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Rails 4.0.0 (unreleased)

  • ActiveRecord::AttributeMethods#[] raises ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError error if the given attribute is missing. Fixes #5433.

    class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
      belongs_to :company
    # Before:
    person ='id').first
    person[:name]       # => nil         # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing_attribute: name
    person[:company_id] # => nil      # => nil
    # After:
    person ='id').first
    person[:name]       # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing_attribute: name         # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing_attribute: name
    person[:company_id] # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing_attribute: company_id      # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing_attribute: company_id

    Francesco Rodriguez

  • Small binary fields use the VARBINARY MySQL type, instead of TINYBLOB.

    Victor Costan

  • Decode URI encoded attributes on database connection URLs.

    Shawn Veader

  • Add find_or_create_by, find_or_create_by! and find_or_initialize_by methods to Relation.

    These are similar to the first_or_create family of methods, but the behaviour when a record is created is slightly different:

    User.where(first_name: 'Penélope').first_or_create

    will execute:

    User.where(first_name: 'Penélope').create

    Causing all the create callbacks to execute within the context of the scope. This could affect queries that occur within callbacks.

    User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Penélope')

    will execute:

    User.create(first_name: 'Penélope')

    Which obviously does not affect the scoping of queries within callbacks.

    The find_or_create_by version also reads better, frankly.

    If you need to add extra attributes during create, you can do one of:

    User.create_with(active: true).find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Jon')
    User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Jon') { |u| = true }

    The first_or_create family of methods have been nodoc'ed in favour of this API. They may be deprecated in the future but their implementation is very small and it's probably not worth putting users through lots of annoying deprecation warnings.

    Jon Leighton

  • Fix bug with presence validation of associations. Would incorrectly add duplicated errors when the association was blank. Bug introduced in 1fab518c6a75dac5773654646eb724a59741bc13.

    Scott Willson

  • Fix bug where sum(expression) returns string '0' for no matching records. Fixes #7439

    Tim Macfarlane

  • PostgreSQL adapter correctly fetches default values when using multiple schemas and domains in a db. Fixes #7914

    Arturo Pie

  • Learn ActiveRecord::QueryMethods#order work with hash arguments

    When symbol or hash passed we convert it to Arel::Nodes::Ordering. If we pass invalid direction(like name: :DeSc) ActiveRecord::QueryMethods#order will raise an exception

    User.order(:name, email: :desc)
    # SELECT "users".* FROM "users" ORDER BY "users"."name" ASC, "users"."email" DESC

    Tima Maslyuchenko

  • Rename ActiveRecord::Fixtures class to ActiveRecord::FixtureSet. Instances of this class normally hold a collection of fixtures (records) loaded either from a single YAML file, or from a file and a folder with the same name. This change make the class name singular and makes the class easier to distinguish from the modules like ActiveRecord::TestFixtures, which operates on multiple fixture sets, or DelegatingFixtures, ::Fixtures, etc., and from the class ActiveRecord::Fixture, which corresponds to a single fixture.

    Alexey Muranov

  • The postgres adapter now supports tables with capital letters. Fix #5920

    Yves Senn

  • CollectionAssociation#count returns 0 without querying if the parent record is not persisted.


    # SELECT COUNT(*) FROM "pets" WHERE "pets"."person_id" IS NULL
    # => 0


    # fires without sql query
    # => 0

    Francesco Rodriguez

  • Fix reset_counters crashing on has_many :through associations. Fix #7822.


  • Support for partial inserts.

    When inserting new records, only the fields which have been changed from the defaults will actually be included in the INSERT statement. The other fields will be populated by the database.

    This is more efficient, and also means that it will be safe to remove database columns without getting subsequent errors in running app processes (so long as the code in those processes doesn't contain any references to the removed column).

    The partial_updates configuration option is now renamed to partial_writes to reflect the fact that it now impacts both inserts and updates.

    Jon Leighton

  • Allow before and after validations to take an array of lifecycle events

    John Foley

  • Support for specifying transaction isolation level

    If your database supports setting the isolation level for a transaction, you can set it like so:

    Post.transaction(isolation: :serializable) do
      # ...

    Valid isolation levels are:

    • :read_uncommitted
    • :read_committed
    • :repeatable_read
    • :serializable

    You should consult the documentation for your database to understand the semantics of these different levels:

    An ActiveRecord::TransactionIsolationError will be raised if:

    • The adapter does not support setting the isolation level
    • You are joining an existing open transaction
    • You are creating a nested (savepoint) transaction

    The mysql, mysql2 and postgresql adapters support setting the transaction isolation level. However, support is disabled for mysql versions below 5, because they are affected by a bug ( which means the isolation level gets persisted outside the transaction.

    Jon Leighton

  • ActiveModel::ForbiddenAttributesProtection is included by default in Active Record models. Check the docs of ActiveModel::ForbiddenAttributesProtection for more details.

    Guillermo Iguaran

  • Remove integration between Active Record and ActiveModel::MassAssignmentSecurity, protected_attributes gem should be added to use attr_accessible/attr_protected. Mass assignment options has been removed from all the AR methods that used it (ex., AR::Base.create, AR::Base#update_attributes, etc).

    Guillermo Iguaran

  • Fix the return of querying with an empty hash. Fix #6971.

    User.where(token: {})


    #=> SELECT * FROM users;


    #=> SELECT * FROM users WHERE 1 = 2;

    Damien Mathieu

  • Fix creation of through association models when using collection=[] on a has_many :through association from an unsaved model. Fix #7661.

    Ernie Miller

  • Explain only normal CRUD sql (select / update / insert / delete). Fix problem that explains unexplainable sql. Closes #7544 #6458.


  • You can now override the generated accessor methods for stored attributes and reuse the original behavior with read_store_attribute and write_store_attribute, which are counterparts to read_attribute and write_attribute.

    Matt Jones

  • Accept belongs_to (including polymorphic) association keys in queries.

    The following queries are now equivalent:

    Post.where(author: author)
    Post.where(author_id: author)
    PriceEstimate.where(estimate_of: treasure)
    PriceEstimate.where(estimate_of_type: 'Treasure', estimate_of_id: treasure)

    Peter Brown

  • Use native mysqldump command instead of structure_dump method when dumping the database structure to a sql file. Fixes #5547.


  • PostgreSQL inet and cidr types are converted to IPAddr objects.

    Dan McClain

  • PostgreSQL array type support. Any datatype can be used to create an array column, with full migration and schema dumper support.

    To declare an array column, use the following syntax:

    create_table :table_with_arrays do |t|
      t.integer :int_array, array: true
      # integer[]
      t.integer :int_array, array: true, length: 2
      # smallint[]
      t.string :string_array, array: true, length: 30
      # char varying(30)[]

    This respects any other migration detail (limits, defaults, etc). Active Record will serialize and deserialize the array columns on their way to and from the database.

    One thing to note: PostgreSQL does not enforce any limits on the number of elements, and any array can be multi-dimensional. Any array that is multi-dimensional must be rectangular (each sub array must have the same number of elements as its siblings).

    If the pg_array_parser gem is available, it will be used when parsing PostgreSQL's array representation.

    Dan McClain

  • Attribute predicate methods, such as article.title?, will now raise ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError if the attribute being queried for truthiness was not read from the database, instead of just returning false.

    Ernie Miller

  • ActiveRecord::SchemaDumper uses Ruby 1.9 style hash, which means that the schema.rb file will be generated using this new syntax from now on.

    Konstantin Shabanov

  • Map interval with precision to string datatype in PostgreSQL. Fixes #7518.

    Yves Senn

  • Fix eagerly loading associations without primary keys. Fixes #4976.

    Kelley Reynolds

  • Rails now raise an exception when you're trying to run a migration that has an invalid file name. Only lower case letters, numbers, and '_' are allowed in migration's file name. Please see #7419 for more details.

    Jan Bernacki

  • Fix bug when calling store_accessor multiple times. Fixes #7532.

    Matt Jones

  • Fix store attributes that show the changes incorrectly. Fixes #7532.

    Matt Jones

  • Fix ActiveRecord::Relation#pluck when columns or tables are reserved words.

    Ian Lesperance

  • Allow JSON columns to be created in PostgreSQL and properly encoded/decoded. to/from database.

    Dickson S. Guedes

  • Fix time column type casting for invalid time string values to correctly return nil.

    Adam Meehan

  • Allow to pass Symbol or Proc into :limit option of #accepts_nested_attributes_for.

    Mikhail Dieterle

  • ActiveRecord::SessionStore has been extracted from Active Record as activerecord-session_store gem. Please read the file on the gem for the usage.

    Prem Sichanugrist

  • Fix reset_counters when there are multiple belongs_to association with the same foreign key and one of them have a counter cache. Fixes #5200.

    Dave Desrochers

  • serialized_attributes and _attr_readonly become class method only. Instance reader methods are deprecated.


  • Round usec when comparing timestamp attributes in the dirty tracking. Fixes #6975.


  • Use inversed parent for first and last child of has_many association.

    Ravil Bayramgalin

  • Fix Column.microseconds and Column.fast_string_to_date to avoid converting timestamp seconds to a float, since it occasionally results in inaccuracies with microsecond-precision times. Fixes #7352.

    Ari Pollak

  • Fix AR#dup to nullify the validation errors in the dup'ed object. Previously the original and the dup'ed object shared the same errors.

    Christian Seiler

  • Raise ArgumentError if list of attributes to change is empty in update_all.

    Roman Shatsov

  • Fix AR#create to return an unsaved record when AR::RecordInvalid is raised. Fixes #3217.

    Dave Yeu

  • Fixed table name prefix that is generated in engines for namespaced models.

    Wojciech Wnętrzak

  • Make sure :environment task is executed before db:schema:load or db:structure:load. Fixes #4772.

    Seamus Abshere

  • Allow Relation#merge to take a proc.

    This was requested by DHH to allow creating of one's own custom association macros.

    For example:

    module Commentable
      def has_many_comments(extra)
        has_many :comments, -> { where(:foo).merge(extra) }
    class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      extend Commentable
      has_many_comments -> { where(:bar) }

    Jon Leighton

  • Add CollectionProxy#scope.

    This can be used to get a Relation from an association.

    Previously we had a #scoped method, but we're deprecating that for AR::Base, so it doesn't make sense to have it here.

    This was requested by DHH, to facilitate code like this:

    Project.scope.order('created_at DESC').page(current_page).tagged_with(@tag).limit(5).scoping do
      @topics      = @project.topics.scope
      @todolists   = @project.todolists.scope
      @attachments = @project.attachments.scope
      @documents   = @project.documents.scope

    Jon Leighton

  • Add Relation#load.

    This method explicitly loads the records and then returns self.

    Rather than deciding between "do I want an array or a relation?", most people are actually asking themselves "do I want to eager load or lazy load?" Therefore, this method provides a way to explicitly eager-load without having to switch from a Relation to an array.


    @posts = Post.where(published: true).load

    Jon Leighton

  • Relation#order: make new order prepend old one.

    User.order("name asc").order("created_at desc")
    # SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY created_at desc, name asc

    This also affects order defined in default_scope or any kind of associations.

    Bogdan Gusiev

  • Model.all now returns an ActiveRecord::Relation, rather than an array of records. Use Relation#to_a if you really want an array.

    In some specific cases, this may cause breakage when upgrading. However in most cases the ActiveRecord::Relation will just act as a lazy-loaded array and there will be no problems.

    Note that calling Model.all with options (e.g. Model.all(conditions: '...') was already deprecated, but it will still return an array in order to make the transition easier.

    Model.scoped is deprecated in favour of Model.all.

    Relation#all still returns an array, but is deprecated (since it would serve no purpose if we made it return a Relation).

    Jon Leighton

  • :finder_sql and :counter_sql options on collection associations are deprecated. Please transition to using scopes.

    Jon Leighton

  • :insert_sql and :delete_sql options on has_and_belongs_to_many associations are deprecated. Please transition to using has_many :through.

    Jon Leighton

  • Added #update_columns method which updates the attributes from the passed-in hash without calling save, hence skipping validations and callbacks. ActiveRecordError will be raised when called on new objects or when at least one of the attributes is marked as read only.

    post.attributes # => {"id"=>2, "title"=>"My title", "body"=>"My content", "author"=>"Peter"}
    post.update_columns(title: 'New title', author: 'Sebastian') # => true
    post.attributes # => {"id"=>2, "title"=>"New title", "body"=>"My content", "author"=>"Sebastian"}

    Sebastian Martinez + Rafael Mendonça França

  • The migration generator now creates a join table with (commented) indexes every time the migration name contains the word join_table:

    rails g migration create_join_table_for_artists_and_musics artist_id:index music_id

    Aleksey Magusev

  • Add add_reference and remove_reference schema statements. Aliases, add_belongs_to and remove_belongs_to are acceptable. References are reversible.


    # Create a user_id column
    add_reference(:products, :user)
    # Create a supplier_id, supplier_type columns and appropriate index
    add_reference(:products, :supplier, polymorphic: true, index: true)
    # Remove polymorphic reference
    remove_reference(:products, :supplier, polymorphic: true)

    Aleksey Magusev

  • Add :default and :null options to column_exists?.

    column_exists?(:testings, :taggable_id, :integer, null: false)
    column_exists?(:testings, :taggable_type, :string, default: 'Photo')

    Aleksey Magusev

  • ActiveRecord::Relation#inspect now makes it clear that you are dealing with a Relation object rather than an array:.

    User.where(age: 30).inspect
    # => <ActiveRecord::Relation [#<User ...>, #<User ...>, ...]>
    User.where(age: 30).to_a.inspect
    # => [#<User ...>, #<User ...>]

    The number of records displayed will be limited to 10.

    Brian Cardarella, Jon Leighton & Damien Mathieu

  • Add collation and ctype support to PostgreSQL. These are available for PostgreSQL 8.4 or later. Example:

      adapter: postgresql
      host: localhost
      database: rails_development
      username: foo
      password: bar
      encoding: UTF8
      collation: ja_JP.UTF8
      ctype: ja_JP.UTF8


  • Changed validates_presence_of on an association so that children objects do not validate as being present if they are marked for destruction. This prevents you from saving the parent successfully and thus putting the parent in an invalid state.

    Nick Monje & Brent Wheeldon

  • FinderMethods#exists? now returns false with the false argument.

    Egor Lynko

  • Added support for specifying the precision of a timestamp in the postgresql adapter. So, instead of having to incorrectly specify the precision using the :limit option, you may use :precision, as intended. For example, in a migration:

    def change
      create_table :foobars do |t|
        t.timestamps :precision => 0

    Tony Schneider

  • Allow ActiveRecord::Relation#pluck to accept multiple columns. Returns an array of arrays containing the typecasted values:

    Person.pluck(:id, :name)
    # SELECT, FROM people
    # [[1, 'David'], [2, 'Jeremy'], [3, 'Jose']]

    Jeroen van Ingen & Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • Improve the derivation of HABTM join table name to take account of nesting. It now takes the table names of the two models, sorts them lexically and then joins them, stripping any common prefix from the second table name.

    Some examples:

    Top level models (Category <=> Product)
    Old: categories_products
    New: categories_products
    Top level models with a global table_name_prefix (Category <=> Product)
    Old: site_categories_products
    New: site_categories_products
    Nested models in a module without a table_name_prefix method (Admin::Category <=> Admin::Product)
    Old: categories_products
    New: categories_products
    Nested models in a module with a table_name_prefix method (Admin::Category <=> Admin::Product)
    Old: categories_products
    New: admin_categories_products
    Nested models in a parent model (Catalog::Category <=> Catalog::Product)
    Old: categories_products
    New: catalog_categories_products
    Nested models in different parent models (Catalog::Category <=> Content::Page)
    Old: categories_pages
    New: catalog_categories_content_pages

    Andrew White

  • Move HABTM validity checks to ActiveRecord::Reflection. One side effect of this is to move when the exceptions are raised from the point of declaration to when the association is built. This is consistant with other association validity checks.

    Andrew White

  • Added stored_attributes hash which contains the attributes stored using ActiveRecord::Store. This allows you to retrieve the list of attributes you've defined.

    class User < ActiveRecord::Base store :settings, accessors: [:color, :homepage] end

    User.stored_attributes[:settings] # [:color, :homepage]

    Joost Baaij & Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • PostgreSQL default log level is now 'warning', to bypass the noisy notice messages. You can change the log level using the min_messages option available in your config/database.yml.


  • Add uuid datatype support to PostgreSQL adapter.

    Konstantin Shabanov

  • Added ActiveRecord::Migration.check_pending! that raises an error if migrations are pending.

    Richard Schneeman

  • Added #destroy! which acts like #destroy but will raise an ActiveRecord::RecordNotDestroyed exception instead of returning false.

    Marc-André Lafortune

  • Allow blocks for count with ActiveRecord::Relation, to work similar as Array#count:

    Person.where("age > 26").count { |person| person.gender == 'female' }

    Chris Finne & Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • Added support to CollectionAssociation#delete for passing fixnum or string values as record ids. This finds the records responding to the id and executes delete on them.

    class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
      has_many :pets
    person.pets.delete("1") # => [#<Pet id: 1>]
    person.pets.delete(2, 3) # => [#<Pet id: 2>, #<Pet id: 3>]

    Francesco Rodriguez

  • Deprecated most of the 'dynamic finder' methods. All dynamic methods except for find_by_... and find_by_...! are deprecated. Here's how you can rewrite the code:

    • find_all_by_... can be rewritten using where(...)
    • find_last_by_... can be rewritten using where(...).last
    • scoped_by_... can be rewritten using where(...)
    • find_or_initialize_by_... can be rewritten using where(...).first_or_initialize
    • find_or_create_by_... can be rewritten using find_or_create_by(...) or where(...).first_or_create`
    • find_or_create_by_...! can be rewritten using find_or_create_by!(...) orwhere(...).first_or_create!`

    The implementation of the deprecated dynamic finders has been moved to the activerecord-deprecated_finders gem. See below for details.

    Jon Leighton

  • Deprecated the old-style hash based finder API. This means that methods which previously accepted "finder options" no longer do. For example this:

    Post.find(:all, conditions: { comments_count: 10 }, limit: 5)

    Should be rewritten in the new style which has existed since Rails 3:

    Post.where(comments_count: 10).limit(5)

    Note that as an interim step, it is possible to rewrite the above as:

    Post.all.merge(where: { comments_count: 10 }, limit: 5)

    This could save you a lot of work if there is a lot of old-style finder usage in your application.

    Relation#merge now accepts a hash of options, but they must be identical to the names of the equivalent finder method. These are mostly identical to the old-style finder option names, except in the following cases:

    • :conditions becomes :where.
    • :include becomes :includes.
    • :extend becomes :extending.

    The code to implement the deprecated features has been moved out to the activerecord-deprecated_finders gem. This gem is a dependency of Active Record in Rails 4.0. It will no longer be a dependency from Rails 4.1, but if your app relies on the deprecated features then you can add it to your own Gemfile. It will be maintained by the Rails core team until Rails 5.0 is released.

    Jon Leighton

  • It's not possible anymore to destroy a model marked as read only.

    Johannes Barre

  • Added ability to ActiveRecord::Relation#from to accept other ActiveRecord::Relation objects.

    Record.from(subquery) Record.from(subquery, :a)

    Radoslav Stankov

  • Added custom coders support for ActiveRecord::Store. Now you can set your custom coder like this:

    store :settings, accessors: [ :color, :homepage ], coder: JSON

    Andrey Voronkov

  • mysql and mysql2 connections will set SQL_MODE=STRICT_ALL_TABLES by default to avoid silent data loss. This can be disabled by specifying strict: false in your database.yml.

    Michael Pearson

  • Added default order to first to assure consistent results among different database engines. Introduced take as a replacement to the old behavior of first.

    Marcelo Silveira

  • Added an :index option to automatically create indexes for references and belongs_to statements in migrations.

    The references and belongs_to methods now support an index option that receives either a boolean value or an options hash that is identical to options available to the add_index method:

    create_table :messages do |t| t.references :person, index: true end

    Is the same as:

    create_table :messages do |t| t.references :person end add_index :messages, :person_id

    Generators have also been updated to use the new syntax.

    Joshua Wood

  • Added bang methods for mutating ActiveRecord::Relation objects. For example, while foo.where(:bar) will return a new object leaving foo unchanged, foo.where!(:bar) will mutate the foo object

    Jon Leighton

  • Added #find_by and #find_by! to mirror the functionality provided by dynamic finders in a way that allows dynamic input more easily:

    Post.find_by name: 'Spartacus', rating: 4
    Post.find_by "published_at < ?", 2.weeks.ago
    Post.find_by! name: 'Spartacus'

    Jon Leighton

  • Added ActiveRecord::Base#slice to return a hash of the given methods with their names as keys and returned values as values.

    Guillermo Iguaran

  • Deprecate eager-evaluated scopes.

    Don't use this:

    scope :red, where(color: 'red')
    default_scope where(color: 'red')

    Use this:

    scope :red, -> { where(color: 'red') }
    default_scope { where(color: 'red') }

    The former has numerous issues. It is a common newbie gotcha to do the following:

    scope :recent, where(published_at: - 2.weeks)

    Or a more subtle variant:

    scope :recent, -> { where(published_at: - 2.weeks) }
    scope :recent_red, recent.where(color: 'red')

    Eager scopes are also very complex to implement within Active Record, and there are still bugs. For example, the following does not do what you expect:

    scope :remove_conditions, except(:where)
    where(...).remove_conditions # => still has conditions

    Jon Leighton

  • Remove IdentityMap

    IdentityMap has never graduated to be an "enabled-by-default" feature, due to some inconsistencies with associations, as described in this commit:

    Hence the removal from the codebase, until such issues are fixed.

    Carlos Antonio da Silva

  • Added the schema cache dump feature.

    Schema cache dump feature was implemetend. This feature can dump/load internal state of SchemaCache instance because we want to boot rails more quickly when we have many models.

    Usage notes:

    1. execute rake task. RAILS_ENV=production bundle exec rake db:schema:cache:dump => generate db/schema_cache.dump

    2. add config.active_record.use_schema_cache_dump = true in config/production.rb. BTW, true is default.

    3. boot rails. RAILS_ENV=production bundle exec rails server => use db/schema_cache.dump

    4. If you remove clear dumped cache, execute rake task. RAILS_ENV=production bundle exec rake db:schema:cache:clear => remove db/schema_cache.dump


  • Added support for partial indices to PostgreSQL adapter.

    The add_index method now supports a where option that receives a string with the partial index criteria.

    add_index(:accounts, :code, where: 'active')
    CREATE INDEX index_accounts_on_code ON accounts(code) WHERE active

    Marcelo Silveira

  • Implemented ActiveRecord::Relation#none method.

    The none method returns a chainable relation with zero records (an instance of the NullRelation class).

    Any subsequent condition chained to the returned relation will continue generating an empty relation and will not fire any query to the database.

    Juanjo Bazán

  • Added the ActiveRecord::NullRelation class implementing the null object pattern for the Relation class.

    Juanjo Bazán

  • Added new dependent: :restrict_with_error option. This will add an error to the model, rather than raising an exception.

    The :restrict option is renamed to :restrict_with_exception to make this distinction explicit.

    Manoj Kumar & Jon Leighton

  • Added create_join_table migration helper to create HABTM join tables.

    create_join_table :products, :categories
    # =>
    # create_table :categories_products, id: false do |td|
    #   td.integer :product_id,  null: false
    #   td.integer :category_id, null: false
    # end

    Rafael Mendonça França

  • The primary key is always initialized in the @attributes hash to nil (unless another value has been specified).

    Aaron Paterson

  • In previous releases, the following would generate a single query with an OUTER JOIN comments, rather than two separate queries:

        .where(" = 'foo'")

    This behaviour relies on matching SQL string, which is an inherently flawed idea unless we write an SQL parser, which we do not wish to do.

    Therefore, it is now deprecated.

    To avoid deprecation warnings and for future compatibility, you must explicitly state which tables you reference, when using SQL snippets:

        .where(" = 'foo'")

    Note that you do not need to explicitly specify references in the following cases, as they can be automatically inferred:

    Post.where(comments: { name: 'foo' })
    Post.where('' => 'foo')

    You also do not need to worry about this unless you are doing eager loading. Basically, don't worry unless you see a deprecation warning or (in future releases) an SQL error due to a missing JOIN.

    Jon Leighton

  • Support for the schema_info table has been dropped. Please switch to schema_migrations.

    Aaron Patterson

  • Connections must be closed at the end of a thread. If not, your connection pool can fill and an exception will be raised.

    Aaron Patterson

  • PostgreSQL hstore records can be created.

    Aaron Patterson

  • PostgreSQL hstore types are automatically deserialized from the database.

    Aaron Patterson

Please check 3-2-stable for previous changes.