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module ActiveRecord
# = Active Record Aggregations
module Aggregations # :nodoc:
extend ActiveSupport::Concern
def clear_aggregation_cache #:nodoc:
@aggregation_cache.clear if persisted?
end
# Active Record implements aggregation through a macro-like class method called +composed_of+
# for representing attributes as value objects. It expresses relationships like "Account [is]
# composed of Money [among other things]" or "Person [is] composed of [an] address". Each call
# to the macro adds a description of how the value objects are created from the attributes of
# the entity object (when the entity is initialized either as a new object or from finding an
# existing object) and how it can be turned back into attributes (when the entity is saved to
# the database).
#
# class Customer < ActiveRecord::Base
# composed_of :balance, :class_name => "Money", :mapping => %w(balance amount)
# composed_of :address, :mapping => [ %w(address_street street), %w(address_city city) ]
# end
#
# The customer class now has the following methods to manipulate the value objects:
# * <tt>Customer#balance, Customer#balance=(money)</tt>
# * <tt>Customer#address, Customer#address=(address)</tt>
#
# These methods will operate with value objects like the ones described below:
#
# class Money
# include Comparable
# attr_reader :amount, :currency
# EXCHANGE_RATES = { "USD_TO_DKK" => 6 }
#
# def initialize(amount, currency = "USD")
# @amount, @currency = amount, currency
# end
#
# def exchange_to(other_currency)
# exchanged_amount = (amount * EXCHANGE_RATES["#{currency}_TO_#{other_currency}"]).floor
# Money.new(exchanged_amount, other_currency)
# end
#
# def ==(other_money)
# amount == other_money.amount && currency == other_money.currency
# end
#
# def <=>(other_money)
# if currency == other_money.currency
# amount <=> amount
# else
# amount <=> other_money.exchange_to(currency).amount
# end
# end
# end
#
# class Address
# attr_reader :street, :city
# def initialize(street, city)
# @street, @city = street, city
# end
#
# def close_to?(other_address)
# city == other_address.city
# end
#
# def ==(other_address)
# city == other_address.city && street == other_address.street
# end
# end
#
# Now it's possible to access attributes from the database through the value objects instead. If
# you choose to name the composition the same as the attribute's name, it will be the only way to
# access that attribute. That's the case with our +balance+ attribute. You interact with the value
# objects just like you would any other attribute, though:
#
# customer.balance = Money.new(20) # sets the Money value object and the attribute
# customer.balance # => Money value object
# customer.balance.exchange_to("DKK") # => Money.new(120, "DKK")
# customer.balance > Money.new(10) # => true
# customer.balance == Money.new(20) # => true
# customer.balance < Money.new(5) # => false
#
# Value objects can also be composed of multiple attributes, such as the case of Address. The order
# of the mappings will determine the order of the parameters.
#
# customer.address_street = "Hyancintvej"
# customer.address_city = "Copenhagen"
# customer.address # => Address.new("Hyancintvej", "Copenhagen")
# customer.address = Address.new("May Street", "Chicago")
# customer.address_street # => "May Street"
# customer.address_city # => "Chicago"
#
# == Writing value objects
#
# Value objects are immutable and interchangeable objects that represent a given value, such as
# a Money object representing $5. Two Money objects both representing $5 should be equal (through
# methods such as <tt>==</tt> and <tt><=></tt> from Comparable if ranking makes sense). This is
# unlike entity objects where equality is determined by identity. An entity class such as Customer can
# easily have two different objects that both have an address on Hyancintvej. Entity identity is
# determined by object or relational unique identifiers (such as primary keys). Normal
# ActiveRecord::Base classes are entity objects.
#
# It's also important to treat the value objects as immutable. Don't allow the Money object to have
# its amount changed after creation. Create a new Money object with the new value instead. This
# is exemplified by the Money#exchange_to method that returns a new value object instead of changing
# its own values. Active Record won't persist value objects that have been changed through means
# other than the writer method.
#
# The immutable requirement is enforced by Active Record by freezing any object assigned as a value
# object. Attempting to change it afterwards will result in a ActiveSupport::FrozenObjectError.
#
# Read more about value objects on http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?ValueObject and on the dangers of not
# keeping value objects immutable on http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?ValueObjectsShouldBeImmutable
#
# == Custom constructors and converters
#
# By default value objects are initialized by calling the <tt>new</tt> constructor of the value
# class passing each of the mapped attributes, in the order specified by the <tt>:mapping</tt>
# option, as arguments. If the value class doesn't support this convention then +composed_of+ allows
# a custom constructor to be specified.
#
# When a new value is assigned to the value object the default assumption is that the new value
# is an instance of the value class. Specifying a custom converter allows the new value to be automatically
# converted to an instance of value class if necessary.
#
# For example, the NetworkResource model has +network_address+ and +cidr_range+ attributes that
# should be aggregated using the NetAddr::CIDR value class (http://netaddr.rubyforge.org). The constructor
# for the value class is called +create+ and it expects a CIDR address string as a parameter. New
# values can be assigned to the value object using either another NetAddr::CIDR object, a string
# or an array. The <tt>:constructor</tt> and <tt>:converter</tt> options can be used to meet
# these requirements:
#
# class NetworkResource < ActiveRecord::Base
# composed_of :cidr,
# :class_name => 'NetAddr::CIDR',
# :mapping => [ %w(network_address network), %w(cidr_range bits) ],
# :allow_nil => true,
# :constructor => Proc.new { |network_address, cidr_range| NetAddr::CIDR.create("#{network_address}/#{cidr_range}") },
# :converter => Proc.new { |value| NetAddr::CIDR.create(value.is_a?(Array) ? value.join('/') : value) }
# end
#
# # This calls the :constructor
# network_resource = NetworkResource.new(:network_address => '192.168.0.1', :cidr_range => 24)
#
# # These assignments will both use the :converter
# network_resource.cidr = [ '192.168.2.1', 8 ]
# network_resource.cidr = '192.168.0.1/24'
#
# # This assignment won't use the :converter as the value is already an instance of the value class
# network_resource.cidr = NetAddr::CIDR.create('192.168.2.1/8')
#
# # Saving and then reloading will use the :constructor on reload
# network_resource.save
# network_resource.reload
#
# == Finding records by a value object
#
# Once a +composed_of+ relationship is specified for a model, records can be loaded from the database
# by specifying an instance of the value object in the conditions hash. The following example
# finds all customers with +balance_amount+ equal to 20 and +balance_currency+ equal to "USD":
#
# Customer.where(:balance => Money.new(20, "USD")).all
#
module ClassMethods
# Adds reader and writer methods for manipulating a value object:
# <tt>composed_of :address</tt> adds <tt>address</tt> and <tt>address=(new_address)</tt> methods.
#
# Options are:
# * <tt>:class_name</tt> - Specifies the class name of the association. Use it only if that name
# can't be inferred from the part id. So <tt>composed_of :address</tt> will by default be linked
# to the Address class, but if the real class name is CompanyAddress, you'll have to specify it
# with this option.
# * <tt>:mapping</tt> - Specifies the mapping of entity attributes to attributes of the value
# object. Each mapping is represented as an array where the first item is the name of the
# entity attribute and the second item is the name the attribute in the value object. The
# order in which mappings are defined determine the order in which attributes are sent to the
# value class constructor.
# * <tt>:allow_nil</tt> - Specifies that the value object will not be instantiated when all mapped
# attributes are +nil+. Setting the value object to +nil+ has the effect of writing +nil+ to all
# mapped attributes.
# This defaults to +false+.
# * <tt>:constructor</tt> - A symbol specifying the name of the constructor method or a Proc that
# is called to initialize the value object. The constructor is passed all of the mapped attributes,
# in the order that they are defined in the <tt>:mapping option</tt>, as arguments and uses them
# to instantiate a <tt>:class_name</tt> object.
# The default is <tt>:new</tt>.
# * <tt>:converter</tt> - A symbol specifying the name of a class method of <tt>:class_name</tt>
# or a Proc that is called when a new value is assigned to the value object. The converter is
# passed the single value that is used in the assignment and is only called if the new value is
# not an instance of <tt>:class_name</tt>.
#
# Option examples:
# composed_of :temperature, :mapping => %w(reading celsius)
# composed_of :balance, :class_name => "Money", :mapping => %w(balance amount), :converter => Proc.new { |balance| balance.to_money }
# composed_of :address, :mapping => [ %w(address_street street), %w(address_city city) ]
# composed_of :gps_location
# composed_of :gps_location, :allow_nil => true
# composed_of :ip_address,
# :class_name => 'IPAddr',
# :mapping => %w(ip to_i),
# :constructor => Proc.new { |ip| IPAddr.new(ip, Socket::AF_INET) },
# :converter => Proc.new { |ip| ip.is_a?(Integer) ? IPAddr.new(ip, Socket::AF_INET) : IPAddr.new(ip.to_s) }
#
def composed_of(part_id, options = {})
options.assert_valid_keys(:class_name, :mapping, :allow_nil, :constructor, :converter)
name = part_id.id2name
class_name = options[:class_name] || name.camelize
mapping = options[:mapping] || [ name, name ]
mapping = [ mapping ] unless mapping.first.is_a?(Array)
allow_nil = options[:allow_nil] || false
constructor = options[:constructor] || :new
converter = options[:converter]
reader_method(name, class_name, mapping, allow_nil, constructor)
writer_method(name, class_name, mapping, allow_nil, converter)
create_reflection(:composed_of, part_id, options, self)
end
private
def reader_method(name, class_name, mapping, allow_nil, constructor)
define_method(name) do
if @aggregation_cache[name].nil? && (!allow_nil || mapping.any? {|pair| !read_attribute(pair.first).nil? })
attrs = mapping.collect {|pair| read_attribute(pair.first)}
object = constructor.respond_to?(:call) ?
constructor.call(*attrs) :
class_name.constantize.send(constructor, *attrs)
@aggregation_cache[name] = object
end
@aggregation_cache[name]
end
end
def writer_method(name, class_name, mapping, allow_nil, converter)
define_method("#{name}=") do |part|
if part.nil? && allow_nil
mapping.each { |pair| self[pair.first] = nil }
@aggregation_cache[name] = nil
else
unless part.is_a?(class_name.constantize) || converter.nil?
part = converter.respond_to?(:call) ?
converter.call(part) :
class_name.constantize.send(converter, part)
end
mapping.each { |pair| self[pair.first] = part.send(pair.last) }
@aggregation_cache[name] = part.freeze
end
end
end
end
end
end
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