines whether to use Time.local (using :local) or Time.utc (using :utc) when pulling dates and times from the database.
268 # This is set to :local by default.
269 cattr_accessor :default_timezone
270 @@default_timezone = :local
271
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272 class << self # Class methods
273 # Returns objects for the records responding to either a specific id (1), a list of ids (1, 5, 6) or an array of ids.
274 # If only one ID is specified, that object is returned directly. If more than one ID is specified, an array is returned.
275 # Examples:
276 # Person.find(1) # returns the object for ID = 1
277 # Person.find(1, 2, 6) # returns an array for objects with IDs in (1, 2, 6)
278 # Person.find([7, 17]) # returns an array for objects with IDs in (7, 17)
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279 # Person.find([1]) # returns an array for objects the object with ID = 1
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280 #
281 # The last argument may be a Hash of find options. Currently, +conditions+ is the only option, behaving the same as with +find_all+.
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282 # Person.find(1, :conditions => "associate_id = 5"
283 # Person.find(1, 2, 6, :conditions => "status = 'active'"
284 # Person.find([7, 17], :conditions => ["sanitize_me = ?", "bare'quote"]
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285 #
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286 # +RecordNotFound+ is raised if no record can be found.
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287 def find(*args)
288 # Return an Array if ids are passed in an Array.
289 expects_array = args.first.kind_of?(Array)
290
291 # Extract options hash from argument list.
292 options = extract_options_from_args!(args)
293 conditions = " AND #{sanitize_sql(options[:conditions])}" if options[:conditions]
294
295 ids = args.flatten.compact.uniq
296 case ids.size
297
298 # Raise if no ids passed.
299 when 0
300 raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find #{name} without an ID#{conditions}"
301
302 # Find a single id.
303 when 1
304 unless result = find_first("#{primary_key} = #{sanitize(ids.first)}#{conditions}")
305 raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find #{name} with ID=#{ids.first}#{conditions}"
306 end
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307
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308 # Box result if expecting array.
309 expects_array ? [result] : result
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310
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311 # Find multiple ids.
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312 else
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313 ids_list = ids.map { |id| sanitize(id) }.join(',')
314 result = find_all("#{primary_key} IN (#{ids_list})#{conditions}", primary_key)
315 if result.size == ids.size
316 result
317 else
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318 raise RecordNotFound, "Couldn't find all #{name.pluralize} with IDs (#{ids_list})#{conditions}"
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319 end
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320 end
321 end
322
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323 # This method is deprecated in favor of find with the :conditions option.
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324 # Works like find, but the record matching +id+ must also meet the +conditions+.
325 # +RecordNotFound+ is raised if no record can be found matching the +id+ or meeting the condition.
326 # Example:
327 # Person.find_on_conditions 5, "first_name LIKE '%dav%' AND last_name = 'heinemeier'"
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328 def find_on_conditions(ids, conditions)
329 find(ids, :conditions => conditions)
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330 end
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331
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332 # Returns an array of all the objects that could be instantiated from the associated
333 # table in the database. The +conditions+ can be used to narrow the selection of objects (WHERE-part),
334 # such as by "color = 'red'", and arrangement of the selection can be done through +orderings+ (ORDER BY-part),
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335 # such as by "last_name, first_name DESC". A maximum of returned objects and their offset can be specified in
336 # +limit+ (LIMIT...OFFSET-part). Examples:
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337 # Project.find_all "category = 'accounts'", "last_accessed DESC", 15
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338 # Project.find_all ["category = ?", category_name], "created ASC", ["? OFFSET ?", 15, 20]
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339 def find_all(conditions = nil, orderings = nil, limit = nil, joins = nil)
340 sql = "SELECT * FROM #{table_name} "
341 sql << "#{joins} " if joins
342 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
343 sql << "ORDER BY #{orderings} " unless orderings.nil?
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344
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345 connection.add_limit!(sql, sanitize_sql(limit)) unless limit.nil?
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346
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347 find_by_sql(sql)
348 end
349
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350 # Works like find_all, but requires a complete SQL string. Examples:
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351 # Post.find_by_sql "SELECT p.*, c.author FROM posts p, comments c WHERE p.id = c.post_id"
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352 # Post.find_by_sql ["SELECT * FROM posts WHERE author = ? AND created > ?", author_id, start_date]
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353 def find_by_sql(sql)
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354 connection.select_all(sanitize_sql(sql), "#{name} Load").inject([]) { |objects, record| objects << instantiate(record) }
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355 end
356
357 # Returns the object for the first record responding to the conditions in +conditions+,
358 # such as "group = 'master'". If more than one record is returned from the query, it's the first that'll
359 # be used to create the object. In such cases, it might be beneficial to also specify
360 # +orderings+, like "income DESC, name", to control exactly which record is to be used. Example:
361 # Employee.find_first "income > 50000", "income DESC, name"
362 def find_first(conditions = nil, orderings = nil)
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363 find_all(conditions, orderings, 1).first
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364 end
365
366 # Creates an object, instantly saves it as a record (if the validation permits it), and returns it. If the save
367 # fail under validations, the unsaved object is still returned.
368 def create(attributes = nil)
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369 if attributes.is_a?(Array)
370 attributes.collect { |attr| create(attr) }
371 else
372 object = new(attributes)
373 object.save
374 object
375 end
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376 end
377
378 # Finds the record from the passed +id+, instantly saves it with the passed +attributes+ (if the validation permits it),
379 # and returns it. If the save fail under validations, the unsaved object is still returned.
380 def update(id, attributes)
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381 if id.is_a?(Array)
382 idx = -1
383 id.collect { |id| idx += 1; update(id, attributes[idx]) }
384 else
385 object = find(id)
386 object.update_attributes(attributes)
387 object
388 end
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389 end
390
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391 # Deletes the record with the given +id+ without instantiating an object first. If an array of ids is provided, all of them
392 # are deleted.
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393 def delete(id)
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394 delete_all([ "#{primary_key} IN (?)", id ])
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395 end
396
397 # Destroys the record with the given +id+ by instantiating the object and calling #destroy (all the callbacks are the triggered).
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398 # If an array of ids is provided, all of them are destroyed.
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399 def destroy(id)
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400 id.is_a?(Array) ? id.each { |id| destroy(id) } : find(id).destroy
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401 end
402
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403 # Updates all records with the SET-part of an SQL update statement in +updates+ and returns an integer with the number of rows updates.
404 # A subset of the records can be selected by specifying +conditions+. Example:
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405 # Billing.update_all "category = 'authorized', approved = 1", "author = 'David'"
406 def update_all(updates, conditions = nil)
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407 sql = "UPDATE #{table_name} SET #{sanitize_sql(updates)} "
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408 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
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409 return connection.update(sql, "#{name} Update")
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410 end
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411
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412 # Destroys the objects for all the records that matches the +condition+ by instantiating each object and calling
413 # the destroy method. Example:
414 # Person.destroy_all "last_login < '2004-04-04'"
415 def destroy_all(conditions = nil)
416 find_all(conditions).each { |object| object.destroy }
417 end
418
419 # Deletes all the records that matches the +condition+ without instantiating the objects first (and hence not
420 # calling the destroy method). Example:
421 # Post.destroy_all "person_id = 5 AND (category = 'Something' OR category = 'Else')"
422 def delete_all(conditions = nil)
423 sql = "DELETE FROM #{table_name} "
424 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
425 connection.delete(sql, "#{name} Delete all")
426 end
427
428 # Returns the number of records that meets the +conditions+. Zero is returned if no records match. Example:
429 # Product.count "sales > 1"
430 def count(conditions = nil)
431 sql = "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM #{table_name} "
432 add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
433 count_by_sql(sql)
434 end
435
436 # Returns the result of an SQL statement that should only include a COUNT(*) in the SELECT part.
437 # Product.count "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM sales s, customers c WHERE s.customer_id = c.id"
438 def count_by_sql(sql)
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439 sql = sanitize_conditions(sql)
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440 count = connection.select_one(sql, "#{name} Count").values.first
441 return count ? count.to_i : 0
442 end
443
444 # Increments the specified counter by one. So <tt>DiscussionBoard.increment_counter("post_count",
445 # discussion_board_id)</tt> would increment the "post_count" counter on the board responding to discussion_board_id.
446 # This is used for caching aggregate values, so that they doesn't need to be computed every time. Especially important
447 # for looping over a collection where each element require a number of aggregate values. Like the DiscussionBoard
448 # that needs to list both the number of posts and comments.
449 def increment_counter(counter_name, id)
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450 update_all "#{counter_name} = #{counter_name} + 1", "#{primary_key} = #{quote(id)}"
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451 end
452
453 # Works like increment_counter, but decrements instead.
454 def decrement_counter(counter_name, id)
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455 update_all "#{counter_name} = #{counter_name} - 1", "#{primary_key} = #{quote(id)}"
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456 end
457
458 # Attributes named in this macro are protected from mass-assignment, such as <tt>new(attributes)</tt> and
459 # <tt>attributes=(attributes)</tt>. Their assignment will simply be ignored. Instead, you can use the direct writer
460 # methods to do assignment. This is meant to protect sensitive attributes to be overwritten by URL/form hackers. Example:
461 #
462 # class Customer < ActiveRecord::Base
463 # attr_protected :credit_rating
464 # end
465 #
466 # customer = Customer.new("name" => David, "credit_rating" => "Excellent")
467 # customer.credit_rating # => nil
468 # customer.attributes = { "description" => "Jolly fellow", "credit_rating" => "Superb" }
469 # customer.credit_rating # => nil
470 #
471 # customer.credit_rating = "Average"
472 # customer.credit_rating # => "Average"
473 def attr_protected(*attributes)
474 write_inheritable_array("attr_protected", attributes)
475 end
476
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477 # Returns an array of all the attributes that have been protected from mass-assignment.
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478 def protected_attributes # :nodoc:
479 read_inheritable_attribute("attr_protected")
480 end
481
482 # If this macro is used, only those attributed named in it will be accessible for mass-assignment, such as
483 # <tt>new(attributes)</tt> and <tt>attributes=(attributes)</tt>. This is the more conservative choice for mass-assignment
484 # protection. If you'd rather start from an all-open default and restrict attributes as needed, have a look at
485 # attr_protected.
486 def attr_accessible(*attributes)
487 write_inheritable_array("attr_accessible", attributes)
488 end
489
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490 # Returns an array of all the attributes that have been made accessible to mass-assignment.
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491 def accessible_attributes # :nodoc:
492 read_inheritable_attribute("attr_accessible")
493 end
494
495 # Specifies that the attribute by the name of +attr_name+ should be serialized before saving to the database and unserialized
496 # after loading from the database. The serialization is done through YAML. If +class_name+ is specified, the serialized
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497 # object must be of that class on retrieval or +SerializationTypeMismatch+ will be raised.
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498 def serialize(attr_name, class_name = Object)
499 write_inheritable_attribute("attr_serialized", serialized_attributes.update(attr_name.to_s => class_name))
500 end
501
502 # Returns a hash of all the attributes that have been specified for serialization as keys and their class restriction as values.
503 def serialized_attributes
504 read_inheritable_attribute("attr_serialized") || { }
505 end
506
507 # Guesses the table name (in forced lower-case) based on the name of the class in the inheritance hierarchy descending
508 # directly from ActiveRecord. So if the hierarchy looks like: Reply < Message < ActiveRecord, then Message is used
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509 # to guess the table name from even when called on Reply. The rules used to do the guess are handled by the Inflector class
510 # in Active Support, which knows almost all common English inflections (report a bug if your inflection isn't covered).
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511 #
512 # Additionally, the class-level table_name_prefix is prepended to the table_name and the table_name_suffix is appended.
513 # So if you have "myapp_" as a prefix, the table name guess for an Account class becomes "myapp_accounts".
514 #
515 # You can also overwrite this class method to allow for unguessable links, such as a Mouse class with a link to a
516 # "mice" table. Example:
517 #
518 # class Mouse < ActiveRecord::Base
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519 # table_name "mice"
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520 # end
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521 def table_name
522 table_name_prefix + undecorated_table_name(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self)) + table_name_suffix
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523 end
524
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525 # Defines the primary key field -- can be overridden in subclasses. Overwriting will negate any effect of the
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526 # primary_key_prefix_type setting, though.
527 def primary_key
528 case primary_key_prefix_type
529 when :table_name
530 Inflector.foreign_key(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self), false)
531 when :table_name_with_underscore
532 Inflector.foreign_key(class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self))
533 else
534 "id"
535 end
536 end
537
538 # Defines the column name for use with single table inheritance -- can be overridden in subclasses.
539 def inheritance_column
540 "type"
541 end
542
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543 # Sets the table name to use to the given value, or (if the value
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544 # is nil or false) to the value returned by the given block.
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545 #
546 # Example:
547 #
548 # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
549 # set_table_name "project"
550 # end
551 def set_table_name( value=nil, &block )
552 define_attr_method :table_name, value, &block
553 end
554 alias :table_name= :set_table_name
555
556 # Sets the name of the primary key column to use to the given value,
557 # or (if the value is nil or false) to the value returned by the given
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558 # block.
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559 #
560 # Example:
561 #
562 # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
563 # set_primary_key "sysid"
564 # end
565 def set_primary_key( value=nil, &block )
566 define_attr_method :primary_key, value, &block
567 end
568 alias :primary_key= :set_primary_key
569
570 # Sets the name of the inheritance column to use to the given value,
571 # or (if the value # is nil or false) to the value returned by the
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572 # given block.
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573 #
574 # Example:
575 #
576 # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
577 # set_inheritance_column do
578 # original_inheritance_column + "_id"
579 # end
580 # end
581 def set_inheritance_column( value=nil, &block )
582 define_attr_method :inheritance_column, value, &block
583 end
584 alias :inheritance_column= :set_inheritance_column
585
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586 # Turns the +table_name+ back into a class name following the reverse rules of +table_name+.
587 def class_name(table_name = table_name) # :nodoc:
588 # remove any prefix and/or suffix from the table name
589 class_name = Inflector.camelize(table_name[table_name_prefix.length..-(table_name_suffix.length + 1)])
590 class_name = Inflector.singularize(class_name) if pluralize_table_names
591 return class_name
592 end
593
594 # Returns an array of column objects for the table associated with this class.
595 def columns
596 @columns ||= connection.columns(table_name, "#{name} Columns")
597 end
598
599 # Returns an array of column objects for the table associated with this class.
600 def columns_hash
601 @columns_hash ||= columns.inject({}) { |hash, column| hash[column.name] = column; hash }
602 end
603
604 # Returns an array of columns objects where the primary id, all columns ending in "_id" or "_count",
605 # and columns used for single table inheritance has been removed.
606 def content_columns
607 @content_columns ||= columns.reject { |c| c.name == primary_key || c.name =~ /(_id|_count)$/ || c.name == inheritance_column }
608 end
609
610 # Returns a hash of all the methods added to query each of the columns in the table with the name of the method as the key
611 # and true as the value. This makes it possible to do O(1) lookups in respond_to? to check if a given method for attribute
612 # is available.
613 def column_methods_hash
614 @dynamic_methods_hash ||= columns_hash.keys.inject(Hash.new(false)) do |methods, attr|
615 methods[attr.to_sym] = true
616 methods["#{attr}=".to_sym] = true
617 methods["#{attr}?".to_sym] = true
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618 methods["#{attr}_before_type_cast".to_sym] = true
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619 methods
620 end
621 end
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622
623 # Resets all the cached information about columns, which will cause they to be reloaded on the next request.
624 def reset_column_information
625 @columns = @columns_hash = @content_columns = @dynamic_methods_hash = nil
626 end
627
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628 def reset_column_information_and_inheritable_attributes_for_all_subclasses#:nodoc:
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629 subclasses.each { |klass| klass.reset_inheritable_attributes; klass.reset_column_information }
630 end
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631
632 # Transforms attribute key names into a more humane format, such as "First name" instead of "first_name". Example:
633 # Person.human_attribute_name("first_name") # => "First name"
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634 # Deprecated in favor of just calling "first_name".humanize
635 def human_attribute_name(attribute_key_name) #:nodoc:
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636 attribute_key_name.humanize
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637 end
638
639 def descends_from_active_record? # :nodoc:
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640 superclass == Base || !columns_hash.has_key?(inheritance_column)
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641 end
642
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643 def quote(object) #:nodoc:
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644 connection.quote(object)
645 end
646
647 # Used to sanitize objects before they're used in an SELECT SQL-statement. Delegates to <tt>connection.quote</tt>.
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648 def sanitize(object) #:nodoc:
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649 connection.quote(object)
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650 end
651
652 # Used to aggregate logging and benchmark, so you can measure and represent multiple statements in a single block.
653 # Usage (hides all the SQL calls for the individual actions and calculates total runtime for them all):
654 #
655 # Project.benchmark("Creating project") do
656 # project = Project.create("name" => "stuff")
657 # project.create_manager("name" => "David")
658 # project.milestones << Milestone.find_all
659 # end
660 def benchmark(title)
661 result = nil
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662 bm = Benchmark.measure { result = silence { yield } }
663 logger.info "#{title} (#{sprintf("%f", bm.real)})"
664 return result
665 end
666
667 # Silences the logger for the duration of the block.
668 def silence
669 result = nil
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670 logger.level = Logger::ERROR
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671 result = yield
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672 logger.level = Logger::DEBUG
673 return result
674 end
675
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676 # Overwrite the default class equality method to provide support for association proxies.
677 def ===(object)
678 object.is_a?(self)
679 end
680
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681 private
682 # Finder methods must instantiate through this method to work with the single-table inheritance model
683 # that makes it possible to create objects of different types from the same table.
684 def instantiate(record)
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685 require_association_class(record[inheritance_column])
686
687 begin
688 object = record_with_type?(record) ? compute_type(record[inheritance_column]).allocate : allocate
689 rescue NameError
690 raise(
691 SubclassNotFound,
692 "The single-table inheritance mechanism failed to locate the subclass: '#{record[inheritance_column]}'. " +
693 "This error is raised because the column '#{inheritance_column}' is reserved for storing the class in case of inheritance. " +
694 "Please rename this column if you didn't intend it to be used for storing the inheritance class " +
695 "or overwrite #{self.to_s}.inheritance_column to use another column for that information."
696 )
697 end
698
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699 object.instance_variable_set("@attributes", record)
700 return object
701 end
702
703 # Returns true if the +record+ has a single table inheritance column and is using it.
704 def record_with_type?(record)
705 record.include?(inheritance_column) && !record[inheritance_column].nil? &&
706 !record[inheritance_column].empty?
707 end
708
709 # Returns the name of the type of the record using the current module as a prefix. So descendents of
710 # MyApp::Business::Account would be appear as "MyApp::Business::AccountSubclass".
711 def type_name_with_module(type_name)
712 self.name =~ /::/ ? self.name.scan(/(.*)::/).first.first + "::" + type_name : type_name
713 end
714
715 # Adds a sanitized version of +conditions+ to the +sql+ string. Note that it's the passed +sql+ string is changed.
716 def add_conditions!(sql, conditions)
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717 sql << "WHERE #{sanitize_sql(conditions)} " unless conditions.nil?
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718 sql << (conditions.nil? ? "WHERE " : " AND ") + type_condition unless descends_from_active_record?
719 end
720
721 def type_condition
722 " (" + subclasses.inject("#{inheritance_column} = '#{Inflector.demodulize(name)}' ") do |condition, subclass|
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723 condition << "OR #{inheritance_column} = '#{Inflector.demodulize(subclass.name)}' "
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724 end + ") "
725 end
726
727 # Guesses the table name, but does not decorate it with prefix and suffix information.
728 def undecorated_table_name(class_name = class_name_of_active_record_descendant(self))
729 table_name = Inflector.underscore(Inflector.demodulize(class_name))
730 table_name = Inflector.pluralize(table_name) if pluralize_table_names
731 return table_name
732 end
733
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734 # Enables dynamic finders like find_by_user_name(user_name) and find_by_user_name_and_password(user_name, password) that are turned into
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735 # find_first(["user_name = ?", user_name]) and find_first(["user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password]) respectively. Also works
736 # for find_all, but using find_all_by_amount(50) that are turned into find_all(["amount = ?", 50]).
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737 #
738 # It's even possible to use all the additional parameters to find_first and find_all. For example, the full interface for find_all_by_amount
739 # is actually find_all_by_amount(amount, orderings = nil, limit = nil, joins = nil).
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740 def method_missing(method_id, *arguments)
741 method_name = method_id.id2name
742
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743 if method_name =~ /find_(all_by|by)_([_a-z][_a-z\d]*)/
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744 finder, attributes = ($1 == "all_by" ? :find_all : :find_first), $2.split("_and_")
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745 attributes.each { |attr_name| super unless column_methods_hash[attr_name.intern] }
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746
747 attr_index = -1
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748 conditions = attributes.collect { |attr_name| attr_index += 1; "#{attr_name} #{arguments[attr_index].nil? ? "IS" : "="} ? " }.join(" AND ")
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749 send(finder, [conditions, *arguments[0...attributes.length]], *arguments[attributes.length..-1])
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750 else
751 super
752 end
753 end
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754
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755 # Defines an "attribute" method (like #inheritance_column or
756 # #table_name). A new (class) method will be created with the
757 # given name. If a value is specified, the new method will
758 # return that value (as a string). Otherwise, the given block
759 # will be used to compute the value of the method.
760 #
761 # The original method will be aliased, with the new name being
762 # prefixed with "original_". This allows the new method to
763 # access the original value.
764 #
765 # Example:
766 #
767 # class A < ActiveRecord::Base
768 # define_attr_method :primary_key, "sysid"
769 # define_attr_method( :inheritance_column ) do
770 # original_inheritance_column + "_id"
771 # end
772 # end
773 def define_attr_method(name, value=nil, &block)
774 sing = class << self; self; end
775 block = proc { value.to_s } if value
776 sing.send( :alias_method, "original_#{name}", name )
777 sing.send( :define_method, name, &block )
778 end
779
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780 protected
781 def subclasses
782 @@subclasses[self] ||= []
783 @@subclasses[self] + extra = @@subclasses[self].inject([]) {|list, subclass| list + subclass.subclasses }
784 end
785
786 # Returns the class type of the record using the current module as a prefix. So descendents of
787 # MyApp::Business::Account would be appear as MyApp::Business::AccountSubclass.
788 def compute_type(type_name)
789 type_name_with_module(type_name).split("::").inject(Object) do |final_type, part|
790 final_type = final_type.const_get(part)
791 end
792 end
793
794 # Returns the name of the class descending directly from ActiveRecord in the inheritance hierarchy.
795 def class_name_of_active_record_descendant(klass)
796 if klass.superclass == Base
797 return klass.name
798 elsif klass.superclass.nil?
799 raise ActiveRecordError, "#{name} doesn't belong in a hierarchy descending from ActiveRecord"
800 else
801 class_name_of_active_record_descendant(klass.superclass)
802 end
803 end
804
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805 # Accepts an array or string. The string is returned untouched, but the array has each value
806 # sanitized and interpolated into the sql statement.
807 # ["name='%s' and group_id='%s'", "foo'bar", 4] returns "name='foo''bar' and group_id='4'"
808 def sanitize_sql(ary)
809 return ary unless ary.is_a?(Array)
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810
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811 statement, *values = ary
812 if values.first.is_a?(Hash) and statement =~ /:\w+/
813 replace_named_bind_variables(statement, values.first)
814 elsif statement.include?('?')
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815 replace_bind_variables(statement, values)
816 else
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817 statement % values.collect { |value| connection.quote_string(value.to_s) }
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818 end
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819 end
820
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821 alias_method :sanitize_conditions, :sanitize_sql
822
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823 def replace_bind_variables(statement, values)
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824 raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, statement.count('?'), values.size)
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825 bound = values.dup
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826 statement.gsub('?') { quote_bound_value(bound.shift) }
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827 end
828
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829 def replace_named_bind_variables(statement, bind_vars)
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830 raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, statement.scan(/:(\w+)/).uniq.size, bind_vars.size)
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831 statement.gsub(/:(\w+)/) do
832 match = $1.to_sym
833 if bind_vars.has_key?(match)
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834 quote_bound_value(bind_vars[match])
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835 else
836 raise PreparedStatementInvalid, "missing value for :#{match} in #{statement}"
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837 end
838 end
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839 end
840
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841 def quote_bound_value(value)
842 case value
843 when Array
844 value.map { |v| connection.quote(v) }.join(',')
845 else
846 connection.quote(value)
847 end
848 end
849
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850 def raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, expected, provided)
851 unless expected == provided
852 raise PreparedStatementInvalid, "wrong number of bind variables (#{provided} for #{expected}) in: #{statement}"
853 end
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854 end
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855
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856 def extract_options_from_args!(args)
857 if args.last.is_a?(Hash) then args.pop else {} end
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858 end
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859
860 def encode_quoted_value(value)
861 quoted_value = connection.quote(value)
862 quoted_value = "'#{quoted_value[1..-2].gsub(/\'/, "\\\\'")}'" if quoted_value.include?("\\\'")
863 quoted_value
864 end
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865 end
866
867 public
868 # New objects can be instantiated as either empty (pass no construction parameter) or pre-set with
869 # attributes but not yet saved (pass a hash with key names matching the associated table column names).
870 # In both instances, valid attribute keys are determined by the column names of the associated table --
871 # hence you can't have attributes that aren't part of the table columns.
872 def initialize(attributes = nil)
873 @attributes = attributes_from_column_definition
874 @new_record = true
875 ensure_proper_type
876 self.attributes = attributes unless attributes.nil?
877 yield self if block_given?
878 end
879
880 # Every Active Record class must use "id" as their primary ID. This getter overwrites the native
881 # id method, which isn't being used in this context.
882 def id
883 read_attribute(self.class.primary_key)
884 end
885
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886 def id_before_type_cast #:nodoc:
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887 read_attribute_before_type_cast(self.class.primary_key)
888 end
889
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890 def quoted_id #:nodoc:
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891 quote(id, self.class.columns_hash[self.class.primary_key])
892 end
893
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894 # Sets the primary ID.
895 def id=(value)
896 write_attribute(self.class.primary_key, value)
897 end
898
899 # Returns true if this object hasn't been saved yet -- that is, a record for the object doesn't exist yet.
900 def new_record?
901 @new_record
902 end
903
904 # * No record exists: Creates a new record with values matching those of the object attributes.
905 # * A record does exist: Updates the record with values matching those of the object attributes.
906 def save
907 create_or_update
908 end
909
910 # Deletes the record in the database and freezes this instance to reflect that no changes should
911 # be made (since they can't be persisted).
912 def destroy
913 unless new_record?
914 connection.delete(
915 "DELETE FROM #{self.class.table_name} " +
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916 "WHERE #{self.class.primary_key} = #{quote(id)}",
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917 "#{self.class.name} Destroy"
918 )
919 end
920
921 freeze
922 end
923
924 # Returns a clone of the record that hasn't been assigned an id yet and is treated as a new record.
925 def clone
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926 attrs = self.attributes
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927 attrs.delete(self.class.primary_key)
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928 cloned_record = self.class.new(attrs)
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929 cloned_record
930 end
931
932 # Updates a single attribute and saves the record. This is especially useful for boolean flags on existing records.
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933 # Note: This method is overwritten by the Validation module that'll make sure that updates made with this method
934 # doesn't get subjected to validation checks. Hence, attributes can be updated even if the full object isn't valid.
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935 def update_attribute(name, value)
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936 self[name] = value
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937 save
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938 end
939
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940 # Updates all the attributes in from the passed hash and saves the record. If the object is invalid, the saving will
941 # fail and false will be returned.
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942 def update_attributes(attributes)
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943 self.attributes = attributes
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944 return save
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945 end
946
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947 # Initializes the +attribute+ to zero if nil and adds one. Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns self.
948 def increment(attribute)
949 self[attribute] ||= 0
950 self[attribute] += 1
951 self
952 end
953
954 # Increments the +attribute+ and saves the record.
955 def increment!(attribute)
956 increment(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
957 end
958
959 # Initializes the +attribute+ to zero if nil and subtracts one. Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns self.
960 def decrement(attribute)
961 self[attribute] ||= 0
962 self[attribute] -= 1
963 self
964 end
965
966 # Decrements the +attribute+ and saves the record.
967 def decrement!(attribute)
968 decrement(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
969 end
970
971 # Turns an +attribute+ that's currently true into false and vice versa. Returns self.
972 def toggle(attribute)
973 self[attribute] = quote(!send("#{attribute}?", column_for_attribute(attribute)))
974 self
975 end
976
977 # Toggles the +attribute+ and saves the record.
978 def toggle!(attribute)
979 toggle(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
980 end
981
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982 # Reloads the attributes of this object from the database.
983 def reload
984 clear_association_cache
985 @attributes.update(self.class.find(self.id).instance_variable_get('@attributes'))
986 return self
987 end
988
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989 # Returns the value of attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> after it has been type cast (for example,
990 # "2004-12-12" in a data column is cast to a date object, like Date.new(2004, 12, 12)).
991 # (Alias for the protected read_attribute method).
992 def [](attr_name)
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993 read_attribute(attr_name.to_s)
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994 end
995
996 # Updates the attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> with the specified +value+.
997 # (Alias for the protected write_attribute method).
998 def []= (attr_name, value)
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999 write_attribute(attr_name.to_s, value)
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1000 end
1001
1002 # Allows you to set all the attributes at once by passing in a hash with keys
1003 # matching the attribute names (which again matches the column names). Sensitive attributes can be protected
1004 # from this form of mass-assignment by using the +attr_protected+ macro. Or you can alternatively
1005 # specify which attributes *can* be accessed in with the +attr_accessible+ macro. Then all the
1006 # attributes not included in that won't be allowed to be mass-assigned.
1007 def attributes=(attributes)
1008 return if attributes.nil?
1009
1010 multi_parameter_attributes = []
1011 remove_attributes_protected_from_mass_assignment(attributes).each do |k, v|
1012 k.include?("(") ? multi_parameter_attributes << [ k, v ] : send(k + "=", v)
1013 end
1014 assign_multiparameter_attributes(multi_parameter_attributes)
1015 end
1016
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1017 # Returns a hash of all the attributes with their names as keys and clones of their objects as values.
1018 def attributes
1019 self.attribute_names.inject({}) do |attributes, name|
1020 begin
1021 attributes[name] = read_attribute(name).clone
1022 rescue TypeError
1023 attributes[name] = read_attribute(name)
1024 end
1025 attributes
1026 end
1027 end
1028
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1029 # Returns true if the specified +attribute+ has been set by the user or by a database load and is neither
1030 # nil nor empty? (the latter only applies to objects that responds to empty?, most notably Strings).
1031 def attribute_present?(attribute)
1032 is_empty = read_attribute(attribute).respond_to?("empty?") ? read_attribute(attribute).empty? : false
1033 @attributes.include?(attribute) && !@attributes[attribute].nil? && !is_empty
1034 end
1035
1036 # Returns an array of names for the attributes available on this object sorted alphabetically.
1037 def attribute_names
1038 @attributes.keys.sort
1039 end
1040
1041 # Returns the column object for the named attribute.
1042 def column_for_attribute(name)
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1043 self.class.columns_hash[name.to_s]
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1044 end
1045
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1046 # Returns true if the +comparison_object+ is the same object, or is of the same type and has the same id.
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1047 def ==(comparison_object)
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dhh authored
1048 comparison_object.equal?(self) or (comparison_object.instance_of?(self.class) and comparison_object.id == id)
db045db @dhh Initial
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1049 end
1050
1051 # Delegates to ==
1052 def eql?(comparison_object)
1053 self == (comparison_object)
1054 end
1055
1056 # Delegates to id in order to allow two records of the same type and id to work with something like:
1057 # [ Person.find(1), Person.find(2), Person.find(3) ] & [ Person.find(1), Person.find(4) ] # => [ Person.find(1) ]
1058 def hash
1059 id
1060 end
1061
1062 # For checking respond_to? without searching the attributes (which is faster).
1063 alias_method :respond_to_without_attributes?, :respond_to?
1064
1065 # A Person object with a name attribute can ask person.respond_to?("name"), person.respond_to?("name="), and
1066 # person.respond_to?("name?") which will all return true.
846f0d5 @dhh Fixed that the overwritten respond_to? method didn't take two parameters...
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1067 def respond_to?(method, include_priv = false)
1068 self.class.column_methods_hash[method.to_sym] || respond_to_without_attributes?(method, include_priv)
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1069 end
d82f73e @dhh Abolished ActionController::Base.require_or_load in favor of require_dep...
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1070
db045db @dhh Initial
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1071 private
1072 def create_or_update
1073 if new_record? then create else update end
823554e @dhh Added support for associating unsaved objects #402 [Tim Bates]
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1074 return true
db045db @dhh Initial
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1075 end
1076
1077 # Updates the associated record with values matching those of the instant attributes.
1078 def update
1079 connection.update(
1080 "UPDATE #{self.class.table_name} " +
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1081 "SET #{quoted_comma_pair_list(connection, attributes_with_quotes(false))} " +
4940383 @dhh Fixed value quoting in all generated SQL statements, so that integers ar...
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1082 "WHERE #{self.class.primary_key} = #{quote(id)}",
db045db @dhh Initial
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1083 "#{self.class.name} Update"
1084 )
1085 end
1086
1087 # Creates a new record with values matching those of the instant attributes.
1088 def create
1089 self.id = connection.insert(
1090 "INSERT INTO #{self.class.table_name} " +
1091 "(#{quoted_column_names.join(', ')}) " +
1092 "VALUES(#{attributes_with_quotes.values.join(', ')})",
1093 "#{self.class.name} Create",
1094 self.class.primary_key, self.id
1095 )
1096
1097 @new_record = false
1098 end
1099
1100 # Sets the attribute used for single table inheritance to this class name if this is not the ActiveRecord descendant.
1101 # Considering the hierarchy Reply < Message < ActiveRecord, this makes it possible to do Reply.new without having to
1102 # set Reply[Reply.inheritance_column] = "Reply" yourself. No such attribute would be set for objects of the
1103 # Message class in that example.
1104 def ensure_proper_type
1105 unless self.class.descends_from_active_record?
1106 write_attribute(self.class.inheritance_column, Inflector.demodulize(self.class.name))
1107 end
1108 end
1109
1110 # Allows access to the object attributes, which are held in the @attributes hash, as were
1111 # they first-class methods. So a Person class with a name attribute can use Person#name and
1112 # Person#name= and never directly use the attributes hash -- except for multiple assigns with
1113 # ActiveRecord#attributes=. A Milestone class can also ask Milestone#completed? to test that
1114 # the completed attribute is not nil or 0.
1115 #
1116 # It's also possible to instantiate related objects, so a Client class belonging to the clients
1117 # table with a master_id foreign key can instantiate master through Client#master.
1118 def method_missing(method_id, *arguments)
1119 method_name = method_id.id2name
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1120
db045db @dhh Initial
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1121 if method_name =~ read_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1122 return read_attribute($1)
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return the...
dhh authored
1123 elsif method_name =~ read_untyped_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1124 return read_attribute_before_type_cast($1)
db045db @dhh Initial
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1125 elsif method_name =~ write_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1126 write_attribute($1, arguments[0])
1127 elsif method_name =~ query_method? && @attributes.include?($1)
1128 return query_attribute($1)
1129 else
1130 super
1131 end
1132 end
1133
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return the...
dhh authored
1134 def read_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)[^=?]*$/ end
1135 def read_untyped_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)_before_type_cast$/ end
1136 def write_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)=.*$/ end
1137 def query_method?() /^([a-zA-Z][-_\w]*)\?$/ end
db045db @dhh Initial
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1138
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return the...
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1139 # Returns the value of attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> after it has been type cast (for example,
db045db @dhh Initial
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1140 # "2004-12-12" in a data column is cast to a date object, like Date.new(2004, 12, 12)).
4eab375 @dhh Finished polishing API docs
dhh authored
1141 def read_attribute(attr_name)
db045db @dhh Initial
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1142 if @attributes.keys.include? attr_name
1143 if column = column_for_attribute(attr_name)
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return the...
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1144 unserializable_attribute?(attr_name, column) ?
db045db @dhh Initial
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1145 unserialize_attribute(attr_name) : column.type_cast(@attributes[attr_name])
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return the...
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1146 else
1147 @attributes[attr_name]
db045db @dhh Initial
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1148 end
1149 else
1150 nil
1151 end
1152 end
1153
7b5ed66 @dhh Added respondence to *_before_type_cast for all attributes to return the...
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1154 def read_attribute_before_type_cast(attr_name)
1155 @attributes[attr_name]
1156 end
1157
db045db @dhh Initial
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1158 # Returns true if the attribute is of a text column and marked for serialization.
1159 def unserializable_attribute?(attr_name, column)
daf3e92 @dhh Added a db2 adapter that only depends on the Ruby/DB2 bindings (http://r...
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1160 @attributes[attr_name] && [:text, :string].include?(column.send(:type)) && @attributes[attr_name].is_a?(String) && self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name]
db045db @dhh Initial
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1161 end
1162
1163 # Returns the unserialized object of the attribute.
1164 def unserialize_attribute(attr_name)
1165 unserialized_object = object_from_yaml(@attributes[attr_name])
1166
1167 if unserialized_object.is_a?(self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name])
1168 @attributes[attr_name] = unserialized_object
1169 else
1170 raise(
1171 SerializationTypeMismatch,
1172 "#{attr_name} was supposed to be a #{self.class.serialized_attributes[attr_name]}, " +
1173 "but was a #{unserialized_object.class.to_s}"
1174 )
1175 end
1176 end
1177
1178 # Updates the attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> with the specified +value+. Empty strings for fixnum and float
1179 # columns are turned into nil.
4eab375 @dhh Finished polishing API docs
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1180 def write_attribute(attr_name, value)
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1181 @attributes[attr_name] = empty_string_for_number_column?(attr_name, value) ? nil : value
1182 end
1183
1184 def empty_string_for_number_column?(attr_name, value)
1185 column = column_for_attribute(attr_name)
1186 column && (column.klass == Fixnum || column.klass == Float) && value == ""
1187 end
1188
1189 def query_attribute(attr_name)
1190 attribute = @attributes[attr_name]
1191 if attribute.kind_of?(Fixnum) && attribute == 0
1192 false
1193 elsif attribute.kind_of?(String) && attribute == "0"
1194 false
1195 elsif attribute.kind_of?(String) && attribute.empty?
1196 false
1197 elsif attribute.nil?
1198 false
1199 elsif attribute == false
1200 false
1201 elsif attribute == "f"
1202 false
1203 elsif attribute == "false"
1204 false
1205 else
1206 true
1207 end
1208 end
1209
1210 def remove_attributes_protected_from_mass_assignment(attributes)
1211 if self.class.accessible_attributes.nil? && self.class.protected_attributes.nil?
95454bf @dhh Added mass-assignment protection for the inheritance column -- regardles...
dhh authored
1212 attributes.reject { |key, value| attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
db045db @dhh Initial
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1213 elsif self.class.protected_attributes.nil?
95454bf @dhh Added mass-assignment protection for the inheritance column -- regardles...
dhh authored
1214 attributes.reject { |key, value| !self.class.accessible_attributes.include?(key.intern) || attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
db045db @dhh Initial
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1215 elsif self.class.accessible_attributes.nil?
95454bf @dhh Added mass-assignment protection for the inheritance column -- regardles...
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1216 attributes.reject { |key, value| self.class.protected_attributes.include?(key.intern) || attributes_protected_by_default.include?(key) }
db045db @dhh Initial
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1217 end
1218 end
1219
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1220 # The primary key and inheritance column can never be set by mass-assignment for security reasons.
1221 def attributes_protected_by_default
1222 [ self.class.primary_key, self.class.inheritance_column ]
1223 end
1224
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1225 # Returns copy of the attributes hash where all the values have been safely quoted for use in
1226 # an SQL statement.
9a248a8 @dhh Dont include the primary key in updates -- its unneeded and SQL Server c...
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1227 def attributes_with_quotes(include_primary_key = true)
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1228 columns_hash = self.class.columns_hash
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1229
1d61845 @dhh Fixed that records fetched with piggy-back attributes or through rich ha...
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1230 attrs_quoted = @attributes.inject({}) do |attrs_quoted, pair|
9a248a8 @dhh Dont include the primary key in updates -- its unneeded and SQL Server c...
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1231 attrs_quoted[pair.first] = quote(pair.last, columns_hash[pair.first]) unless !include_primary_key && pair.first == self.class.primary_key
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1232 attrs_quoted
1233 end
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1234
1235 attrs_quoted.delete_if { |key, value| !self.class.columns_hash.keys.include?(key) }
db045db @dhh Initial
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1236 end
1237
1238 # Quote strings appropriately for SQL statements.
1239 def quote(value, column = nil)
1240 connection.quote(value, column)
1241 end
1242
1243 # Interpolate custom sql string in instance context.
1244 # Optional record argument is meant for custom insert_sql.
1245 def interpolate_sql(sql, record = nil)
1246 instance_eval("%(#{sql})")
1247 end
1248
1249 # Initializes the attributes array with keys matching the columns from the linked table and
1250 # the values matching the corresponding default value of that column, so
1251 # that a new instance, or one populated from a passed-in Hash, still has all the attributes
1252 # that instances loaded from the database would.
1253 def attributes_from_column_definition
1254 connection.columns(self.class.table_name, "#{self.class.name} Columns").inject({}) do |attributes, column|
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1255 attributes[column.name] = column.default unless column.name == self.class.primary_key
db045db @dhh Initial
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1256 attributes
1257 end
1258 end
1259
1260 # Instantiates objects for all attribute classes that needs more than one constructor parameter. This is done
1261 # by calling new on the column type or aggregation type (through composed_of) object with these parameters.
1262 # So having the pairs written_on(1) = "2004", written_on(2) = "6", written_on(3) = "24", will instantiate
1263 # written_on (a date type) with Date.new("2004", "6", "24"). You can also specify a typecast character in the
098fa94 @dhh Fixed documentation snafus #575, #576, #577, #585
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1264 # parentheses to have the parameters typecasted before they're used in the constructor. Use i for Fixnum, f for Float,
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1265 # s for String, and a for Array. If all the values for a given attribute is empty, the attribute will be set to nil.
1266 def assign_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
1267 execute_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(
1268 extract_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
1269 )
1270 end
1271
1272 # Includes an ugly hack for Time.local instead of Time.new because the latter is reserved by Time itself.
1273 def execute_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(callstack)
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1274 errors = []
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1275 callstack.each do |name, values|
1276 klass = (self.class.reflect_on_aggregation(name) || column_for_attribute(name)).klass
1277 if values.empty?
1278 send(name + "=", nil)
1279 else
d2fefbe @dhh Added MultiparameterAssignmentErrors and AttributeAssignmentError except...
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1280 begin
1281 send(name + "=", Time == klass ? klass.local(*values) : klass.new(*values))
1282 rescue => ex
1283 errors << AttributeAssignmentError.new("error on assignment #{values.inspect} to #{name}", ex, name)
1284 end
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1285 end
1286 end
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1287 unless errors.empty?
1288 raise MultiparameterAssignmentErrors.new(errors), "#{errors.size} error(s) on assignment of multiparameter attributes"
1289 end
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1290 end
1291
1292 def extract_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
1293 attributes = { }
1294
1295 for pair in pairs
1296 multiparameter_name, value = pair
1297 attribute_name = multiparameter_name.split("(").first
1298 attributes[attribute_name] = [] unless attributes.include?(attribute_name)
1299
1300 unless value.empty?
1301 attributes[attribute_name] <<
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1302 [ find_parameter_position(multiparameter_name), type_cast_attribute_value(multiparameter_name, value) ]
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1303 end
1304 end
1305
1306 attributes.each { |name, values| attributes[name] = values.sort_by{ |v| v.first }.collect { |v| v.last } }
1307 end
1308
1309 def type_cast_attribute_value(multiparameter_name, value)
1310 multiparameter_name =~ /\([0-9]*([a-z])\)/ ? value.send("to_" + $1) : value
1311 end
1312
1313 def find_parameter_position(multiparameter_name)
1314 multiparameter_name.scan(/\(([0-9]*).*\)/).first.first
1315 end
1316
1317 # Returns a comma-separated pair list, like "key1 = val1, key2 = val2".
1318 def comma_pair_list(hash)
1319 hash.inject([]) { |list, pair| list << "#{pair.first} = #{pair.last}" }.join(", ")
1320 end
1321
1322 def quoted_column_names(attributes = attributes_with_quotes)
1323 attributes.keys.collect { |column_name| connection.quote_column_name(column_name) }
1324 end
1325
1326 def quote_columns(column_quoter, hash)
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1327 hash.inject({}) do |list, pair|
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1328 list[column_quoter.quote_column_name(pair.first)] = pair.last
1329 list
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1330 end
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1331 end
1332
1333 def quoted_comma_pair_list(column_quoter, hash)
1334 comma_pair_list(quote_columns(column_quoter, hash))
1335 end
1336
1337 def object_from_yaml(string)
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1338 return string unless string.is_a?(String)
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1339 if has_yaml_encoding_header?(string)
1340 begin
1341 YAML::load(string)
1342 rescue Object
1343 # Apparently wasn't YAML anyway
1344 string
1345 end
1346 else
1347 string
1348 end
1349 end
1350
1351 def has_yaml_encoding_header?(string)
1352 string[0..3] == "--- "
1353 end
1354 end
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1355 end
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