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require 'active_support/core_ext/module/delegation'

module ActiveRecord
  class InverseOfAssociationNotFoundError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(reflection)
      super("Could not find the inverse association for #{reflection.name} (#{reflection.options[:inverse_of].inspect} in #{reflection.class_name})")
    end
  end

  class HasManyThroughAssociationNotFoundError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(owner_class_name, reflection)
      super("Could not find the association #{reflection.options[:through].inspect} in model #{owner_class_name}")
    end
  end

  class HasManyThroughAssociationPolymorphicError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(owner_class_name, reflection, source_reflection)
      super("Cannot have a has_many :through association '#{owner_class_name}##{reflection.name}' on the polymorphic object '#{source_reflection.class_name}##{source_reflection.name}'.")
    end
  end

  class HasManyThroughAssociationPointlessSourceTypeError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(owner_class_name, reflection, source_reflection)
      super("Cannot have a has_many :through association '#{owner_class_name}##{reflection.name}' with a :source_type option if the '#{reflection.through_reflection.class_name}##{source_reflection.name}' is not polymorphic. Try removing :source_type on your association.")
    end
  end

  class HasManyThroughSourceAssociationNotFoundError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(reflection)
      through_reflection = reflection.through_reflection
      source_reflection_names = reflection.source_reflection_names
      source_associations = reflection.through_reflection.klass.reflect_on_all_associations.collect { |a| a.name.inspect }
      super("Could not find the source association(s) #{source_reflection_names.collect(&:inspect).to_sentence(:two_words_connector => ' or ', :last_word_connector => ', or ', :locale => :en)} in model #{through_reflection.klass}. Try 'has_many #{reflection.name.inspect}, :through => #{through_reflection.name.inspect}, :source => <name>'. Is it one of #{source_associations.to_sentence(:two_words_connector => ' or ', :last_word_connector => ', or ', :locale => :en)}?")
    end
  end

  class HasManyThroughSourceAssociationMacroError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(reflection)
      through_reflection = reflection.through_reflection
      source_reflection = reflection.source_reflection
      super("Invalid source reflection macro :#{source_reflection.macro}#{" :through" if source_reflection.options[:through]} for has_many #{reflection.name.inspect}, :through => #{through_reflection.name.inspect}. Use :source to specify the source reflection.")
    end
  end

  class HasManyThroughCantAssociateThroughHasManyReflection < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(owner, reflection)
      super("Cannot modify association '#{owner.class.name}##{reflection.name}' because the source reflection class '#{reflection.source_reflection.class_name}' is associated to '#{reflection.through_reflection.class_name}' via :#{reflection.source_reflection.macro}.")
    end
  end
  class HasManyThroughCantAssociateNewRecords < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(owner, reflection)
      super("Cannot associate new records through '#{owner.class.name}##{reflection.name}' on '#{reflection.source_reflection.class_name rescue nil}##{reflection.source_reflection.name rescue nil}'. Both records must have an id in order to create the has_many :through record associating them.")
    end
  end

  class HasManyThroughCantDissociateNewRecords < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(owner, reflection)
      super("Cannot dissociate new records through '#{owner.class.name}##{reflection.name}' on '#{reflection.source_reflection.class_name rescue nil}##{reflection.source_reflection.name rescue nil}'. Both records must have an id in order to delete the has_many :through record associating them.")
    end
  end

  class HasAndBelongsToManyAssociationForeignKeyNeeded < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(reflection)
      super("Cannot create self referential has_and_belongs_to_many association on '#{reflection.class_name rescue nil}##{reflection.name rescue nil}'. :association_foreign_key cannot be the same as the :foreign_key.")
    end
  end

  class EagerLoadPolymorphicError < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(reflection)
      super("Can not eagerly load the polymorphic association #{reflection.name.inspect}")
    end
  end

  class ReadOnlyAssociation < ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
    def initialize(reflection)
      super("Can not add to a has_many :through association. Try adding to #{reflection.through_reflection.name.inspect}.")
    end
  end

  # See ActiveRecord::Associations::ClassMethods for documentation.
  module Associations # :nodoc:
    extend ActiveSupport::Concern

    # These classes will be loaded when associations are created.
    # So there is no need to eager load them.
    autoload :AssociationCollection, 'active_record/associations/association_collection'
    autoload :AssociationProxy, 'active_record/associations/association_proxy'
    autoload :BelongsToAssociation, 'active_record/associations/belongs_to_association'
    autoload :BelongsToPolymorphicAssociation, 'active_record/associations/belongs_to_polymorphic_association'
    autoload :HasAndBelongsToManyAssociation, 'active_record/associations/has_and_belongs_to_many_association'
    autoload :HasManyAssociation, 'active_record/associations/has_many_association'
    autoload :HasManyThroughAssociation, 'active_record/associations/has_many_through_association'
    autoload :HasOneAssociation, 'active_record/associations/has_one_association'
    autoload :HasOneThroughAssociation, 'active_record/associations/has_one_through_association'

    # Clears out the association cache
    def clear_association_cache #:nodoc:
      self.class.reflect_on_all_associations.to_a.each do |assoc|
        instance_variable_set "@#{assoc.name}", nil
      end unless self.new_record?
    end

    private
      # Gets the specified association instance if it responds to :loaded?, nil otherwise.
      def association_instance_get(name)
        association = instance_variable_get("@#{name}")
        association if association.respond_to?(:loaded?)
      end

      # Set the specified association instance.
      def association_instance_set(name, association)
        instance_variable_set("@#{name}", association)
      end

    # Associations are a set of macro-like class methods for tying objects together through foreign keys. They express relationships like
    # "Project has one Project Manager" or "Project belongs to a Portfolio". Each macro adds a number of methods to the class which are
    # specialized according to the collection or association symbol and the options hash. It works much the same way as Ruby's own <tt>attr*</tt>
    # methods. Example:
    #
    # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :portfolio
    # has_one :project_manager
    # has_many :milestones
    # has_and_belongs_to_many :categories
    # end
    #
    # The project class now has the following methods (and more) to ease the traversal and manipulation of its relationships:
    # * <tt>Project#portfolio, Project#portfolio=(portfolio), Project#portfolio.nil?</tt>
    # * <tt>Project#project_manager, Project#project_manager=(project_manager), Project#project_manager.nil?,</tt>
    # * <tt>Project#milestones.empty?, Project#milestones.size, Project#milestones, Project#milestones<<(milestone),</tt>
    # <tt>Project#milestones.delete(milestone), Project#milestones.find(milestone_id), Project#milestones.find(:all, options),</tt>
    # <tt>Project#milestones.build, Project#milestones.create</tt>
    # * <tt>Project#categories.empty?, Project#categories.size, Project#categories, Project#categories<<(category1),</tt>
    # <tt>Project#categories.delete(category1)</tt>
    #
    # === A word of warning
    #
    # Don't create associations that have the same name as instance methods of ActiveRecord::Base. Since the association
    # adds a method with that name to its model, it will override the inherited method and break things.
    # For instance, +attributes+ and +connection+ would be bad choices for association names.
    #
    # == Auto-generated methods
    #
    # === Singular associations (one-to-one)
    # | | belongs_to |
    # generated methods | belongs_to | :polymorphic | has_one
    # ----------------------------------+------------+--------------+---------
    # other | X | X | X
    # other=(other) | X | X | X
    # build_other(attributes={}) | X | | X
    # create_other(attributes={}) | X | | X
    # other.create!(attributes={}) | | | X
    #
    # ===Collection associations (one-to-many / many-to-many)
    # | | | has_many
    # generated methods | habtm | has_many | :through
    # ----------------------------------+-------+----------+----------
    # others | X | X | X
    # others=(other,other,...) | X | X | X
    # other_ids | X | X | X
    # other_ids=(id,id,...) | X | X | X
    # others<< | X | X | X
    # others.push | X | X | X
    # others.concat | X | X | X
    # others.build(attributes={}) | X | X | X
    # others.create(attributes={}) | X | X | X
    # others.create!(attributes={}) | X | X | X
    # others.size | X | X | X
    # others.length | X | X | X
    # others.count | X | X | X
    # others.sum(args*,&block) | X | X | X
    # others.empty? | X | X | X
    # others.clear | X | X | X
    # others.delete(other,other,...) | X | X | X
    # others.delete_all | X | X |
    # others.destroy_all | X | X | X
    # others.find(*args) | X | X | X
    # others.find_first | X | |
    # others.exists? | X | X | X
    # others.uniq | X | X | X
    # others.reset | X | X | X
    #
    # == Cardinality and associations
    #
    # Active Record associations can be used to describe one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many
    # relationships between models. Each model uses an association to describe its role in
    # the relation. The +belongs_to+ association is always used in the model that has
    # the foreign key.
    #
    # === One-to-one
    #
    # Use +has_one+ in the base, and +belongs_to+ in the associated model.
    #
    # class Employee < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_one :office
    # end
    # class Office < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :employee # foreign key - employee_id
    # end
    #
    # === One-to-many
    #
    # Use +has_many+ in the base, and +belongs_to+ in the associated model.
    #
    # class Manager < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :employees
    # end
    # class Employee < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :manager # foreign key - manager_id
    # end
    #
    # === Many-to-many
    #
    # There are two ways to build a many-to-many relationship.
    #
    # The first way uses a +has_many+ association with the <tt>:through</tt> option and a join model, so
    # there are two stages of associations.
    #
    # class Assignment < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :programmer # foreign key - programmer_id
    # belongs_to :project # foreign key - project_id
    # end
    # class Programmer < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :assignments
    # has_many :projects, :through => :assignments
    # end
    # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :assignments
    # has_many :programmers, :through => :assignments
    # end
    #
    # For the second way, use +has_and_belongs_to_many+ in both models. This requires a join table
    # that has no corresponding model or primary key.
    #
    # class Programmer < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_and_belongs_to_many :projects # foreign keys in the join table
    # end
    # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_and_belongs_to_many :programmers # foreign keys in the join table
    # end
    #
    # Choosing which way to build a many-to-many relationship is not always simple.
    # If you need to work with the relationship model as its own entity,
    # use <tt>has_many :through</tt>. Use +has_and_belongs_to_many+ when working with legacy schemas or when
    # you never work directly with the relationship itself.
    #
    # == Is it a +belongs_to+ or +has_one+ association?
    #
    # Both express a 1-1 relationship. The difference is mostly where to place the foreign key, which goes on the table for the class
    # declaring the +belongs_to+ relationship. Example:
    #
    # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
    # # I reference an account.
    # belongs_to :account
    # end
    #
    # class Account < ActiveRecord::Base
    # # One user references me.
    # has_one :user
    # end
    #
    # The tables for these classes could look something like:
    #
    # CREATE TABLE users (
    # id int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
    # account_id int(11) default NULL,
    # name varchar default NULL,
    # PRIMARY KEY (id)
    # )
    #
    # CREATE TABLE accounts (
    # id int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
    # name varchar default NULL,
    # PRIMARY KEY (id)
    # )
    #
    # == Unsaved objects and associations
    #
    # You can manipulate objects and associations before they are saved to the database, but there is some special behavior you should be
    # aware of, mostly involving the saving of associated objects.
    #
    # Unless you enable the :autosave option on a <tt>has_one</tt>, <tt>belongs_to</tt>,
    # <tt>has_many</tt>, or <tt>has_and_belongs_to_many</tt> association,
    # in which case the members are always saved.
    #
    # === One-to-one associations
    #
    # * Assigning an object to a +has_one+ association automatically saves that object and the object being replaced (if there is one), in
    # order to update their primary keys - except if the parent object is unsaved (<tt>new_record? == true</tt>).
    # * If either of these saves fail (due to one of the objects being invalid) the assignment statement returns +false+ and the assignment
    # is cancelled.
    # * If you wish to assign an object to a +has_one+ association without saving it, use the <tt>association.build</tt> method (documented below).
    # * Assigning an object to a +belongs_to+ association does not save the object, since the foreign key field belongs on the parent. It
    # does not save the parent either.
    #
    # === Collections
    #
    # * Adding an object to a collection (+has_many+ or +has_and_belongs_to_many+) automatically saves that object, except if the parent object
    # (the owner of the collection) is not yet stored in the database.
    # * If saving any of the objects being added to a collection (via <tt>push</tt> or similar) fails, then <tt>push</tt> returns +false+.
    # * You can add an object to a collection without automatically saving it by using the <tt>collection.build</tt> method (documented below).
    # * All unsaved (<tt>new_record? == true</tt>) members of the collection are automatically saved when the parent is saved.
    #
    # === Association callbacks
    #
    # Similar to the normal callbacks that hook into the lifecycle of an Active Record object, you can also define callbacks that get
    # triggered when you add an object to or remove an object from an association collection. Example:
    #
    # class Project
    # has_and_belongs_to_many :developers, :after_add => :evaluate_velocity
    #
    # def evaluate_velocity(developer)
    # ...
    # end
    # end
    #
    # It's possible to stack callbacks by passing them as an array. Example:
    #
    # class Project
    # has_and_belongs_to_many :developers, :after_add => [:evaluate_velocity, Proc.new { |p, d| p.shipping_date = Time.now}]
    # end
    #
    # Possible callbacks are: +before_add+, +after_add+, +before_remove+ and +after_remove+.
    #
    # Should any of the +before_add+ callbacks throw an exception, the object does not get added to the collection. Same with
    # the +before_remove+ callbacks; if an exception is thrown the object doesn't get removed.
    #
    # === Association extensions
    #
    # The proxy objects that control the access to associations can be extended through anonymous modules. This is especially
    # beneficial for adding new finders, creators, and other factory-type methods that are only used as part of this association.
    # Example:
    #
    # class Account < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :people do
    # def find_or_create_by_name(name)
    # first_name, last_name = name.split(" ", 2)
    # find_or_create_by_first_name_and_last_name(first_name, last_name)
    # end
    # end
    # end
    #
    # person = Account.find(:first).people.find_or_create_by_name("David Heinemeier Hansson")
    # person.first_name # => "David"
    # person.last_name # => "Heinemeier Hansson"
    #
    # If you need to share the same extensions between many associations, you can use a named extension module. Example:
    #
    # module FindOrCreateByNameExtension
    # def find_or_create_by_name(name)
    # first_name, last_name = name.split(" ", 2)
    # find_or_create_by_first_name_and_last_name(first_name, last_name)
    # end
    # end
    #
    # class Account < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :people, :extend => FindOrCreateByNameExtension
    # end
    #
    # class Company < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :people, :extend => FindOrCreateByNameExtension
    # end
    #
    # If you need to use multiple named extension modules, you can specify an array of modules with the <tt>:extend</tt> option.
    # In the case of name conflicts between methods in the modules, methods in modules later in the array supercede
    # those earlier in the array. Example:
    #
    # class Account < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :people, :extend => [FindOrCreateByNameExtension, FindRecentExtension]
    # end
    #
    # Some extensions can only be made to work with knowledge of the association proxy's internals.
    # Extensions can access relevant state using accessors on the association proxy:
    #
    # * +proxy_owner+ - Returns the object the association is part of.
    # * +proxy_reflection+ - Returns the reflection object that describes the association.
    # * +proxy_target+ - Returns the associated object for +belongs_to+ and +has_one+, or the collection of associated objects for +has_many+ and +has_and_belongs_to_many+.
    #
    # === Association Join Models
    #
    # Has Many associations can be configured with the <tt>:through</tt> option to use an explicit join model to retrieve the data. This
    # operates similarly to a +has_and_belongs_to_many+ association. The advantage is that you're able to add validations,
    # callbacks, and extra attributes on the join model. Consider the following schema:
    #
    # class Author < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :authorships
    # has_many :books, :through => :authorships
    # end
    #
    # class Authorship < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :author
    # belongs_to :book
    # end
    #
    # @author = Author.find :first
    # @author.authorships.collect { |a| a.book } # selects all books that the author's authorships belong to.
    # @author.books # selects all books by using the Authorship join model
    #
    # You can also go through a +has_many+ association on the join model:
    #
    # class Firm < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :clients
    # has_many :invoices, :through => :clients
    # end
    #
    # class Client < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :firm
    # has_many :invoices
    # end
    #
    # class Invoice < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :client
    # end
    #
    # @firm = Firm.find :first
    # @firm.clients.collect { |c| c.invoices }.flatten # select all invoices for all clients of the firm
    # @firm.invoices # selects all invoices by going through the Client join model.
    #
    # === Polymorphic Associations
    #
    # Polymorphic associations on models are not restricted on what types of models they can be associated with. Rather, they
    # specify an interface that a +has_many+ association must adhere to.
    #
    # class Asset < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :attachable, :polymorphic => true
    # end
    #
    # class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :assets, :as => :attachable # The :as option specifies the polymorphic interface to use.
    # end
    #
    # @asset.attachable = @post
    #
    # This works by using a type column in addition to a foreign key to specify the associated record. In the Asset example, you'd need
    # an +attachable_id+ integer column and an +attachable_type+ string column.
    #
    # Using polymorphic associations in combination with single table inheritance (STI) is a little tricky. In order
    # for the associations to work as expected, ensure that you store the base model for the STI models in the
    # type column of the polymorphic association. To continue with the asset example above, suppose there are guest posts
    # and member posts that use the posts table for STI. In this case, there must be a +type+ column in the posts table.
    #
    # class Asset < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :attachable, :polymorphic => true
    #
    # def attachable_type=(sType)
    # super(sType.to_s.classify.constantize.base_class.to_s)
    # end
    # end
    #
    # class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
    # # because we store "Post" in attachable_type now :dependent => :destroy will work
    # has_many :assets, :as => :attachable, :dependent => :destroy
    # end
    #
    # class GuestPost < Post
    # end
    #
    # class MemberPost < Post
    # end
    #
    # == Caching
    #
    # All of the methods are built on a simple caching principle that will keep the result of the last query around unless specifically
    # instructed not to. The cache is even shared across methods to make it even cheaper to use the macro-added methods without
    # worrying too much about performance at the first go. Example:
    #
    # project.milestones # fetches milestones from the database
    # project.milestones.size # uses the milestone cache
    # project.milestones.empty? # uses the milestone cache
    # project.milestones(true).size # fetches milestones from the database
    # project.milestones # uses the milestone cache
    #
    # == Eager loading of associations
    #
    # Eager loading is a way to find objects of a certain class and a number of named associations. This is
    # one of the easiest ways of to prevent the dreaded 1+N problem in which fetching 100 posts that each need to display their author
    # triggers 101 database queries. Through the use of eager loading, the 101 queries can be reduced to 2. Example:
    #
    # class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :author
    # has_many :comments
    # end
    #
    # Consider the following loop using the class above:
    #
    # for post in Post.all
    # puts "Post: " + post.title
    # puts "Written by: " + post.author.name
    # puts "Last comment on: " + post.comments.first.created_on
    # end
    #
    # To iterate over these one hundred posts, we'll generate 201 database queries. Let's first just optimize it for retrieving the author:
    #
    # for post in Post.find(:all, :include => :author)
    #
    # This references the name of the +belongs_to+ association that also used the <tt>:author</tt> symbol. After loading the posts, find
    # will collect the +author_id+ from each one and load all the referenced authors with one query. Doing so will cut down the number of queries from 201 to 102.
    #
    # We can improve upon the situation further by referencing both associations in the finder with:
    #
    # for post in Post.find(:all, :include => [ :author, :comments ])
    #
    # This will load all comments with a single query. This reduces the total number of queries to 3. More generally the number of queries
    # will be 1 plus the number of associations named (except if some of the associations are polymorphic +belongs_to+ - see below).
    #
    # To include a deep hierarchy of associations, use a hash:
    #
    # for post in Post.find(:all, :include => [ :author, { :comments => { :author => :gravatar } } ])
    #
    # That'll grab not only all the comments but all their authors and gravatar pictures. You can mix and match
    # symbols, arrays and hashes in any combination to describe the associations you want to load.
    #
    # All of this power shouldn't fool you into thinking that you can pull out huge amounts of data with no performance penalty just because you've reduced
    # the number of queries. The database still needs to send all the data to Active Record and it still needs to be processed. So it's no
    # catch-all for performance problems, but it's a great way to cut down on the number of queries in a situation as the one described above.
    #
    # Since only one table is loaded at a time, conditions or orders cannot reference tables other than the main one. If this is the case
    # Active Record falls back to the previously used LEFT OUTER JOIN based strategy. For example
    #
    # Post.find(:all, :include => [ :author, :comments ], :conditions => ['comments.approved = ?', true])
    #
    # will result in a single SQL query with joins along the lines of: <tt>LEFT OUTER JOIN comments ON comments.post_id = posts.id</tt> and
    # <tt>LEFT OUTER JOIN authors ON authors.id = posts.author_id</tt>. Note that using conditions like this can have unintended consequences.
    # In the above example posts with no approved comments are not returned at all, because the conditions apply to the SQL statement as a whole
    # and not just to the association. You must disambiguate column references for this fallback to happen, for example
    # <tt>:order => "author.name DESC"</tt> will work but <tt>:order => "name DESC"</tt> will not.
    #
    # If you do want eagerload only some members of an association it is usually more natural to <tt>:include</tt> an association
    # which has conditions defined on it:
    #
    # class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :approved_comments, :class_name => 'Comment', :conditions => ['approved = ?', true]
    # end
    #
    # Post.find(:all, :include => :approved_comments)
    #
    # will load posts and eager load the +approved_comments+ association, which contains only those comments that have been approved.
    #
    # If you eager load an association with a specified <tt>:limit</tt> option, it will be ignored, returning all the associated objects:
    #
    # class Picture < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :most_recent_comments, :class_name => 'Comment', :order => 'id DESC', :limit => 10
    # end
    #
    # Picture.find(:first, :include => :most_recent_comments).most_recent_comments # => returns all associated comments.
    #
    # When eager loaded, conditions are interpolated in the context of the model class, not the model instance. Conditions are lazily interpolated
    # before the actual model exists.
    #
    # Eager loading is supported with polymorphic associations.
    #
    # class Address < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :addressable, :polymorphic => true
    # end
    #
    # A call that tries to eager load the addressable model
    #
    # Address.find(:all, :include => :addressable)
    #
    # will execute one query to load the addresses and load the addressables with one query per addressable type.
    # For example if all the addressables are either of class Person or Company then a total of 3 queries will be executed. The list of
    # addressable types to load is determined on the back of the addresses loaded. This is not supported if Active Record has to fallback
    # to the previous implementation of eager loading and will raise ActiveRecord::EagerLoadPolymorphicError. The reason is that the parent
    # model's type is a column value so its corresponding table name cannot be put in the +FROM+/+JOIN+ clauses of that query.
    #
    # == Table Aliasing
    #
    # Active Record uses table aliasing in the case that a table is referenced multiple times in a join. If a table is referenced only once,
    # the standard table name is used. The second time, the table is aliased as <tt>#{reflection_name}_#{parent_table_name}</tt>. Indexes are appended
    # for any more successive uses of the table name.
    #
    # Post.find :all, :joins => :comments
    # # => SELECT ... FROM posts INNER JOIN comments ON ...
    # Post.find :all, :joins => :special_comments # STI
    # # => SELECT ... FROM posts INNER JOIN comments ON ... AND comments.type = 'SpecialComment'
    # Post.find :all, :joins => [:comments, :special_comments] # special_comments is the reflection name, posts is the parent table name
    # # => SELECT ... FROM posts INNER JOIN comments ON ... INNER JOIN comments special_comments_posts
    #
    # Acts as tree example:
    #
    # TreeMixin.find :all, :joins => :children
    # # => SELECT ... FROM mixins INNER JOIN mixins childrens_mixins ...
    # TreeMixin.find :all, :joins => {:children => :parent}
    # # => SELECT ... FROM mixins INNER JOIN mixins childrens_mixins ...
    # INNER JOIN parents_mixins ...
    # TreeMixin.find :all, :joins => {:children => {:parent => :children}}
    # # => SELECT ... FROM mixins INNER JOIN mixins childrens_mixins ...
    # INNER JOIN parents_mixins ...
    # INNER JOIN mixins childrens_mixins_2
    #
    # Has and Belongs to Many join tables use the same idea, but add a <tt>_join</tt> suffix:
    #
    # Post.find :all, :joins => :categories
    # # => SELECT ... FROM posts INNER JOIN categories_posts ... INNER JOIN categories ...
    # Post.find :all, :joins => {:categories => :posts}
    # # => SELECT ... FROM posts INNER JOIN categories_posts ... INNER JOIN categories ...
    # INNER JOIN categories_posts posts_categories_join INNER JOIN posts posts_categories
    # Post.find :all, :joins => {:categories => {:posts => :categories}}
    # # => SELECT ... FROM posts INNER JOIN categories_posts ... INNER JOIN categories ...
    # INNER JOIN categories_posts posts_categories_join INNER JOIN posts posts_categories
    # INNER JOIN categories_posts categories_posts_join INNER JOIN categories categories_posts_2
    #
    # If you wish to specify your own custom joins using a <tt>:joins</tt> option, those table names will take precedence over the eager associations:
    #
    # Post.find :all, :joins => :comments, :joins => "inner join comments ..."
    # # => SELECT ... FROM posts INNER JOIN comments_posts ON ... INNER JOIN comments ...
    # Post.find :all, :joins => [:comments, :special_comments], :joins => "inner join comments ..."
    # # => SELECT ... FROM posts INNER JOIN comments comments_posts ON ...
    # INNER JOIN comments special_comments_posts ...
    # INNER JOIN comments ...
    #
    # Table aliases are automatically truncated according to the maximum length of table identifiers according to the specific database.
    #
    # == Modules
    #
    # By default, associations will look for objects within the current module scope. Consider:
    #
    # module MyApplication
    # module Business
    # class Firm < ActiveRecord::Base
    # has_many :clients
    # end
    #
    # class Client < ActiveRecord::Base; end
    # end
    # end
    #
    # When <tt>Firm#clients</tt> is called, it will in turn call <tt>MyApplication::Business::Client.find_all_by_firm_id(firm.id)</tt>.
    # If you want to associate with a class in another module scope, this can be done by specifying the complete class name.
    # Example:
    #
    # module MyApplication
    # module Business
    # class Firm < ActiveRecord::Base; end
    # end
    #
    # module Billing
    # class Account < ActiveRecord::Base
    # belongs_to :firm, :class_name => "MyApplication::Business::Firm"
    # end
    # end
    # end
    #
    # == Type safety with <tt>ActiveRecord::AssociationTypeMismatch</tt>
    #
    # If you attempt to assign an object to an association that doesn't match the inferred or specified <tt>:class_name</tt>, you'll
    # get an <tt>ActiveRecord::AssociationTypeMismatch</tt>.
    #
    # == Options
    #
    # All of the association macros can be specialized through options. This makes cases more complex than the simple and guessable ones
    # possible.
    module ClassMethods
      # Specifies a one-to-many association. The following methods for retrieval and query of
      # collections of associated objects will be added:
      #
      # [collection(force_reload = false)]
      # Returns an array of all the associated objects.
      # An empty array is returned if none are found.
      # [collection<<(object, ...)]
      # Adds one or more objects to the collection by setting their foreign keys to the collection's primary key.
      # [collection.delete(object, ...)]
      # Removes one or more objects from the collection by setting their foreign keys to +NULL+.
      # Objects will be in addition destroyed if they're associated with <tt>:dependent => :destroy</tt>,
      # and deleted if they're associated with <tt>:dependent => :delete_all</tt>.
      # [collection=objects]
      # Replaces the collections content by deleting and adding objects as appropriate.
      # [collection_singular_ids]
      # Returns an array of the associated objects' ids
      # [collection_singular_ids=ids]
      # Replace the collection with the objects identified by the primary keys in +ids+
      # [collection.clear]
      # Removes every object from the collection. This destroys the associated objects if they
      # are associated with <tt>:dependent => :destroy</tt>, deletes them directly from the
      # database if <tt>:dependent => :delete_all</tt>, otherwise sets their foreign keys to +NULL+.
      # [collection.empty?]
      # Returns +true+ if there are no associated objects.
      # [collection.size]
      # Returns the number of associated objects.
      # [collection.find(...)]
      # Finds an associated object according to the same rules as ActiveRecord::Base.find.
      # [collection.exists?(...)]
      # Checks whether an associated object with the given conditions exists.
      # Uses the same rules as ActiveRecord::Base.exists?.
      # [collection.build(attributes = {}, ...)]
      # Returns one or more new objects of the collection type that have been instantiated
      # with +attributes+ and linked to this object through a foreign key, but have not yet
      # been saved. <b>Note:</b> This only works if an associated object already exists, not if
      # it's +nil+!
      # [collection.create(attributes = {})]
      # Returns a new object of the collection type that has been instantiated
      # with +attributes+, linked to this object through a foreign key, and that has already
      # been saved (if it passed the validation). <b>Note:</b> This only works if an associated
      # object already exists, not if it's +nil+!
      #
      # (*Note*: +collection+ is replaced with the symbol passed as the first argument, so
      # <tt>has_many :clients</tt> would add among others <tt>clients.empty?</tt>.)
      #
      # === Example
      #
      # Example: A Firm class declares <tt>has_many :clients</tt>, which will add:
      # * <tt>Firm#clients</tt> (similar to <tt>Clients.find :all, :conditions => ["firm_id = ?", id]</tt>)
      # * <tt>Firm#clients<<</tt>
      # * <tt>Firm#clients.delete</tt>
      # * <tt>Firm#clients=</tt>
      # * <tt>Firm#client_ids</tt>
      # * <tt>Firm#client_ids=</tt>
      # * <tt>Firm#clients.clear</tt>
      # * <tt>Firm#clients.empty?</tt> (similar to <tt>firm.clients.size == 0</tt>)
      # * <tt>Firm#clients.size</tt> (similar to <tt>Client.count "firm_id = #{id}"</tt>)
      # * <tt>Firm#clients.find</tt> (similar to <tt>Client.find(id, :conditions => "firm_id = #{id}")</tt>)
      # * <tt>Firm#clients.exists?(:name => 'ACME')</tt> (similar to <tt>Client.exists?(:name => 'ACME', :firm_id => firm.id)</tt>)
      # * <tt>Firm#clients.build</tt> (similar to <tt>Client.new("firm_id" => id)</tt>)
      # * <tt>Firm#clients.create</tt> (similar to <tt>c = Client.new("firm_id" => id); c.save; c</tt>)
      # The declaration can also include an options hash to specialize the behavior of the association.
      #
      # === Supported options
      # [:class_name]
      # Specify the class name of the association. Use it only if that name can't be inferred
      # from the association name. So <tt>has_many :products</tt> will by default be linked to the Product class, but
      # if the real class name is SpecialProduct, you'll have to specify it with this option.
      # [:conditions]
      # Specify the conditions that the associated objects must meet in order to be included as a +WHERE+
      # SQL fragment, such as <tt>price > 5 AND name LIKE 'B%'</tt>. Record creations from the association are scoped if a hash
      # is used. <tt>has_many :posts, :conditions => {:published => true}</tt> will create published posts with <tt>@blog.posts.create</tt>
      # or <tt>@blog.posts.build</tt>.
      # [:order]
      # Specify the order in which the associated objects are returned as an <tt>ORDER BY</tt> SQL fragment,
      # such as <tt>last_name, first_name DESC</tt>.
      # [:foreign_key]
      # Specify the foreign key used for the association. By default this is guessed to be the name
      # of this class in lower-case and "_id" suffixed. So a Person class that makes a +has_many+ association will use "person_id"
      # as the default <tt>:foreign_key</tt>.
      # [:primary_key]
      # Specify the method that returns the primary key used for the association. By default this is +id+.
      # [:dependent]
      # If set to <tt>:destroy</tt> all the associated objects are destroyed
      # alongside this object by calling their +destroy+ method. If set to <tt>:delete_all</tt> all associated
      # objects are deleted *without* calling their +destroy+ method. If set to <tt>:nullify</tt> all associated
      # objects' foreign keys are set to +NULL+ *without* calling their +save+ callbacks. *Warning:* This option is ignored when also using
      # the <tt>:through</tt> option.
      # [:finder_sql]
      # Specify a complete SQL statement to fetch the association. This is a good way to go for complex
      # associations that depend on multiple tables. Note: When this option is used, +find_in_collection+ is _not_ added.
      # [:counter_sql]
      # Specify a complete SQL statement to fetch the size of the association. If <tt>:finder_sql</tt> is
      # specified but not <tt>:counter_sql</tt>, <tt>:counter_sql</tt> will be generated by replacing <tt>SELECT ... FROM</tt> with <tt>SELECT COUNT(*) FROM</tt>.
      # [:extend]
      # Specify a named module for extending the proxy. See "Association extensions".
      # [:include]
      # Specify second-order associations that should be eager loaded when the collection is loaded.
      # [:group]
      # An attribute name by which the result should be grouped. Uses the <tt>GROUP BY</tt> SQL-clause.
      # [:having]
      # Combined with +:group+ this can be used to filter the records that a <tt>GROUP BY</tt> returns. Uses the <tt>HAVING</tt> SQL-clause.
      # [:limit]
      # An integer determining the limit on the number of rows that should be returned.
      # [:offset]
      # An integer determining the offset from where the rows should be fetched. So at 5, it would skip the first 4 rows.
      # [:select]
      # By default, this is <tt>*</tt> as in <tt>SELECT * FROM</tt>, but can be changed if you, for example, want to do a join
      # but not include the joined columns. Do not forget to include the primary and foreign keys, otherwise it will raise an error.
      # [:as]
      # Specifies a polymorphic interface (See <tt>belongs_to</tt>).
      # [:through]
      # Specifies a Join Model through which to perform the query. Options for <tt>:class_name</tt> and <tt>:foreign_key</tt>
      # are ignored, as the association uses the source reflection. You can only use a <tt>:through</tt> query through a <tt>belongs_to</tt>
      # or <tt>has_many</tt> association on the join model.
      # [:source]
      # Specifies the source association name used by <tt>has_many :through</tt> queries. Only use it if the name cannot be
      # inferred from the association. <tt>has_many :subscribers, :through => :subscriptions</tt> will look for either <tt>:subscribers</tt> or
      # <tt>:subscriber</tt> on Subscription, unless a <tt>:source</tt> is given.
      # [:source_type]
      # Specifies type of the source association used by <tt>has_many :through</tt> queries where the source
      # association is a polymorphic +belongs_to+.
      # [:uniq]
      # If true, duplicates will be omitted from the collection. Useful in conjunction with <tt>:through</tt>.
      # [:readonly]
      # If true, all the associated objects are readonly through the association.
      # [:validate]
      # If false, don't validate the associated objects when saving the parent object. true by default.
      # [:autosave]
      # If true, always save any loaded members and destroy members marked for destruction, when saving the parent object. Off by default.
      #
      # Option examples:
      # has_many :comments, :order => "posted_on"
      # has_many :comments, :include => :author
      # has_many :people, :class_name => "Person", :conditions => "deleted = 0", :order => "name"
      # has_many :tracks, :order => "position", :dependent => :destroy
      # has_many :comments, :dependent => :nullify
      # has_many :tags, :as => :taggable
      # has_many :reports, :readonly => true
      # has_many :subscribers, :through => :subscriptions, :source => :user
      # has_many :subscribers, :class_name => "Person", :finder_sql =>
      # 'SELECT DISTINCT people.* ' +
      # 'FROM people p, post_subscriptions ps ' +
      # 'WHERE ps.post_id = #{id} AND ps.person_id = p.id ' +
      # 'ORDER BY p.first_name'
      def has_many(association_id, options = {}, &extension)
        reflection = create_has_many_reflection(association_id, options, &extension)
        configure_dependency_for_has_many(reflection)
        add_association_callbacks(reflection.name, reflection.options)

        if options[:through]
          collection_accessor_methods(reflection, HasManyThroughAssociation)
        else
          collection_accessor_methods(reflection, HasManyAssociation)
        end
      end

      # Specifies a one-to-one association with another class. This method should only be used
      # if the other class contains the foreign key. If the current class contains the foreign key,
      # then you should use +belongs_to+ instead. See also ActiveRecord::Associations::ClassMethods's overview
      # on when to use has_one and when to use belongs_to.
      #
      # The following methods for retrieval and query of a single associated object will be added:
      #
      # [association(force_reload = false)]
      # Returns the associated object. +nil+ is returned if none is found.
      # [association=(associate)]
      # Assigns the associate object, extracts the primary key, sets it as the foreign key,
      # and saves the associate object.
      # [build_association(attributes = {})]
      # Returns a new object of the associated type that has been instantiated
      # with +attributes+ and linked to this object through a foreign key, but has not
      # yet been saved. <b>Note:</b> This ONLY works if an association already exists.
      # It will NOT work if the association is +nil+.
      # [create_association(attributes = {})]
      # Returns a new object of the associated type that has been instantiated
      # with +attributes+, linked to this object through a foreign key, and that
      # has already been saved (if it passed the validation).
      #
      # (+association+ is replaced with the symbol passed as the first argument, so
      # <tt>has_one :manager</tt> would add among others <tt>manager.nil?</tt>.)
      #
      # === Example
      #
      # An Account class declares <tt>has_one :beneficiary</tt>, which will add:
      # * <tt>Account#beneficiary</tt> (similar to <tt>Beneficiary.find(:first, :conditions => "account_id = #{id}")</tt>)
      # * <tt>Account#beneficiary=(beneficiary)</tt> (similar to <tt>beneficiary.account_id = account.id; beneficiary.save</tt>)
      # * <tt>Account#build_beneficiary</tt> (similar to <tt>Beneficiary.new("account_id" => id)</tt>)
      # * <tt>Account#create_beneficiary</tt> (similar to <tt>b = Beneficiary.new("account_id" => id); b.save; b</tt>)
      #
      # === Options
      #
      # The declaration can also include an options hash to specialize the behavior of the association.
      #
      # Options are:
      # [:class_name]
      # Specify the class name of the association. Use it only if that name can't be inferred
      # from the association name. So <tt>has_one :manager</tt> will by default be linked to the Manager class, but
      # if the real class name is Person, you'll have to specify it with this option.
      # [:conditions]
      # Specify the conditions that the associated object must meet in order to be included as a +WHERE+
      # SQL fragment, such as <tt>rank = 5</tt>.
      # [:order]
      # Specify the order in which the associated objects are returned as an <tt>ORDER BY</tt> SQL fragment,
      # such as <tt>last_name, first_name DESC</tt>.
      # [:dependent]
      # If set to <tt>:destroy</tt>, the associated object is destroyed when this object is. If set to
      # <tt>:delete</tt>, the associated object is deleted *without* calling its destroy method. If set to <tt>:nullify</tt>, the associated
      # object's foreign key is set to +NULL+. Also, association is assigned.
      # [:foreign_key]
      # Specify the foreign key used for the association. By default this is guessed to be the name
      # of this class in lower-case and "_id" suffixed. So a Person class that makes a +has_one+ association will use "person_id"
      # as the default <tt>:foreign_key</tt>.
      # [:primary_key]
      # Specify the method that returns the primary key used for the association. By default this is +id+.
      # [:include]
      # Specify second-order associations that should be eager loaded when this object is loaded.
      # [:as]
      # Specifies a polymorphic interface (See <tt>belongs_to</tt>).
      # [:select]
      # By default, this is <tt>*</tt> as in <tt>SELECT * FROM</tt>, but can be changed if, for example, you want to do a join
      # but not include the joined columns. Do not forget to include the primary and foreign keys, otherwise it will raise an error.
      # [:through]
      # Specifies a Join Model through which to perform the query. Options for <tt>:class_name</tt> and <tt>:foreign_key</tt>
      # are ignored, as the association uses the source reflection. You can only use a <tt>:through</tt> query through a
      # <tt>has_one</tt> or <tt>belongs_to</tt> association on the join model.
      # [:source]
      # Specifies the source association name used by <tt>has_one :through</tt> queries. Only use it if the name cannot be
      # inferred from the association. <tt>has_one :favorite, :through => :favorites</tt> will look for a
      # <tt>:favorite</tt> on Favorite, unless a <tt>:source</tt> is given.
      # [:source_type]
      # Specifies type of the source association used by <tt>has_one :through</tt> queries where the source
      # association is a polymorphic +belongs_to+.
      # [:readonly]
      # If true, the associated object is readonly through the association.
      # [:validate]
      # If false, don't validate the associated object when saving the parent object. +false+ by default.
      # [:autosave]
      # If true, always save the associated object or destroy it if marked for destruction, when saving the parent object. Off by default.
      #
      # Option examples:
      # has_one :credit_card, :dependent => :destroy # destroys the associated credit card
      # has_one :credit_card, :dependent => :nullify # updates the associated records foreign key value to NULL rather than destroying it
      # has_one :last_comment, :class_name => "Comment", :order => "posted_on"
      # has_one :project_manager, :class_name => "Person", :conditions => "role = 'project_manager'"
      # has_one :attachment, :as => :attachable
      # has_one :boss, :readonly => :true
      # has_one :club, :through => :membership
      # has_one :primary_address, :through => :addressables, :conditions => ["addressable.primary = ?", true], :source => :addressable
      def has_one(association_id, options = {})
        if options[:through]
          reflection = create_has_one_through_reflection(association_id, options)
          association_accessor_methods(reflection, ActiveRecord::Associations::HasOneThroughAssociation)
        else
          reflection = create_has_one_reflection(association_id, options)
          association_accessor_methods(reflection, HasOneAssociation)
          association_constructor_method(:build, reflection, HasOneAssociation)
          association_constructor_method(:create, reflection, HasOneAssociation)
          configure_dependency_for_has_one(reflection)
        end
      end

      # Specifies a one-to-one association with another class. This method should only be used
      # if this class contains the foreign key. If the other class contains the foreign key,
      # then you should use +has_one+ instead. See also ActiveRecord::Associations::ClassMethods's overview
      # on when to use +has_one+ and when to use +belongs_to+.
      #
      # Methods will be added for retrieval and query for a single associated object, for which
      # this object holds an id:
      #
      # [association(force_reload = false)]
      # Returns the associated object. +nil+ is returned if none is found.
      # [association=(associate)]
      # Assigns the associate object, extracts the primary key, and sets it as the foreign key.
      # [build_association(attributes = {})]
      # Returns a new object of the associated type that has been instantiated
      # with +attributes+ and linked to this object through a foreign key, but has not yet been saved.
      # [create_association(attributes = {})]
      # Returns a new object of the associated type that has been instantiated
      # with +attributes+, linked to this object through a foreign key, and that
      # has already been saved (if it passed the validation).
      #
      # (+association+ is replaced with the symbol passed as the first argument, so
      # <tt>belongs_to :author</tt> would add among others <tt>author.nil?</tt>.)
      #
      # === Example
      #
      # A Post class declares <tt>belongs_to :author</tt>, which will add:
      # * <tt>Post#author</tt> (similar to <tt>Author.find(author_id)</tt>)
      # * <tt>Post#author=(author)</tt> (similar to <tt>post.author_id = author.id</tt>)
      # * <tt>Post#author?</tt> (similar to <tt>post.author == some_author</tt>)
      # * <tt>Post#build_author</tt> (similar to <tt>post.author = Author.new</tt>)
      # * <tt>Post#create_author</tt> (similar to <tt>post.author = Author.new; post.author.save; post.author</tt>)
      # The declaration can also include an options hash to specialize the behavior of the association.
      #
      # === Options
      #
      # [:class_name]
      # Specify the class name of the association. Use it only if that name can't be inferred
      # from the association name. So <tt>has_one :author</tt> will by default be linked to the Author class, but
      # if the real class name is Person, you'll have to specify it with this option.
      # [:conditions]
      # Specify the conditions that the associated object must meet in order to be included as a +WHERE+
      # SQL fragment, such as <tt>authorized = 1</tt>.
      # [:select]
      # By default, this is <tt>*</tt> as in <tt>SELECT * FROM</tt>, but can be changed if, for example, you want to do a join
      # but not include the joined columns. Do not forget to include the primary and foreign keys, otherwise it will raise an error.
      # [:foreign_key]
      # Specify the foreign key used for the association. By default this is guessed to be the name
      # of the association with an "_id" suffix. So a class that defines a <tt>belongs_to :person</tt> association will use
      # "person_id" as the default <tt>:foreign_key</tt>. Similarly, <tt>belongs_to :favorite_person, :class_name => "Person"</tt>
      # will use a foreign key of "favorite_person_id".
      # [:dependent]
      # If set to <tt>:destroy</tt>, the associated object is destroyed when this object is. If set to
      # <tt>:delete</tt>, the associated object is deleted *without* calling its destroy method. This option should not be specified when
      # <tt>belongs_to</tt> is used in conjunction with a <tt>has_many</tt> relationship on another class because of the potential to leave
      # orphaned records behind.
      # [:counter_cache]
      # Caches the number of belonging objects on the associate class through the use of +increment_counter+
      # and +decrement_counter+. The counter cache is incremented when an object of this class is created and decremented when it's
      # destroyed. This requires that a column named <tt>#{table_name}_count</tt> (such as +comments_count+ for a belonging Comment class)
      # is used on the associate class (such as a Post class). You can also specify a custom counter cache column by providing
      # a column name instead of a +true+/+false+ value to this option (e.g., <tt>:counter_cache => :my_custom_counter</tt>.)
      # Note: Specifying a counter cache will add it to that model's list of readonly attributes using +attr_readonly+.
      # [:include]
      # Specify second-order associations that should be eager loaded when this object is loaded.
      # [:polymorphic]
      # Specify this association is a polymorphic association by passing +true+.
      # Note: If you've enabled the counter cache, then you may want to add the counter cache attribute
      # to the +attr_readonly+ list in the associated classes (e.g. <tt>class Post; attr_readonly :comments_count; end</tt>).
      # [:readonly]
      # If true, the associated object is readonly through the association.
      # [:validate]
      # If false, don't validate the associated objects when saving the parent object. +false+ by default.
      # [:autosave]
      # If true, always save the associated object or destroy it if marked for destruction, when saving the parent object. Off by default.
      # [:touch]
      # If true, the associated object will be touched (the updated_at/on attributes set to now) when this record is either saved or
      # destroyed. If you specify a symbol, that attribute will be updated with the current time instead of the updated_at/on attribute.
      #
      # Option examples:
      # belongs_to :firm, :foreign_key => "client_of"
      # belongs_to :author, :class_name => "Person", :foreign_key => "author_id"
      # belongs_to :valid_coupon, :class_name => "Coupon", :foreign_key => "coupon_id",
      # :conditions => 'discounts > #{payments_count}'
      # belongs_to :attachable, :polymorphic => true
      # belongs_to :project, :readonly => true
      # belongs_to :post, :counter_cache => true
      # belongs_to :company, :touch => true
      # belongs_to :company, :touch => :employees_last_updated_at
      def belongs_to(association_id, options = {})
        reflection = create_belongs_to_reflection(association_id, options)

        if reflection.options[:polymorphic]
          association_accessor_methods(reflection, BelongsToPolymorphicAssociation)
        else
          association_accessor_methods(reflection, BelongsToAssociation)
          association_constructor_method(:build, reflection, BelongsToAssociation)
          association_constructor_method(:create, reflection, BelongsToAssociation)
        end

        add_counter_cache_callbacks(reflection) if options[:counter_cache]
        add_touch_callbacks(reflection, options[:touch]) if options[:touch]

        configure_dependency_for_belongs_to(reflection)
      end

      # Specifies a many-to-many relationship with another class. This associates two classes via an
      # intermediate join table. Unless the join table is explicitly specified as an option, it is
      # guessed using the lexical order of the class names. So a join between Developer and Project
      # will give the default join table name of "developers_projects" because "D" outranks "P". Note that this precedence
      # is calculated using the <tt><</tt> operator for String. This means that if the strings are of different lengths,
      # and the strings are equal when compared up to the shortest length, then the longer string is considered of higher
      # lexical precedence than the shorter one. For example, one would expect the tables "paper_boxes" and "papers"
      # to generate a join table name of "papers_paper_boxes" because of the length of the name "paper_boxes",
      # but it in fact generates a join table name of "paper_boxes_papers". Be aware of this caveat, and use the
      # custom <tt>:join_table</tt> option if you need to.
      #
      # The join table should not have a primary key or a model associated with it. You must manually generate the
      # join table with a migration such as this:
      #
      # class CreateDevelopersProjectsJoinTable < ActiveRecord::Migration
      # def self.up
      # create_table :developers_projects, :id => false do |t|
      # t.integer :developer_id
      # t.integer :project_id
      # end
      # end
      #
      # def self.down
      # drop_table :developers_projects
      # end
      # end
      #
      # Deprecated: Any additional fields added to the join table will be placed as attributes when pulling records out through
      # +has_and_belongs_to_many+ associations. Records returned from join tables with additional attributes will be marked as
      # readonly (because we can't save changes to the additional attributes). It's strongly recommended that you upgrade any
      # associations with attributes to a real join model (see introduction).
      #
      # Adds the following methods for retrieval and query:
      #
      # [collection(force_reload = false)]
      # Returns an array of all the associated objects.
      # An empty array is returned if none are found.
      # [collection<<(object, ...)]
      # Adds one or more objects to the collection by creating associations in the join table
      # (<tt>collection.push</tt> and <tt>collection.concat</tt> are aliases to this method).
      # [collection.delete(object, ...)]
      # Removes one or more objects from the collection by removing their associations from the join table.
      # This does not destroy the objects.
      # [collection=objects]
      # Replaces the collection's content by deleting and adding objects as appropriate.
      # [collection_singular_ids]
      # Returns an array of the associated objects' ids.
      # [collection_singular_ids=ids]
      # Replace the collection by the objects identified by the primary keys in +ids+.
      # [collection.clear]
      # Removes every object from the collection. This does not destroy the objects.
      # [collection.empty?]
      # Returns +true+ if there are no associated objects.
      # [collection.size]
      # Returns the number of associated objects.
      # [collection.find(id)]
      # Finds an associated object responding to the +id+ and that
      # meets the condition that it has to be associated with this object.
      # Uses the same rules as ActiveRecord::Base.find.
      # [collection.exists?(...)]
      # Checks whether an associated object with the given conditions exists.
      # Uses the same rules as ActiveRecord::Base.exists?.
      # [collection.build(attributes = {})]
      # Returns a new object of the collection type that has been instantiated
      # with +attributes+ and linked to this object through the join table, but has not yet been saved.
      # [collection.create(attributes = {})]
      # Returns a new object of the collection type that has been instantiated
      # with +attributes+, linked to this object through the join table, and that has already been saved (if it passed the validation).
      #
      # (+collection+ is replaced with the symbol passed as the first argument, so
      # <tt>has_and_belongs_to_many :categories</tt> would add among others <tt>categories.empty?</tt>.)
      #
      # === Example
      #
      # A Developer class declares <tt>has_and_belongs_to_many :projects</tt>, which will add:
      # * <tt>Developer#projects</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#projects<<</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#projects.delete</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#projects=</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#project_ids</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#project_ids=</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#projects.clear</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#projects.empty?</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#projects.size</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#projects.find(id)</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#clients.exists?(...)</tt>
      # * <tt>Developer#projects.build</tt> (similar to <tt>Project.new("project_id" => id)</tt>)
      # * <tt>Developer#projects.create</tt> (similar to <tt>c = Project.new("project_id" => id); c.save; c</tt>)
      # The declaration may include an options hash to specialize the behavior of the association.
      #
      # === Options
      #
      # [:class_name]
      # Specify the class name of the association. Use it only if that name can't be inferred
      # from the association name. So <tt>has_and_belongs_to_many :projects</tt> will by default be linked to the
      # Project class, but if the real class name is SuperProject, you'll have to specify it with this option.
      # [:join_table]
      # Specify the name of the join table if the default based on lexical order isn't what you want.
      # <b>WARNING:</b> If you're overwriting the table name of either class, the +table_name+ method
      # MUST be declared underneath any +has_and_belongs_to_many+ declaration in order to work.
      # [:foreign_key]
      # Specify the foreign key used for the association. By default this is guessed to be the name
      # of this class in lower-case and "_id" suffixed. So a Person class that makes a +has_and_belongs_to_many+ association
      # to Project will use "person_id" as the default <tt>:foreign_key</tt>.
      # [:association_foreign_key]
      # Specify the foreign key used for the association on the receiving side of the association.
      # By default this is guessed to be the name of the associated class in lower-case and "_id" suffixed.
      # So if a Person class makes a +has_and_belongs_to_many+ association to Project,
      # the association will use "project_id" as the default <tt>:association_foreign_key</tt>.
      # [:conditions]
      # Specify the conditions that the associated object must meet in order to be included as a +WHERE+
      # SQL fragment, such as <tt>authorized = 1</tt>. Record creations from the association are scoped if a hash is used.
      # <tt>has_many :posts, :conditions => {:published => true}</tt> will create published posts with <tt>@blog.posts.create</tt>
      # or <tt>@blog.posts.build</tt>.
      # [:order]
      # Specify the order in which the associated objects are returned as an <tt>ORDER BY</tt> SQL fragment,
      # such as <tt>last_name, first_name DESC</tt>
      # [:uniq]
      # If true, duplicate associated objects will be ignored by accessors and query methods.
      # [:finder_sql]
      # Overwrite the default generated SQL statement used to fetch the association with a manual statement
      # [:counter_sql]
      # Specify a complete SQL statement to fetch the size of the association. If <tt>:finder_sql</tt> is
      # specified but not <tt>:counter_sql</tt>, <tt>:counter_sql</tt> will be generated by replacing <tt>SELECT ... FROM</tt> with <tt>SELECT COUNT(*) FROM</tt>.
      # [:delete_sql]
      # Overwrite the default generated SQL statement used to remove links between the associated
      # classes with a manual statement.
      # [:insert_sql]
      # Overwrite the default generated SQL statement used to add links between the associated classes
      # with a manual statement.
      # [:extend]
      # Anonymous module for extending the proxy, see "Association extensions".
      # [:include]
      # Specify second-order associations that should be eager loaded when the collection is loaded.
      # [:group]
      # An attribute name by which the result should be grouped. Uses the <tt>GROUP BY</tt> SQL-clause.
      # [:having]
      # Combined with +:group+ this can be used to filter the records that a <tt>GROUP BY</tt> returns. Uses the <tt>HAVING</tt> SQL-clause.
      # [:limit]
      # An integer determining the limit on the number of rows that should be returned.
      # [:offset]
      # An integer determining the offset from where the rows should be fetched. So at 5, it would skip the first 4 rows.
      # [:select]
      # By default, this is <tt>*</tt> as in <tt>SELECT * FROM</tt>, but can be changed if, for example, you want to do a join
      # but not include the joined columns. Do not forget to include the primary and foreign keys, otherwise it will raise an error.
      # [:readonly]
      # If true, all the associated objects are readonly through the association.
      # [:validate]
      # If false, don't validate the associated objects when saving the parent object. +true+ by default.
      # [:autosave]
      # If true, always save any loaded members and destroy members marked for destruction, when saving the parent object. Off by default.
      #
      # Option examples:
      # has_and_belongs_to_many :projects
      # has_and_belongs_to_many :projects, :include => [ :milestones, :manager ]
      # has_and_belongs_to_many :nations, :class_name => "Country"
      # has_and_belongs_to_many :categories, :join_table => "prods_cats"
      # has_and_belongs_to_many :categories, :readonly => true
      # has_and_belongs_to_many :active_projects, :join_table => 'developers_projects', :delete_sql =>
      # 'DELETE FROM developers_projects WHERE active=1 AND developer_id = #{id} AND project_id = #{record.id}'
      def has_and_belongs_to_many(association_id, options = {}, &extension)
        reflection = create_has_and_belongs_to_many_reflection(association_id, options, &extension)
        collection_accessor_methods(reflection, HasAndBelongsToManyAssociation)

        # Don't use a before_destroy callback since users' before_destroy
        # callbacks will be executed after the association is wiped out.
        old_method = "destroy_without_habtm_shim_for_#{reflection.name}"
        class_eval <<-end_eval unless method_defined?(old_method)
alias_method :#{old_method}, :destroy_without_callbacks # alias_method :destroy_without_habtm_shim_for_posts, :destroy_without_callbacks
def destroy_without_callbacks # def destroy_without_callbacks
#{reflection.name}.clear # posts.clear
#{old_method} # destroy_without_habtm_shim_for_posts
end # end
end_eval

        add_association_callbacks(reflection.name, options)
      end

      private
        # Generates a join table name from two provided table names.
        # The names in the join table namesme end up in lexicographic order.
        #
        # join_table_name("members", "clubs") # => "clubs_members"
        # join_table_name("members", "special_clubs") # => "members_special_clubs"
        def join_table_name(first_table_name, second_table_name)
          if first_table_name < second_table_name
            join_table = "#{first_table_name}_#{second_table_name}"
          else
            join_table = "#{second_table_name}_#{first_table_name}"
          end

          table_name_prefix + join_table + table_name_suffix
        end

        def association_accessor_methods(reflection, association_proxy_class)
          define_method(reflection.name) do |*params|
            force_reload = params.first unless params.empty?
            association = association_instance_get(reflection.name)

            if association.nil? || force_reload
              association = association_proxy_class.new(self, reflection)
              retval = association.reload
              if retval.nil? and association_proxy_class == BelongsToAssociation
                association_instance_set(reflection.name, nil)
                return nil
              end
              association_instance_set(reflection.name, association)
            end

            association.target.nil? ? nil : association
          end

          define_method("loaded_#{reflection.name}?") do
            association = association_instance_get(reflection.name)
            association && association.loaded?
          end

          define_method("#{reflection.name}=") do |new_value|
            association = association_instance_get(reflection.name)

            if association.nil? || association.target != new_value
              association = association_proxy_class.new(self, reflection)
            end

            association.replace(new_value)
            association_instance_set(reflection.name, new_value.nil? ? nil : association)
          end

          define_method("set_#{reflection.name}_target") do |target|
            return if target.nil? and association_proxy_class == BelongsToAssociation
            association = association_proxy_class.new(self, reflection)
            association.target = target
            association_instance_set(reflection.name, association)
          end
        end

        def collection_reader_method(reflection, association_proxy_class)
          define_method(reflection.name) do |*params|
            force_reload = params.first unless params.empty?
            association = association_instance_get(reflection.name)

            unless association
              association = association_proxy_class.new(self, reflection)
              association_instance_set(reflection.name, association)
            end

            association.reload if force_reload

            association
          end

          define_method("#{reflection.name.to_s.singularize}_ids") do
            if send(reflection.name).loaded? || reflection.options[:finder_sql]
              send(reflection.name).map(&:id)
            else
              if reflection.through_reflection && reflection.source_reflection.belongs_to?
                through = reflection.through_reflection
                primary_key = reflection.source_reflection.primary_key_name
                send(through.name).all(:select => "DISTINCT #{through.quoted_table_name}.#{primary_key}").map(&:"#{primary_key}")
              else
                send(reflection.name).all(:select => "#{reflection.quoted_table_name}.#{reflection.klass.primary_key}").map(&:id)
              end
            end
          end

        end

        def collection_accessor_methods(reflection, association_proxy_class, writer = true)
          collection_reader_method(reflection, association_proxy_class)

          if writer
            define_method("#{reflection.name}=") do |new_value|
              # Loads proxy class instance (defined in collection_reader_method) if not already loaded
              association = send(reflection.name)
              association.replace(new_value)
              association
            end

            define_method("#{reflection.name.to_s.singularize}_ids=") do |new_value|
              ids = (new_value || []).reject { |nid| nid.blank? }
              send("#{reflection.name}=", reflection.class_name.constantize.find(ids))
            end
          end
        end

        def association_constructor_method(constructor, reflection, association_proxy_class)
          define_method("#{constructor}_#{reflection.name}") do |*params|
            attributees = params.first unless params.empty?
            replace_existing = params[1].nil? ? true : params[1]
            association = association_instance_get(reflection.name)

            unless association
              association = association_proxy_class.new(self, reflection)
              association_instance_set(reflection.name, association)
            end

            if association_proxy_class == HasOneAssociation
              association.send(constructor, attributees, replace_existing)
            else
              association.send(constructor, attributees)
            end
          end
        end

        def add_counter_cache_callbacks(reflection)
          cache_column = reflection.counter_cache_column

          method_name = "belongs_to_counter_cache_after_create_for_#{reflection.name}".to_sym
          define_method(method_name) do
            association = send(reflection.name)
            association.class.increment_counter(cache_column, send(reflection.primary_key_name)) unless association.nil?
          end
          after_create(method_name)

          method_name = "belongs_to_counter_cache_before_destroy_for_#{reflection.name}".to_sym
          define_method(method_name) do
            association = send(reflection.name)
            association.class.decrement_counter(cache_column, send(reflection.primary_key_name)) unless association.nil?
          end
          before_destroy(method_name)

          module_eval(
            "#{reflection.class_name}.send(:attr_readonly,\"#{cache_column}\".intern) if defined?(#{reflection.class_name}) && #{reflection.class_name}.respond_to?(:attr_readonly)"
          )
        end
        
        def add_touch_callbacks(reflection, touch_attribute)
          method_name = "belongs_to_touch_after_save_or_destroy_for_#{reflection.name}".to_sym
          define_method(method_name) do
            association = send(reflection.name)
            
            if touch_attribute == true
              association.touch unless association.nil?
            else
              association.touch(touch_attribute) unless association.nil?
            end
          end
          after_save(method_name)
          after_destroy(method_name)
        end

        def find_with_associations(options = {})
          catch :invalid_query do
            join_dependency = JoinDependency.new(self, merge_includes(scope(:find, :include), options[:include]), options[:joins])
            rows = select_all_rows(options, join_dependency)
            return join_dependency.instantiate(rows)
          end
          []
        end

        # Creates before_destroy callback methods that nullify, delete or destroy
        # has_many associated objects, according to the defined :dependent rule.
        #
        # See HasManyAssociation#delete_records. Dependent associations
        # delete children, otherwise foreign key is set to NULL.
        #
        # The +extra_conditions+ parameter, which is not used within the main
        # Active Record codebase, is meant to allow plugins to define extra
        # finder conditions.
        def configure_dependency_for_has_many(reflection, extra_conditions = nil)
          if reflection.options.include?(:dependent)
            # Add polymorphic type if the :as option is present
            dependent_conditions = []
            dependent_conditions << "#{reflection.primary_key_name} = \#{record.quoted_id}"
            dependent_conditions << "#{reflection.options[:as]}_type = '#{base_class.name}'" if reflection.options[:as]
            dependent_conditions << sanitize_sql(reflection.options[:conditions], reflection.quoted_table_name) if reflection.options[:conditions]
            dependent_conditions << extra_conditions if extra_conditions
            dependent_conditions = dependent_conditions.collect {|where| "(#{where})" }.join(" AND ")
            dependent_conditions = dependent_conditions.gsub('@', '\@')
            case reflection.options[:dependent]
              when :destroy
                method_name = "has_many_dependent_destroy_for_#{reflection.name}".to_sym
                define_method(method_name) do
                  send(reflection.name).each { |o| o.destroy }
                end
                before_destroy method_name
              when :delete_all
                module_eval %Q{
before_destroy do |record| # before_destroy do |record|
delete_all_has_many_dependencies(record, # delete_all_has_many_dependencies(record,
"#{reflection.name}", # "posts",
#{reflection.class_name}, # Post,
%@#{dependent_conditions}@) # %@...@) # this is a string literal like %(...)
end # end
}
              when :nullify
                module_eval %Q{
before_destroy do |record| # before_destroy do |record|
nullify_has_many_dependencies(record, # nullify_has_many_dependencies(record,
"#{reflection.name}", # "posts",
#{reflection.class_name}, # Post,
"#{reflection.primary_key_name}", # "user_id",
%@#{dependent_conditions}@) # %@...@) # this is a string literal like %(...)
end # end
}
              else
                raise ArgumentError, "The :dependent option expects either :destroy, :delete_all, or :nullify (#{reflection.options[:dependent].inspect})"
            end
          end
        end

        # Creates before_destroy callback methods that nullify, delete or destroy
        # has_one associated objects, according to the defined :dependent rule.
        def configure_dependency_for_has_one(reflection)
          if reflection.options.include?(:dependent)
            case reflection.options[:dependent]
              when :destroy
                method_name = "has_one_dependent_destroy_for_#{reflection.name}".to_sym
                define_method(method_name) do
                  association = send(reflection.name)
                  association.destroy unless association.nil?
                end
                before_destroy method_name
              when :delete
                method_name = "has_one_dependent_delete_for_#{reflection.name}".to_sym
                define_method(method_name) do
                  # Retrieve the associated object and delete it. The retrieval
                  # is necessary because there may be multiple associated objects
                  # with foreign keys pointing to this object, and we only want
                  # to delete the correct one, not all of them.
                  association = send(reflection.name)
                  association.delete unless association.nil?
                end
                before_destroy method_name
              when :nullify
                method_name = "has_one_dependent_nullify_for_#{reflection.name}".to_sym
                define_method(method_name) do
                  association = send(reflection.name)
                  association.update_attribute(reflection.primary_key_name, nil) unless association.nil?
                end
                before_destroy method_name
              else
                raise ArgumentError, "The :dependent option expects either :destroy, :delete or :nullify (#{reflection.options[:dependent].inspect})"
            end
          end
        end

        def configure_dependency_for_belongs_to(reflection)
          if reflection.options.include?(:dependent)
            case reflection.options[:dependent]
              when :destroy
                method_name = "belongs_to_dependent_destroy_for_#{reflection.name}".to_sym
                define_method(method_name) do
                  association = send(reflection.name)
                  association.destroy unless association.nil?
                end
                after_destroy method_name
              when :delete
                method_name = "belongs_to_dependent_delete_for_#{reflection.name}".to_sym
                define_method(method_name) do
                  association = send(reflection.name)
                  association.delete unless association.nil?
                end
                after_destroy method_name
              else
                raise ArgumentError, "The :dependent option expects either :destroy or :delete (#{reflection.options[:dependent].inspect})"
            end
          end
        end

        def delete_all_has_many_dependencies(record, reflection_name, association_class, dependent_conditions)
          association_class.delete_all(dependent_conditions)
        end

        def nullify_has_many_dependencies(record, reflection_name, association_class, primary_key_name, dependent_conditions)
          association_class.update_all("#{primary_key_name} = NULL", dependent_conditions)
        end

        mattr_accessor :valid_keys_for_has_many_association
        @@valid_keys_for_has_many_association = [
          :class_name, :table_name, :foreign_key, :primary_key,
          :dependent,
          :select, :conditions, :include, :order, :group, :having, :limit, :offset,
          :as, :through, :source, :source_type,
          :uniq,
          :finder_sql, :counter_sql,
          :before_add, :after_add, :before_remove, :after_remove,
          :extend, :readonly,
          :validate, :inverse_of
        ]

        def create_has_many_reflection(association_id, options, &extension)
          options.assert_valid_keys(valid_keys_for_has_many_association)
          options[:extend] = create_extension_modules(association_id, extension, options[:extend])

          create_reflection(:has_many, association_id, options, self)
        end

        mattr_accessor :valid_keys_for_has_one_association
        @@valid_keys_for_has_one_association = [
          :class_name, :foreign_key, :remote, :select, :conditions, :order,
          :include, :dependent, :counter_cache, :extend, :as, :readonly,
          :validate, :primary_key, :inverse_of
        ]

        def create_has_one_reflection(association_id, options)
          options.assert_valid_keys(valid_keys_for_has_one_association)
          create_reflection(:has_one, association_id, options, self)
        end

        def create_has_one_through_reflection(association_id, options)
          options.assert_valid_keys(
            :class_name, :foreign_key, :remote, :select, :conditions, :order, :include, :dependent, :counter_cache, :extend, :as, :through, :source, :source_type, :validate
          )
          create_reflection(:has_one, association_id, options, self)
        end

        mattr_accessor :valid_keys_for_belongs_to_association
        @@valid_keys_for_belongs_to_association = [
          :class_name, :foreign_key, :foreign_type, :remote, :select, :conditions,
          :include, :dependent, :counter_cache, :extend, :polymorphic, :readonly,
          :validate, :touch, :inverse_of
        ]

        def create_belongs_to_reflection(association_id, options)
          options.assert_valid_keys(valid_keys_for_belongs_to_association)
          reflection = create_reflection(:belongs_to, association_id, options, self)

          if options[:polymorphic]
            reflection.options[:foreign_type] ||= reflection.class_name.underscore + "_type"
          end

          reflection
        end

        mattr_accessor :valid_keys_for_has_and_belongs_to_many_association
        @@valid_keys_for_has_and_belongs_to_many_association = [
          :class_name, :table_name, :join_table, :foreign_key, :association_foreign_key,
          :select, :conditions, :include, :order, :group, :having, :limit, :offset,
          :uniq,
          :finder_sql, :counter_sql, :delete_sql, :insert_sql,
          :before_add, :after_add, :before_remove, :after_remove,
          :extend, :readonly,
          :validate
        ]

        def create_has_and_belongs_to_many_reflection(association_id, options, &extension)
          options.assert_valid_keys(valid_keys_for_has_and_belongs_to_many_association)

          options[:extend] = create_extension_modules(association_id, extension, options[:extend])

          reflection = create_reflection(:has_and_belongs_to_many, association_id, options, self)
          
          if reflection.association_foreign_key == reflection.primary_key_name
            raise HasAndBelongsToManyAssociationForeignKeyNeeded.new(reflection)
          end

          reflection.options[:join_table] ||= join_table_name(undecorated_table_name(self.to_s), undecorated_table_name(reflection.class_name))

          reflection
        end

        def reflect_on_included_associations(associations)
          [ associations ].flatten.collect { |association| reflect_on_association(association.to_s.intern) }
        end

        def guard_against_unlimitable_reflections(reflections, options)
          if (options[:offset] || options[:limit]) && !using_limitable_reflections?(reflections)
            raise(
              ConfigurationError,
              "You can not use offset and limit together with has_many or has_and_belongs_to_many associations"
            )
          end
        end

        def select_all_rows(options, join_dependency)
          connection.select_all(
            construct_finder_sql_with_included_associations(options, join_dependency),
            "#{name} Load Including Associations"
          )
        end

        def construct_finder_sql_with_included_associations(options, join_dependency)
          scope = scope(:find)
          sql = "SELECT #{column_aliases(join_dependency)} FROM #{(scope && scope[:from]) || options[:from] || quoted_table_name} "
          sql << join_dependency.join_associations.collect{|join| join.association_join }.join

          add_joins!(sql, options[:joins], scope)
          add_conditions!(sql, options[:conditions], scope)
          add_limited_ids_condition!(sql, options, join_dependency) if !using_limitable_reflections?(join_dependency.reflections) && ((scope && scope[:limit]) || options[:limit])

          add_group!(sql, options[:group], options[:having], scope)
          add_order!(sql, options[:order], scope)
          add_limit!(sql, options, scope) if using_limitable_reflections?(join_dependency.reflections)
          add_lock!(sql, options, scope)

          return sanitize_sql(sql)
        end

        def add_limited_ids_condition!(sql, options, join_dependency)
          unless (id_list = select_limited_ids_list(options, join_dependency)).empty?
            sql << "#{condition_word(sql)} #{connection.quote_table_name table_name}.#{primary_key} IN (#{id_list}) "
          else
            throw :invalid_query
          end
        end

        def select_limited_ids_list(options, join_dependency)
          pk = columns_hash[primary_key]

          connection.select_all(
            construct_finder_sql_for_association_limiting(options, join_dependency),
            "#{name} Load IDs For Limited Eager Loading"
          ).collect { |row| connection.quote(row[primary_key], pk) }.join(", ")
        end

        def construct_finder_sql_for_association_limiting(options, join_dependency)
          scope = scope(:find)

          # Only join tables referenced in order or conditions since this is particularly slow on the pre-query.
          tables_from_conditions = conditions_tables(options)
          tables_from_order = order_tables(options)
          all_tables = tables_from_conditions + tables_from_order
          distinct_join_associations = all_tables.uniq.map{|table|
            join_dependency.joins_for_table_name(table)
          }.flatten.compact.uniq

          order = options[:order]
          if scoped_order = (scope && scope[:order])
            order = order ? "#{order}, #{scoped_order}" : scoped_order
          end

          is_distinct = !options[:joins].blank? || include_eager_conditions?(options, tables_from_conditions) || include_eager_order?(options, tables_from_order)
          sql = "SELECT "
          if is_distinct
            sql << connection.distinct("#{connection.quote_table_name table_name}.#{primary_key}", order)
          else
            sql << primary_key
          end
          sql << " FROM #{connection.quote_table_name table_name} "

          if is_distinct
            sql << distinct_join_associations.collect { |assoc| assoc.association_join }.join
            add_joins!(sql, options[:joins], scope)
          end

          add_conditions!(sql, options[:conditions], scope)
          add_group!(sql, options[:group], options[:having], scope)

          if order && is_distinct
            connection.add_order_by_for_association_limiting!(sql, :order => order)
          else
            add_order!(sql, options[:order], scope)
          end

          add_limit!(sql, options, scope)

          return sanitize_sql(sql)
        end

        def tables_in_string(string)
          return [] if string.blank?
          string.scan(/([a-zA-Z_][\.\w]+).?\./).flatten
        end

        def tables_in_hash(hash)
          return [] if hash.blank?
          tables = hash.map do |key, value|
            if value.is_a?(Hash)
              key.to_s
            else
              tables_in_string(key) if key.is_a?(String)
            end
          end
          tables.flatten.compact
        end

        def conditions_tables(options)
          # look in both sets of conditions
          conditions = [scope(:find, :conditions), options[:conditions]].inject([]) do |all, cond|
            case cond
              when nil then all
              when Array then all << tables_in_string(cond.first)
              when Hash then all << tables_in_hash(cond)
              else all << tables_in_string(cond)
            end
          end
          conditions.flatten
        end

        def order_tables(options)
          order = [options[:order], scope(:find, :order) ].join(", ")
          return [] unless order && order.is_a?(String)
          tables_in_string(order)
        end

        def selects_tables(options)
          select = options[:select]
          return [] unless select && select.is_a?(String)
          tables_in_string(select)
        end

        def joined_tables(options)
          scope = scope(:find)
          joins = options[:joins]
          merged_joins = scope && scope[:joins] && joins ? merge_joins(scope[:joins], joins) : (joins || scope && scope[:joins])
          [table_name] + case merged_joins
          when Symbol, Hash, Array
            if array_of_strings?(merged_joins)
              tables_in_string(merged_joins.join(' '))
            else
              join_dependency = ActiveRecord::Associations::ClassMethods::InnerJoinDependency.new(self, merged_joins, nil)
              join_dependency.join_associations.collect {|join_association| [join_association.aliased_join_table_name, join_association.aliased_table_name]}.flatten.compact
            end
          else
            tables_in_string(merged_joins)
          end
        end

        # Checks if the conditions reference a table other than the current model table
        def include_eager_conditions?(options, tables = nil, joined_tables = nil)
          ((tables || conditions_tables(options)) - (joined_tables || joined_tables(options))).any?
        end

        # Checks if the query order references a table other than the current model's table.
        def include_eager_order?(options, tables = nil, joined_tables = nil)
          ((tables || order_tables(options)) - (joined_tables || joined_tables(options))).any?
        end

        def include_eager_select?(options, joined_tables = nil)
          (selects_tables(options) - (joined_tables || joined_tables(options))).any?
        end

        def references_eager_loaded_tables?(options)
          joined_tables = joined_tables(options)
          include_eager_order?(options, nil, joined_tables) || include_eager_conditions?(options, nil, joined_tables) || include_eager_select?(options, joined_tables)
        end

        def using_limitable_reflections?(reflections)
          reflections.reject { |r| [ :belongs_to, :has_one ].include?(r.macro) }.length.zero?
        end

        def column_aliases(join_dependency)
          join_dependency.joins.collect{|join| join.column_names_with_alias.collect{|column_name, aliased_name|
              "#{connection.quote_table_name join.aliased_table_name}.#{connection.quote_column_name column_name} AS #{aliased_name}"}}.flatten.join(", ")
        end

        def add_association_callbacks(association_name, options)
          callbacks = %w(before_add after_add before_remove after_remove)
          callbacks.each do |callback_name|
            full_callback_name = "#{callback_name}_for_#{association_name}"
            defined_callbacks = options[callback_name.to_sym]
            if options.has_key?(callback_name.to_sym)
              class_inheritable_reader full_callback_name.to_sym
              write_inheritable_attribute(full_callback_name.to_sym, [defined_callbacks].flatten)
            else
              write_inheritable_attribute(full_callback_name.to_sym, [])
            end
          end
        end

        def condition_word(sql)
          sql =~ /where/i ? " AND " : "WHERE "
        end

        def create_extension_modules(association_id, block_extension, extensions)
          if block_extension
            extension_module_name = "#{self.to_s.demodulize}#{association_id.to_s.camelize}AssociationExtension"

            silence_warnings do
              self.parent.const_set(extension_module_name, Module.new(&block_extension))
            end
            Array(extensions).push("#{self.parent}::#{extension_module_name}".constantize)
          else
            Array(extensions)
          end
        end

        class JoinDependency # :nodoc:
          attr_reader :joins, :reflections, :table_aliases

          def initialize(base, associations, joins)
            @joins = [JoinBase.new(base, joins)]
            @associations = associations
            @reflections = []
            @base_records_hash = {}
            @base_records_in_order = []
            @table_aliases = Hash.new { |aliases, table| aliases[table] = 0 }
            @table_aliases[base.table_name] = 1
            build(associations)
          end

          def join_associations
            @joins[1..-1].to_a
          end

          def join_base
            @joins[0]
          end

          def instantiate(rows)
            rows.each_with_index do |row, i|
              primary_id = join_base.record_id(row)
              unless @base_records_hash[primary_id]
                @base_records_in_order << (@base_records_hash[primary_id] = join_base.instantiate(row))
              end
              construct(@base_records_hash[primary_id], @associations, join_associations.dup, row)
            end
            remove_duplicate_results!(join_base.active_record, @base_records_in_order, @associations)
            return @base_records_in_order
          end

          def remove_duplicate_results!(base, records, associations)
            case associations
              when Symbol, String
                reflection = base.reflections[associations]
                if reflection && [:has_many, :has_and_belongs_to_many].include?(reflection.macro)
                  records.each { |record| record.send(reflection.name).target.uniq! }
                end
              when Array
                associations.each do |association|
                  remove_duplicate_results!(base, records, association)
                end
              when Hash
                associations.keys.each do |name|
                  reflection = base.reflections[name]
                  is_collection = [:has_many, :has_and_belongs_to_many].include?(reflection.macro)

                  parent_records = records.map do |record|
                    descendant = record.send(reflection.name)
                    next unless descendant
                    descendant.target.uniq! if is_collection
                    descendant
                  end.flatten.compact

                  remove_duplicate_results!(reflection.class_name.constantize, parent_records, associations[name]) unless parent_records.empty?
                end
            end
          end

          def join_for_table_name(table_name)
            join = (@joins.select{|j|j.aliased_table_name == table_name.gsub(/^\"(.*)\"$/){$1} }.first) rescue nil
            return join unless join.nil?
            @joins.select{|j|j.is_a?(JoinAssociation) && j.aliased_join_table_name == table_name.gsub(/^\"(.*)\"$/){$1} }.first rescue nil
          end

          def joins_for_table_name(table_name)
            join = join_for_table_name(table_name)
            result = nil
            if join && join.is_a?(JoinAssociation)
              result = [join]
              if join.parent && join.parent.is_a?(JoinAssociation)
                result = joins_for_table_name(join.parent.aliased_table_name) +
                         result
              end
            end
            result
          end

          protected
            def build(associations, parent = nil)
              parent ||= @joins.last
              case associations
                when Symbol, String
                  reflection = parent.reflections[associations.to_s.intern] or
                  raise ConfigurationError, "Association named '#{ associations }' was not found; perhaps you misspelled it?"
                  @reflections << reflection
                  @joins << build_join_association(reflection, parent)
                when Array
                  associations.each do |association|
                    build(association, parent)
                  end
                when Hash
                  associations.keys.sort{|a,b|a.to_s<=>b.to_s}.each do |name|
                    build(name, parent)
                    build(associations[name])
                  end
                else
                  raise ConfigurationError, associations.inspect
              end
            end

            # overridden in InnerJoinDependency subclass
            def build_join_association(reflection, parent)
              JoinAssociation.new(reflection, self, parent)
            end

            def construct(parent, associations, joins, row)
              case associations
                when Symbol, String
                  join = joins.detect{|j| j.reflection.name.to_s == associations.to_s && j.parent_table_name == parent.class.table_name }
                  raise(ConfigurationError, "No such association") if join.nil?

                  joins.delete(join)
                  construct_association(parent, join, row)
                when Array
                  associations.each do |association|
                    construct(parent, association, joins, row)
                  end
                when Hash
                  associations.keys.sort{|a,b|a.to_s<=>b.to_s}.each do |name|
                    join = joins.detect{|j| j.reflection.name.to_s == name.to_s && j.parent_table_name == parent.class.table_name }
                    raise(ConfigurationError, "No such association") if join.nil?

                    association = construct_association(parent, join, row)
                    joins.delete(join)
                    construct(association, associations[name], joins, row) if association
                  end
                else
                  raise ConfigurationError, associations.inspect
              end
            end

            def construct_association(record, join, row)
              case join.reflection.macro
                when :has_many, :has_and_belongs_to_many
                  collection = record.send(join.reflection.name)
                  collection.loaded

                  return nil if record.id.to_s != join.parent.record_id(row).to_s or row[join.aliased_primary_key].nil?
                  association = join.instantiate(row)
                  collection.target.push(association)
                  collection.__send__(:set_inverse_instance, association, record)
                when :has_one
                  return if record.id.to_s != join.parent.record_id(row).to_s
                  return if record.instance_variable_defined?("@#{join.reflection.name}")
                  association = join.instantiate(row) unless row[join.aliased_primary_key].nil?
                  set_target_and_inverse(join, association, record)
                when :belongs_to
                  return if record.id.to_s != join.parent.record_id(row).to_s or row[join.aliased_primary_key].nil?
                  association = join.instantiate(row)
                  set_target_and_inverse(join, association, record)
                else
                  raise ConfigurationError, "unknown macro: #{join.reflection.macro}"
              end
              return association
            end

            def set_target_and_inverse(join, association, record)
              association_proxy = record.send("set_#{join.reflection.name}_target", association)
              association_proxy.__send__(:set_inverse_instance, association, record)
            end

          class JoinBase # :nodoc:
            attr_reader :active_record, :table_joins
            delegate :table_name, :column_names, :primary_key, :reflections, :sanitize_sql, :to => :active_record

            def initialize(active_record, joins = nil)
              @active_record = active_record
              @cached_record = {}
              @table_joins = joins
            end

            def aliased_prefix
              "t0"
            end

            def aliased_primary_key
              "#{aliased_prefix}_r0"
            end

            def aliased_table_name
              active_record.table_name
            end

            def column_names_with_alias
              unless defined?(@column_names_with_alias)
                @column_names_with_alias = []

                ([primary_key] + (column_names - [primary_key])).each_with_index do |column_name, i|
                  @column_names_with_alias << [column_name, "#{aliased_prefix}_r#{i}"]
                end
              end

              @column_names_with_alias
            end

            def extract_record(row)
              column_names_with_alias.inject({}){|record, (cn, an)| record[cn] = row[an]; record}
            end

            def record_id(row)
              row[aliased_primary_key]
            end

            def instantiate(row)
              @cached_record[record_id(row)] ||= active_record.send(:instantiate, extract_record(row))
            end
          end

          class JoinAssociation < JoinBase # :nodoc:
            attr_reader :reflection, :parent, :aliased_table_name, :aliased_prefix, :aliased_join_table_name, :parent_table_name
            delegate :options, :klass, :through_reflection, :source_reflection, :to => :reflection

            def initialize(reflection, join_dependency, parent = nil)
              reflection.check_validity!
              if reflection.options[:polymorphic]
                raise EagerLoadPolymorphicError.new(reflection)
              end

              super(reflection.klass)
              @join_dependency = join_dependency
              @parent = parent
              @reflection = reflection
              @aliased_prefix = "t#{ join_dependency.joins.size }"
              @parent_table_name = parent.active_record.table_name
              @aliased_table_name = aliased_table_name_for(table_name)

              if reflection.macro == :has_and_belongs_to_many
                @aliased_join_table_name = aliased_table_name_for(reflection.options[:join_table], "_join")
              end

              if [:has_many, :has_one].include?(reflection.macro) && reflection.options[:through]
                @aliased_join_table_name = aliased_table_name_for(reflection.through_reflection.klass.table_name, "_join")
              end
            end

            def association_join
              connection = reflection.active_record.connection
              join = case reflection.macro
                when :has_and_belongs_to_many
                  " #{join_type} %s ON %s.%s = %s.%s " % [
                     table_alias_for(options[:join_table], aliased_join_table_name),
                     connection.quote_table_name(aliased_join_table_name),
                     options[:foreign_key] || reflection.active_record.to_s.foreign_key,
                     connection.quote_table_name(parent.aliased_table_name),
                     reflection.active_record.primary_key] +
                  " #{join_type} %s ON %s.%s = %s.%s " % [
                     table_name_and_alias,
                     connection.quote_table_name(aliased_table_name),
                     klass.primary_key,
                     connection.quote_table_name(aliased_join_table_name),
                     options[:association_foreign_key] || klass.to_s.foreign_key
                     ]
                when :has_many, :has_one
                  case
                    when reflection.options[:through]
                      through_conditions = through_reflection.options[:conditions] ? "AND #{interpolate_sql(sanitize_sql(through_reflection.options[:conditions]))}" : ''

                      jt_foreign_key = jt_as_extra = jt_source_extra = jt_sti_extra = nil
                      first_key = second_key = as_extra = nil

                      if through_reflection.options[:as] # has_many :through against a polymorphic join
                        jt_foreign_key = through_reflection.options[:as].to_s + '_id'
                        jt_as_extra = " AND %s.%s = %s" % [
                          connection.quote_table_name(aliased_join_table_name),
                          connection.quote_column_name(through_reflection.options[:as].to_s + '_type'),
                          klass.quote_value(parent.active_record.base_class.name)
                        ]
                      else
                        jt_foreign_key = through_reflection.primary_key_name
                      end

                      case source_reflection.macro
                      when :has_many
                        if source_reflection.options[:as]
                          first_key = "#{source_reflection.options[:as]}_id"
                          second_key = options[:foreign_key] || primary_key
                          as_extra = " AND %s.%s = %s" % [
                            connection.quote_table_name(aliased_table_name),
                            connection.quote_column_name("#{source_reflection.options[:as]}_type"),
                            klass.quote_value(source_reflection.active_record.base_class.name)
                          ]
                        else
                          first_key = through_reflection.klass.base_class.to_s.foreign_key
                          second_key = options[:foreign_key] || primary_key
                        end

                        unless through_reflection.klass.descends_from_active_record?
                          jt_sti_extra = " AND %s.%s = %s" % [
                            connection.quote_table_name(aliased_join_table_name),
                            connection.quote_column_name(through_reflection.active_record.inheritance_column),
                            through_reflection.klass.quote_value(through_reflection.klass.sti_name)]
                        end
                      when :belongs_to
                        first_key = primary_key
                        if reflection.options[:source_type]
                          second_key = source_reflection.association_foreign_key
                          jt_source_extra = " AND %s.%s = %s" % [
                            connection.quote_table_name(aliased_join_table_name),
                            connection.quote_column_name(reflection.source_reflection.options[:foreign_type]),
                            klass.quote_value(reflection.options[:source_type])
                          ]
                        else
                          second_key = source_reflection.primary_key_name
                        end
                      end

                      " #{join_type} %s ON (%s.%s = %s.%s%s%s%s) " % [
                        table_alias_for(through_reflection.klass.table_name, aliased_join_table_name),
                        connection.quote_table_name(parent.aliased_table_name),
                        connection.quote_column_name(parent.primary_key),
                        connection.quote_table_name(aliased_join_table_name),
                        connection.quote_column_name(jt_foreign_key),
                        jt_as_extra, jt_source_extra, jt_sti_extra
                      ] +
                      " #{join_type} %s ON (%s.%s = %s.%s%s) " % [
                        table_name_and_alias,
                        connection.quote_table_name(aliased_table_name),
                        connection.quote_column_name(first_key),
                        connection.quote_table_name(aliased_join_table_name),
                        connection.quote_column_name(second_key),
                        as_extra
                      ]

                    when reflection.options[:as] && [:has_many, :has_one].include?(reflection.macro)
                      " #{join_type} %s ON %s.%s = %s.%s AND %s.%s = %s" % [
                        table_name_and_alias,
                        connection.quote_table_name(aliased_table_name),
                        "#{reflection.options[:as]}_id",
                        connection.quote_table_name(parent.aliased_table_name),
                        parent.primary_key,
                        connection.quote_table_name(aliased_table_name),
                        "#{reflection.options[:as]}_type",
                        klass.quote_value(parent.active_record.base_class.name)
                      ]
                    else
                      foreign_key = options[:foreign_key] || reflection.active_record.name.foreign_key
                      " #{join_type} %s ON %s.%s = %s.%s " % [
                        table_name_and_alias,
                        aliased_table_name,
                        foreign_key,
                        parent.aliased_table_name,
                        reflection.options[:primary_key] || parent.primary_key
                      ]
                  end
                when :belongs_to
                  " #{join_type} %s ON %s.%s = %s.%s " % [
                     table_name_and_alias,
                     connection.quote_table_name(aliased_table_name),
                     reflection.klass.primary_key,
                     connection.quote_table_name(parent.aliased_table_name),
                     options[:foreign_key] || reflection.primary_key_name
                    ]
                else
                  ""
              end || ''
              join << %(AND %s) % [
                klass.send(:type_condition, aliased_table_name)] unless klass.descends_from_active_record?

              [through_reflection, reflection].each do |ref|
                join << "AND #{interpolate_sql(sanitize_sql(ref.options[:conditions], aliased_table_name))} " if ref && ref.options[:conditions]
              end

              join
            end

            protected

              def aliased_table_name_for(name, suffix = nil)
                if !parent.table_joins.blank? && parent.table_joins.to_s.downcase =~ %r{join(\s+\w+)?\s+#{active_record.connection.quote_table_name name.downcase}\son}
                  @join_dependency.table_aliases[name] += 1
                end

                unless @join_dependency.table_aliases[name].zero?
                  # if the table name has been used, then use an alias
                  name = active_record.connection.table_alias_for "#{pluralize(reflection.name)}_#{parent_table_name}#{suffix}"
                  table_index = @join_dependency.table_aliases[name]
                  @join_dependency.table_aliases[name] += 1
                  name = name[0..active_record.connection.table_alias_length-3] + "_#{table_index+1}" if table_index > 0
                else
                  @join_dependency.table_aliases[name] += 1
                end

                name
              end

              def pluralize(table_name)
                ActiveRecord::Base.pluralize_table_names ? table_name.to_s.pluralize : table_name
              end

              def table_alias_for(table_name, table_alias)
                 "#{reflection.active_record.connection.quote_table_name(table_name)} #{table_alias if table_name != table_alias}".strip
              end

              def table_name_and_alias
                table_alias_for table_name, @aliased_table_name
              end

              def interpolate_sql(sql)
                instance_eval("%@#{sql.gsub('@', '\@')}@")
              end

            private
              def join_type
                "LEFT OUTER JOIN"
              end
          end
        end

        class InnerJoinDependency < JoinDependency # :nodoc:
          protected
            def build_join_association(reflection, parent)
              InnerJoinAssociation.new(reflection, self, parent)
            end

          class InnerJoinAssociation < JoinAssociation
            private
              def join_type
                "INNER JOIN"
              end
          end
        end

    end
  end
end
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