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require 'active_support/core_ext/class'
module ActionMailer #:nodoc:
# Action Mailer allows you to send email from your application using a mailer model and views.
#
#
# = Mailer Models
#
# To use Action Mailer, you need to create a mailer model.
#
# $ script/generate mailer Notifier
#
# The generated model inherits from ActionMailer::Base. Emails are defined by creating methods within the model which are then
# used to set variables to be used in the mail template, to change options on the mail, or
# to add attachments.
#
# Examples:
#
# class Notifier < ActionMailer::Base
# def signup_notification(recipient)
# recipients recipient.email_address_with_name
# bcc ["bcc@example.com", "Order Watcher <watcher@example.com>"]
# from "system@example.com"
# subject "New account information"
# body :account => recipient
# end
# end
#
# Mailer methods have the following configuration methods available.
#
# * <tt>recipients</tt> - Takes one or more email addresses. These addresses are where your email will be delivered to. Sets the <tt>To:</tt> header.
# * <tt>subject</tt> - The subject of your email. Sets the <tt>Subject:</tt> header.
# * <tt>from</tt> - Who the email you are sending is from. Sets the <tt>From:</tt> header.
# * <tt>cc</tt> - Takes one or more email addresses. These addresses will receive a carbon copy of your email. Sets the <tt>Cc:</tt> header.
# * <tt>bcc</tt> - Takes one or more email addresses. These addresses will receive a blind carbon copy of your email. Sets the <tt>Bcc:</tt> header.
# * <tt>reply_to</tt> - Takes one or more email addresses. These addresses will be listed as the default recipients when replying to your email. Sets the <tt>Reply-To:</tt> header.
# * <tt>sent_on</tt> - The date on which the message was sent. If not set, the header wil be set by the delivery agent.
# * <tt>content_type</tt> - Specify the content type of the message. Defaults to <tt>text/plain</tt>.
# * <tt>headers</tt> - Specify additional headers to be set for the message, e.g. <tt>headers 'X-Mail-Count' => 107370</tt>.
#
# When a <tt>headers 'return-path'</tt> is specified, that value will be used as the 'envelope from'
# address. Setting this is useful when you want delivery notifications sent to a different address than
# the one in <tt>from</tt>.
#
# The <tt>body</tt> method has special behavior. It takes a hash which generates an instance variable
# named after each key in the hash containing the value that that key points to.
#
# So, for example, <tt>body :account => recipient</tt> would result
# in an instance variable <tt>@account</tt> with the value of <tt>recipient</tt> being accessible in the
# view.
#
#
# = Mailer views
#
# Like Action Controller, each mailer class has a corresponding view directory
# in which each method of the class looks for a template with its name.
# To define a template to be used with a mailing, create an <tt>.erb</tt> file with the same name as the method
# in your mailer model. For example, in the mailer defined above, the template at
# <tt>app/views/notifier/signup_notification.erb</tt> would be used to generate the email.
#
# Variables defined in the model are accessible as instance variables in the view.
#
# Emails by default are sent in plain text, so a sample view for our model example might look like this:
#
# Hi <%= @account.name %>,
# Thanks for joining our service! Please check back often.
#
# You can even use Action Pack helpers in these views. For example:
#
# You got a new note!
# <%= truncate(note.body, 25) %>
#
#
# = Generating URLs
#
# URLs can be generated in mailer views using <tt>url_for</tt> or named routes.
# Unlike controllers from Action Pack, the mailer instance doesn't have any context about the incoming request,
# so you'll need to provide all of the details needed to generate a URL.
#
# When using <tt>url_for</tt> you'll need to provide the <tt>:host</tt>, <tt>:controller</tt>, and <tt>:action</tt>:
#
# <%= url_for(:host => "example.com", :controller => "welcome", :action => "greeting") %>
#
# When using named routes you only need to supply the <tt>:host</tt>:
#
# <%= users_url(:host => "example.com") %>
#
# You will want to avoid using the <tt>name_of_route_path</tt> form of named routes because it doesn't make sense to
# generate relative URLs in email messages.
#
# It is also possible to set a default host that will be used in all mailers by setting the <tt>:host</tt> option in
# the <tt>ActionMailer::Base.default_url_options</tt> hash as follows:
#
# ActionMailer::Base.default_url_options[:host] = "example.com"
#
# This can also be set as a configuration option in <tt>config/environment.rb</tt>:
#
# config.action_mailer.default_url_options = { :host => "example.com" }
#
# If you do decide to set a default <tt>:host</tt> for your mailers you will want to use the
# <tt>:only_path => false</tt> option when using <tt>url_for</tt>. This will ensure that absolute URLs are generated because
# the <tt>url_for</tt> view helper will, by default, generate relative URLs when a <tt>:host</tt> option isn't
# explicitly provided.
#
# = Sending mail
#
# Once a mailer action and template are defined, you can deliver your message or create it and save it
# for delivery later:
#
# Notifier.deliver_signup_notification(david) # sends the email
# mail = Notifier.create_signup_notification(david) # => a tmail object
# Notifier.deliver(mail)
#
# You never instantiate your mailer class. Rather, your delivery instance
# methods are automatically wrapped in class methods that start with the word
# <tt>deliver_</tt> followed by the name of the mailer method that you would
# like to deliver. The <tt>signup_notification</tt> method defined above is
# delivered by invoking <tt>Notifier.deliver_signup_notification</tt>.
#
#
# = HTML email
#
# To send mail as HTML, make sure your view (the <tt>.erb</tt> file) generates HTML and
# set the content type to html.
#
# class MyMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# def signup_notification(recipient)
# recipients recipient.email_address_with_name
# subject "New account information"
# from "system@example.com"
# body :account => recipient
# content_type "text/html"
# end
# end
#
#
# = Multipart email
#
# You can explicitly specify multipart messages:
#
# class ApplicationMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# def signup_notification(recipient)
# recipients recipient.email_address_with_name
# subject "New account information"
# from "system@example.com"
# content_type "multipart/alternative"
#
# part :content_type => "text/html",
# :body => render_message("signup-as-html", :account => recipient)
#
# part "text/plain" do |p|
# p.body = render_message("signup-as-plain", :account => recipient)
# p.transfer_encoding = "base64"
# end
# end
# end
#
# Multipart messages can also be used implicitly because Action Mailer will automatically
# detect and use multipart templates, where each template is named after the name of the action, followed
# by the content type. Each such detected template will be added as separate part to the message.
#
# For example, if the following templates existed:
# * signup_notification.text.plain.erb
# * signup_notification.text.html.erb
# * signup_notification.text.xml.builder
# * signup_notification.text.x-yaml.erb
#
# Each would be rendered and added as a separate part to the message,
# with the corresponding content type. The content type for the entire
# message is automatically set to <tt>multipart/alternative</tt>, which indicates
# that the email contains multiple different representations of the same email
# body. The same body hash is passed to each template.
#
# Implicit template rendering is not performed if any attachments or parts have been added to the email.
# This means that you'll have to manually add each part to the email and set the content type of the email
# to <tt>multipart/alternative</tt>.
#
# = Attachments
#
# Attachments can be added by using the +attachment+ method.
#
# Example:
#
# class ApplicationMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# # attachments
# def signup_notification(recipient)
# recipients recipient.email_address_with_name
# subject "New account information"
# from "system@example.com"
#
# attachment :content_type => "image/jpeg",
# :body => File.read("an-image.jpg")
#
# attachment "application/pdf" do |a|
# a.body = generate_your_pdf_here()
# end
# end
# end
#
#
# = Configuration options
#
# These options are specified on the class level, like <tt>ActionMailer::Base.template_root = "/my/templates"</tt>
#
# * <tt>template_root</tt> - Determines the base from which template references will be made.
#
# * <tt>logger</tt> - the logger is used for generating information on the mailing run if available.
# Can be set to nil for no logging. Compatible with both Ruby's own Logger and Log4r loggers.
#
# * <tt>smtp_settings</tt> - Allows detailed configuration for <tt>:smtp</tt> delivery method:
# * <tt>:address</tt> - Allows you to use a remote mail server. Just change it from its default "localhost" setting.
# * <tt>:port</tt> - On the off chance that your mail server doesn't run on port 25, you can change it.
# * <tt>:domain</tt> - If you need to specify a HELO domain, you can do it here.
# * <tt>:user_name</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, set the username in this setting.
# * <tt>:password</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, set the password in this setting.
# * <tt>:authentication</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, you need to specify the authentication type here.
# This is a symbol and one of <tt>:plain</tt>, <tt>:login</tt>, <tt>:cram_md5</tt>.
# * <tt>:enable_starttls_auto</tt> - When set to true, detects if STARTTLS is enabled in your SMTP server and starts to use it.
# It works only on Ruby >= 1.8.7 and Ruby >= 1.9. Default is true.
#
# * <tt>sendmail_settings</tt> - Allows you to override options for the <tt>:sendmail</tt> delivery method.
# * <tt>:location</tt> - The location of the sendmail executable. Defaults to <tt>/usr/sbin/sendmail</tt>.
# * <tt>:arguments</tt> - The command line arguments. Defaults to <tt>-i -t</tt>.
#
# * <tt>file_settings</tt> - Allows you to override options for the <tt>:file</tt> delivery method.
# * <tt>:location</tt> - The directory into which emails will be written. Defaults to the application <tt>tmp/mails</tt>.
#
# * <tt>raise_delivery_errors</tt> - Whether or not errors should be raised if the email fails to be delivered.
#
# * <tt>delivery_method</tt> - Defines a delivery method. Possible values are <tt>:smtp</tt> (default), <tt>:sendmail</tt>, <tt>:test</tt>,
# and <tt>:file</tt>. Or you may provide a custom delivery method object eg. MyOwnDeliveryMethodClass.new
#
# * <tt>perform_deliveries</tt> - Determines whether <tt>deliver_*</tt> methods are actually carried out. By default they are,
# but this can be turned off to help functional testing.
#
# * <tt>deliveries</tt> - Keeps an array of all the emails sent out through the Action Mailer with <tt>delivery_method :test</tt>. Most useful
# for unit and functional testing.
#
# * <tt>default_charset</tt> - The default charset used for the body and to encode the subject. Defaults to UTF-8. You can also
# pick a different charset from inside a method with +charset+.
#
# * <tt>default_content_type</tt> - The default content type used for the main part of the message. Defaults to "text/plain". You
# can also pick a different content type from inside a method with +content_type+.
#
# * <tt>default_mime_version</tt> - The default mime version used for the message. Defaults to <tt>1.0</tt>. You
# can also pick a different value from inside a method with +mime_version+.
#
# * <tt>default_implicit_parts_order</tt> - When a message is built implicitly (i.e. multiple parts are assembled from templates
# which specify the content type in their filenames) this variable controls how the parts are ordered. Defaults to
# <tt>["text/html", "text/enriched", "text/plain"]</tt>. Items that appear first in the array have higher priority in the mail client
# and appear last in the mime encoded message. You can also pick a different order from inside a method with
# +implicit_parts_order+.
class Base
include AdvAttrAccessor, Quoting
include AbstractController::RenderingController
include AbstractController::LocalizedCache
include AbstractController::Layouts
include AbstractController::Helpers
helper ActionMailer::MailHelper
if Object.const_defined?(:ActionController)
include ActionController::UrlWriter
end
include ActionMailer::DeprecatedBody
private_class_method :new #:nodoc:
class_inheritable_accessor :view_paths
self.view_paths = []
cattr_accessor :logger
@@raise_delivery_errors = true
cattr_accessor :raise_delivery_errors
@@perform_deliveries = true
cattr_accessor :perform_deliveries
@@deliveries = []
cattr_accessor :deliveries
@@default_charset = "utf-8"
cattr_accessor :default_charset
@@default_content_type = "text/plain"
cattr_accessor :default_content_type
@@default_mime_version = "1.0"
cattr_accessor :default_mime_version
@@default_implicit_parts_order = [ "text/html", "text/enriched", "text/plain" ]
cattr_accessor :default_implicit_parts_order
@@protected_instance_variables = []
cattr_reader :protected_instance_variables
# Specify the BCC addresses for the message
adv_attr_accessor :bcc
# Specify the CC addresses for the message.
adv_attr_accessor :cc
# Specify the charset to use for the message. This defaults to the
# +default_charset+ specified for ActionMailer::Base.
adv_attr_accessor :charset
# Specify the content type for the message. This defaults to <tt>text/plain</tt>
# in most cases, but can be automatically set in some situations.
adv_attr_accessor :content_type
# Specify the from address for the message.
adv_attr_accessor :from
# Specify the address (if different than the "from" address) to direct
# replies to this message.
adv_attr_accessor :reply_to
# Specify additional headers to be added to the message.
adv_attr_accessor :headers
# Specify the order in which parts should be sorted, based on content-type.
# This defaults to the value for the +default_implicit_parts_order+.
adv_attr_accessor :implicit_parts_order
# Defaults to "1.0", but may be explicitly given if needed.
adv_attr_accessor :mime_version
# The recipient addresses for the message, either as a string (for a single
# address) or an array (for multiple addresses).
adv_attr_accessor :recipients
# The date on which the message was sent. If not set (the default), the
# header will be set by the delivery agent.
adv_attr_accessor :sent_on
# Specify the subject of the message.
adv_attr_accessor :subject
# Specify the template name to use for current message. This is the "base"
# template name, without the extension or directory, and may be used to
# have multiple mailer methods share the same template.
adv_attr_accessor :template
# The mail and action_name instances referenced by this mailer.
attr_reader :mail, :action_name
# Where the response body is stored.
attr_internal :response_body
# Override the mailer name, which defaults to an inflected version of the
# mailer's class name. If you want to use a template in a non-standard
# location, you can use this to specify that location.
attr_writer :mailer_name
def mailer_name(value = nil)
if value
@mailer_name = value
else
@mailer_name || self.class.mailer_name
end
end
# Alias controller_path to mailer_name so render :partial in views work.
alias :controller_path :mailer_name
# Add a part to a multipart message, with the given content-type. The
# part itself is yielded to the block so that other properties (charset,
# body, headers, etc.) can be set on it.
def part(params)
params = {:content_type => params} if String === params
if custom_headers = params.delete(:headers)
ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn('Passing custom headers with :headers => {} is deprecated. ' <<
'Please just pass in custom headers directly.', caller[0,10])
params.merge!(custom_headers)
end
part = Mail::Part.new(params)
yield part if block_given?
@parts << part
end
# Add an attachment to a multipart message. This is simply a part with the
# content-disposition set to "attachment".
def attachment(params, &block)
params = { :content_type => params } if String === params
params = { :content_disposition => "attachment",
:content_transfer_encoding => "base64" }.merge(params)
if params[:body]
ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn('attachment :body => "string" is deprecated. To set the body of an attachment ' <<
'please use :data instead, like attachment :data => "string".', caller[0,10])
params[:data] = params.delete(:body)
end
part(params, &block)
end
class << self
attr_writer :mailer_name
delegate :settings, :settings=, :to => ActionMailer::DeliveryMethod::File, :prefix => :file
delegate :settings, :settings=, :to => ActionMailer::DeliveryMethod::Sendmail, :prefix => :sendmail
delegate :settings, :settings=, :to => ActionMailer::DeliveryMethod::Smtp, :prefix => :smtp
def mailer_name
@mailer_name ||= name.underscore
end
def delivery_method=(method_name)
@delivery_method = ActionMailer::DeliveryMethod.lookup_method(method_name)
end
def respond_to?(method_symbol, include_private = false) #:nodoc:
matches_dynamic_method?(method_symbol) || super
end
def method_missing(method_symbol, *parameters) #:nodoc:
if match = matches_dynamic_method?(method_symbol)
case match[1]
when 'create' then new(match[2], *parameters).mail
when 'deliver' then new(match[2], *parameters).deliver!
when 'new' then nil
else super
end
else
super
end
end
# Receives a raw email, parses it into an email object, decodes it,
# instantiates a new mailer, and passes the email object to the mailer
# object's +receive+ method. If you want your mailer to be able to
# process incoming messages, you'll need to implement a +receive+
# method that accepts the email object as a parameter:
#
# class MyMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# def receive(mail)
# ...
# end
# end
def receive(raw_email)
logger.info "Received mail:\n #{raw_email}" unless logger.nil?
mail = Mail.new(raw_email)
new.receive(mail)
end
# Deliver the given mail object directly. This can be used to deliver
# a preconstructed mail object, like:
#
# email = MyMailer.create_some_mail(parameters)
# email.set_some_obscure_header "frobnicate"
# MyMailer.deliver(email)
def deliver(mail)
new.deliver!(mail)
end
def template_root
self.view_paths && self.view_paths.first
end
# Should template root overwrite the whole view_paths?
def template_root=(root)
self.view_paths = ActionView::Base.process_view_paths(root)
end
private
def matches_dynamic_method?(method_name) #:nodoc:
method_name = method_name.to_s
/^(create|deliver)_([_a-z]\w*)/.match(method_name) || /^(new)$/.match(method_name)
end
end
# Configure delivery method. Check ActionMailer::DeliveryMethod for more
# instructions.
superclass_delegating_reader :delivery_method
self.delivery_method = :smtp
# Instantiate a new mailer object. If +method_name+ is not +nil+, the mailer
# will be initialized according to the named method. If not, the mailer will
# remain uninitialized (useful when you only need to invoke the "receive"
# method, for instance).
def initialize(method_name=nil, *parameters) #:nodoc:
@_response_body = nil
super()
create!(method_name, *parameters) if method_name
end
# Initialize the mailer via the given +method_name+. The body will be
# rendered and a new Mail object created.
def create!(method_name, *parameters) #:nodoc:
initialize_defaults(method_name)
__send__(method_name, *parameters)
# Create e-mail parts
create_parts
# Set the subject if not set yet
@subject ||= I18n.t(:subject, :scope => [:actionmailer, mailer_name, method_name],
:default => method_name.humanize)
# build the mail object itself
@mail = create_mail
end
# Delivers a Mail object. By default, it delivers the cached mail
# object (from the <tt>create!</tt> method). If no cached mail object exists, and
# no alternate has been given as the parameter, this will fail.
def deliver!(mail = @mail)
raise "no mail object available for delivery!" unless mail
if logger
logger.info "Sent mail to #{Array(recipients).join(', ')}"
logger.debug "\n#{mail.encoded}"
end
ActiveSupport::Notifications.instrument(:deliver_mail, :mail => @mail) do
begin
self.delivery_method.perform_delivery(mail) if perform_deliveries
rescue Exception => e # Net::SMTP errors or sendmail pipe errors
raise e if raise_delivery_errors
end
end
mail
end
private
# Set up the default values for the various instance variables of this
# mailer. Subclasses may override this method to provide different
# defaults.
def initialize_defaults(method_name)
@charset ||= @@default_charset.dup
@content_type ||= @@default_content_type.dup
@implicit_parts_order ||= @@default_implicit_parts_order.dup
@mime_version ||= @@default_mime_version.dup if @@default_mime_version
@mailer_name ||= self.class.mailer_name
@template ||= method_name
@action_name = @template
@parts ||= []
@headers ||= {}
@sent_on ||= Time.now
ActiveSupport::Deprecation.silence do
super # Run deprecation hooks
end
end
def create_parts
ActiveSupport::Deprecation.silence do
super # Run deprecation hooks
end
if String === response_body
@parts.unshift Mail::Part.new(
:content_type => ["text", "plain", {:charset => charset}],
:content_disposition => "inline",
:body => response_body
)
else
self.class.template_root.find_all(@template, {}, mailer_name).each do |template|
ct = template.mime_type ? template.mime_type.to_s : "text/plain"
main_type, sub_type = ct.split("/")
@parts << Mail::Part.new(
:content_type => [main_type, sub_type, {:charset => charset}],
:content_disposition => "inline",
:body => render_to_body(:_template => template)
)
end
if @parts.size > 1
@content_type = "multipart/alternative" if @content_type !~ /^multipart/
@parts = sort_parts(@parts, @implicit_parts_order)
end
# If this is a multipart e-mail add the mime_version if it is not
# already set.
@mime_version ||= "1.0" if !@parts.empty?
end
end
def sort_parts(parts, order = [])
order = order.collect { |s| s.downcase }
parts = parts.sort do |a, b|
a_ct = a.content_type.string.downcase
b_ct = b.content_type.string.downcase
a_in = order.include? a_ct
b_in = order.include? b_ct
s = case
when a_in && b_in
order.index(a_ct) <=> order.index(b_ct)
when a_in
-1
when b_in
1
else
a_ct <=> b_ct
end
# reverse the ordering because parts that come last are displayed
# first in mail clients
(s * -1)
end
parts
end
def create_mail
m = Mail.new
m.subject, = quote_any_if_necessary(charset, subject)
m.to, m.from = quote_any_address_if_necessary(charset, recipients, from)
m.bcc = quote_address_if_necessary(bcc, charset) unless bcc.nil?
m.cc = quote_address_if_necessary(cc, charset) unless cc.nil?
m.reply_to = quote_address_if_necessary(reply_to, charset) unless reply_to.nil?
m.mime_version = mime_version unless mime_version.nil?
m.date = sent_on.to_time rescue sent_on if sent_on
headers.each { |k, v| m[k] = v }
real_content_type, ctype_attrs = parse_content_type
if @parts.empty?
main_type, sub_type = split_content_type(real_content_type)
m.content_type([main_type, sub_type, ctype_attrs])
m.body = body
elsif @parts.size == 1 && @parts.first.parts.empty?
main_type, sub_type = split_content_type(real_content_type)
m.content_type([main_type, sub_type, ctype_attrs])
m.body = @parts.first.body.encoded
else
@parts.each do |p|
m.add_part(p)
end
if real_content_type =~ /multipart/
ctype_attrs.delete "charset"
main_type, sub_type = split_content_type(real_content_type)
m.content_type([main_type, sub_type, ctype_attrs])
end
end
@mail = m
end
def split_content_type(ct)
ct.to_s.split("/")
end
def parse_content_type(defaults=nil)
if content_type.blank?
return defaults ?
[ defaults.content_type, { 'charset' => defaults.charset } ] :
[ nil, {} ]
end
ctype, *attrs = content_type.split(/;\s*/)
attrs = attrs.inject({}) { |h,s| k,v = s.split(/=/, 2); h[k] = v; h }
[ctype, {"charset" => charset || defaults && defaults.charset}.merge(attrs)]
end
end
end
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