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begin
  require 'psych'
rescue LoadError
end

require 'yaml'
require 'set'
require 'active_support/benchmarkable'
require 'active_support/dependencies'
require 'active_support/descendants_tracker'
require 'active_support/time'
require 'active_support/core_ext/class/attribute'
require 'active_support/core_ext/class/attribute_accessors'
require 'active_support/core_ext/class/delegating_attributes'
require 'active_support/core_ext/class/attribute'
require 'active_support/core_ext/array/extract_options'
require 'active_support/core_ext/hash/deep_merge'
require 'active_support/core_ext/hash/indifferent_access'
require 'active_support/core_ext/hash/slice'
require 'active_support/core_ext/string/behavior'
require 'active_support/core_ext/kernel/singleton_class'
require 'active_support/core_ext/module/delegation'
require 'active_support/core_ext/module/introspection'
require 'active_support/core_ext/object/duplicable'
require 'active_support/core_ext/object/blank'
require 'arel'
require 'active_record/errors'
require 'active_record/log_subscriber'

module ActiveRecord #:nodoc:
  # = Active Record
  #
  # Active Record objects don't specify their attributes directly, but rather infer them from
  # the table definition with which they're linked. Adding, removing, and changing attributes
  # and their type is done directly in the database. Any change is instantly reflected in the
  # Active Record objects. The mapping that binds a given Active Record class to a certain
  # database table will happen automatically in most common cases, but can be overwritten for the uncommon ones.
  #
  # See the mapping rules in table_name and the full example in link:files/activerecord/README_rdoc.html for more insight.
  #
  # == Creation
  #
  # Active Records accept constructor parameters either in a hash or as a block. The hash
  # method is especially useful when you're receiving the data from somewhere else, like an
  # HTTP request. It works like this:
  #
  # user = User.new(:name => "David", :occupation => "Code Artist")
  # user.name # => "David"
  #
  # You can also use block initialization:
  #
  # user = User.new do |u|
  # u.name = "David"
  # u.occupation = "Code Artist"
  # end
  #
  # And of course you can just create a bare object and specify the attributes after the fact:
  #
  # user = User.new
  # user.name = "David"
  # user.occupation = "Code Artist"
  #
  # == Conditions
  #
  # Conditions can either be specified as a string, array, or hash representing the WHERE-part of an SQL statement.
  # The array form is to be used when the condition input is tainted and requires sanitization. The string and hash
  # forms can be used for statements that don't involve tainted data. The hash form works much like the array form,
  # except only equality and range is possible. Examples:
  #
  # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
  # def self.authenticate_unsafely(user_name, password)
  # where("user_name = '#{user_name}' AND password = '#{password}'").first
  # end
  #
  # def self.authenticate_safely(user_name, password)
  # where("user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password).first
  # end
  #
  # def self.authenticate_safely_simply(user_name, password)
  # where(:user_name => user_name, :password => password).first
  # end
  # end
  #
  # The <tt>authenticate_unsafely</tt> method inserts the parameters directly into the query
  # and is thus susceptible to SQL-injection attacks if the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+
  # parameters come directly from an HTTP request. The <tt>authenticate_safely</tt> and
  # <tt>authenticate_safely_simply</tt> both will sanitize the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+
  # before inserting them in the query, which will ensure that an attacker can't escape the
  # query and fake the login (or worse).
  #
  # When using multiple parameters in the conditions, it can easily become hard to read exactly
  # what the fourth or fifth question mark is supposed to represent. In those cases, you can
  # resort to named bind variables instead. That's done by replacing the question marks with
  # symbols and supplying a hash with values for the matching symbol keys:
  #
  # Company.where(
  # "id = :id AND name = :name AND division = :division AND created_at > :accounting_date",
  # { :id => 3, :name => "37signals", :division => "First", :accounting_date => '2005-01-01' }
  # ).first
  #
  # Similarly, a simple hash without a statement will generate conditions based on equality with the SQL AND
  # operator. For instance:
  #
  # Student.where(:first_name => "Harvey", :status => 1)
  # Student.where(params[:student])
  #
  # A range may be used in the hash to use the SQL BETWEEN operator:
  #
  # Student.where(:grade => 9..12)
  #
  # An array may be used in the hash to use the SQL IN operator:
  #
  # Student.where(:grade => [9,11,12])
  #
  # When joining tables, nested hashes or keys written in the form 'table_name.column_name'
  # can be used to qualify the table name of a particular condition. For instance:
  #
  # Student.joins(:schools).where(:schools => { :type => 'public' })
  # Student.joins(:schools).where('schools.type' => 'public' )
  #
  # == Overwriting default accessors
  #
  # All column values are automatically available through basic accessors on the Active Record
  # object, but sometimes you want to specialize this behavior. This can be done by overwriting
  # the default accessors (using the same name as the attribute) and calling
  # <tt>read_attribute(attr_name)</tt> and <tt>write_attribute(attr_name, value)</tt> to actually
  # change things.
  #
  # class Song < ActiveRecord::Base
  # # Uses an integer of seconds to hold the length of the song
  #
  # def length=(minutes)
  # write_attribute(:length, minutes.to_i * 60)
  # end
  #
  # def length
  # read_attribute(:length) / 60
  # end
  # end
  #
  # You can alternatively use <tt>self[:attribute]=(value)</tt> and <tt>self[:attribute]</tt>
  # instead of <tt>write_attribute(:attribute, value)</tt> and <tt>read_attribute(:attribute)</tt>.
  #
  # == Attribute query methods
  #
  # In addition to the basic accessors, query methods are also automatically available on the Active Record object.
  # Query methods allow you to test whether an attribute value is present.
  #
  # For example, an Active Record User with the <tt>name</tt> attribute has a <tt>name?</tt> method that you can call
  # to determine whether the user has a name:
  #
  # user = User.new(:name => "David")
  # user.name? # => true
  #
  # anonymous = User.new(:name => "")
  # anonymous.name? # => false
  #
  # == Accessing attributes before they have been typecasted
  #
  # Sometimes you want to be able to read the raw attribute data without having the column-determined
  # typecast run its course first. That can be done by using the <tt><attribute>_before_type_cast</tt>
  # accessors that all attributes have. For example, if your Account model has a <tt>balance</tt> attribute,
  # you can call <tt>account.balance_before_type_cast</tt> or <tt>account.id_before_type_cast</tt>.
  #
  # This is especially useful in validation situations where the user might supply a string for an
  # integer field and you want to display the original string back in an error message. Accessing the
  # attribute normally would typecast the string to 0, which isn't what you want.
  #
  # == Dynamic attribute-based finders
  #
  # Dynamic attribute-based finders are a cleaner way of getting (and/or creating) objects
  # by simple queries without turning to SQL. They work by appending the name of an attribute
  # to <tt>find_by_</tt>, <tt>find_last_by_</tt>, or <tt>find_all_by_</tt> and thus produces finders
  # like <tt>Person.find_by_user_name</tt>, <tt>Person.find_all_by_last_name</tt>, and
  # <tt>Payment.find_by_transaction_id</tt>. Instead of writing
  # <tt>Person.where(:user_name => user_name).first</tt>, you just do <tt>Person.find_by_user_name(user_name)</tt>.
  # And instead of writing <tt>Person.where(:last_name => last_name).all</tt>, you just do
  # <tt>Person.find_all_by_last_name(last_name)</tt>.
  #
  # It's also possible to use multiple attributes in the same find by separating them with "_and_".
  #
  # Person.where(:user_name => user_name, :password => password).first
  # Person.find_by_user_name_and_password(user_name, password) # with dynamic finder
  #
  # It's even possible to call these dynamic finder methods on relations and named scopes.
  #
  # Payment.order("created_on").find_all_by_amount(50)
  # Payment.pending.find_last_by_amount(100)
  #
  # The same dynamic finder style can be used to create the object if it doesn't already exist.
  # This dynamic finder is called with <tt>find_or_create_by_</tt> and will return the object if
  # it already exists and otherwise creates it, then returns it. Protected attributes won't be set
  # unless they are given in a block.
  #
  # # No 'Summer' tag exists
  # Tag.find_or_create_by_name("Summer") # equal to Tag.create(:name => "Summer")
  #
  # # Now the 'Summer' tag does exist
  # Tag.find_or_create_by_name("Summer") # equal to Tag.find_by_name("Summer")
  #
  # # Now 'Bob' exist and is an 'admin'
  # User.find_or_create_by_name('Bob', :age => 40) { |u| u.admin = true }
  #
  # Use the <tt>find_or_initialize_by_</tt> finder if you want to return a new record without
  # saving it first. Protected attributes won't be set unless they are given in a block.
  #
  # # No 'Winter' tag exists
  # winter = Tag.find_or_initialize_by_name("Winter")
  # winter.persisted? # false
  #
  # To find by a subset of the attributes to be used for instantiating a new object, pass a hash instead of
  # a list of parameters.
  #
  # Tag.find_or_create_by_name(:name => "rails", :creator => current_user)
  #
  # That will either find an existing tag named "rails", or create a new one while setting the
  # user that created it.
  #
  # Just like <tt>find_by_*</tt>, you can also use <tt>scoped_by_*</tt> to retrieve data. The good thing about
  # using this feature is that the very first time result is returned using <tt>method_missing</tt> technique
  # but after that the method is declared on the class. Henceforth <tt>method_missing</tt> will not be hit.
  #
  # User.scoped_by_user_name('David')
  #
  # == Saving arrays, hashes, and other non-mappable objects in text columns
  #
  # Active Record can serialize any object in text columns using YAML. To do so, you must
  # specify this with a call to the class method +serialize+.
  # This makes it possible to store arrays, hashes, and other non-mappable objects without doing
  # any additional work.
  #
  # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
  # serialize :preferences
  # end
  #
  # user = User.create(:preferences => { "background" => "black", "display" => large })
  # User.find(user.id).preferences # => { "background" => "black", "display" => large }
  #
  # You can also specify a class option as the second parameter that'll raise an exception
  # if a serialized object is retrieved as a descendant of a class not in the hierarchy.
  #
  # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
  # serialize :preferences, Hash
  # end
  #
  # user = User.create(:preferences => %w( one two three ))
  # User.find(user.id).preferences # raises SerializationTypeMismatch
  #
  # When you specify a class option, the default value for that attribute will be a new
  # instance of that class.
  #
  # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
  # serialize :preferences, OpenStruct
  # end
  #
  # user = User.new
  # user.preferences.theme_color = "red"
  #
  #
  # == Single table inheritance
  #
  # Active Record allows inheritance by storing the name of the class in a column that by
  # default is named "type" (can be changed by overwriting <tt>Base.inheritance_column</tt>).
  # This means that an inheritance looking like this:
  #
  # class Company < ActiveRecord::Base; end
  # class Firm < Company; end
  # class Client < Company; end
  # class PriorityClient < Client; end
  #
  # When you do <tt>Firm.create(:name => "37signals")</tt>, this record will be saved in
  # the companies table with type = "Firm". You can then fetch this row again using
  # <tt>Company.where(:name => '37signals').first</tt> and it will return a Firm object.
  #
  # If you don't have a type column defined in your table, single-table inheritance won't
  # be triggered. In that case, it'll work just like normal subclasses with no special magic
  # for differentiating between them or reloading the right type with find.
  #
  # Note, all the attributes for all the cases are kept in the same table. Read more:
  # http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/singleTableInheritance.html
  #
  # == Connection to multiple databases in different models
  #
  # Connections are usually created through ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection and retrieved
  # by ActiveRecord::Base.connection. All classes inheriting from ActiveRecord::Base will use this
  # connection. But you can also set a class-specific connection. For example, if Course is an
  # ActiveRecord::Base, but resides in a different database, you can just say <tt>Course.establish_connection</tt>
  # and Course and all of its subclasses will use this connection instead.
  #
  # This feature is implemented by keeping a connection pool in ActiveRecord::Base that is
  # a Hash indexed by the class. If a connection is requested, the retrieve_connection method
  # will go up the class-hierarchy until a connection is found in the connection pool.
  #
  # == Exceptions
  #
  # * ActiveRecordError - Generic error class and superclass of all other errors raised by Active Record.
  # * AdapterNotSpecified - The configuration hash used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> didn't include an
  # <tt>:adapter</tt> key.
  # * AdapterNotFound - The <tt>:adapter</tt> key used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> specified a
  # non-existent adapter
  # (or a bad spelling of an existing one).
  # * AssociationTypeMismatch - The object assigned to the association wasn't of the type
  # specified in the association definition.
  # * SerializationTypeMismatch - The serialized object wasn't of the class specified as the second parameter.
  # * ConnectionNotEstablished+ - No connection has been established. Use <tt>establish_connection</tt>
  # before querying.
  # * RecordNotFound - No record responded to the +find+ method. Either the row with the given ID doesn't exist
  # or the row didn't meet the additional restrictions. Some +find+ calls do not raise this exception to signal
  # nothing was found, please check its documentation for further details.
  # * StatementInvalid - The database server rejected the SQL statement. The precise error is added in the message.
  # * MultiparameterAssignmentErrors - Collection of errors that occurred during a mass assignment using the
  # <tt>attributes=</tt> method. The +errors+ property of this exception contains an array of
  # AttributeAssignmentError
  # objects that should be inspected to determine which attributes triggered the errors.
  # * AttributeAssignmentError - An error occurred while doing a mass assignment through the
  # <tt>attributes=</tt> method.
  # You can inspect the +attribute+ property of the exception object to determine which attribute
  # triggered the error.
  #
  # *Note*: The attributes listed are class-level attributes (accessible from both the class and instance level).
  # So it's possible to assign a logger to the class through <tt>Base.logger=</tt> which will then be used by all
  # instances in the current object space.
  class Base
    ##
    # :singleton-method:
    # Accepts a logger conforming to the interface of Log4r or the default Ruby 1.8+ Logger class,
    # which is then passed on to any new database connections made and which can be retrieved on both
    # a class and instance level by calling +logger+.
    cattr_accessor :logger, :instance_writer => false

    ##
    # :singleton-method:
    # Contains the database configuration - as is typically stored in config/database.yml -
    # as a Hash.
    #
    # For example, the following database.yml...
    #
    # development:
    # adapter: sqlite3
    # database: db/development.sqlite3
    #
    # production:
    # adapter: sqlite3
    # database: db/production.sqlite3
    #
    # ...would result in ActiveRecord::Base.configurations to look like this:
    #
    # {
    # 'development' => {
    # 'adapter' => 'sqlite3',
    # 'database' => 'db/development.sqlite3'
    # },
    # 'production' => {
    # 'adapter' => 'sqlite3',
    # 'database' => 'db/production.sqlite3'
    # }
    # }
    cattr_accessor :configurations, :instance_writer => false
    @@configurations = {}

    ##
    # :singleton-method:
    # Accessor for the prefix type that will be prepended to every primary key column name.
    # The options are :table_name and :table_name_with_underscore. If the first is specified,
    # the Product class will look for "productid" instead of "id" as the primary column. If the
    # latter is specified, the Product class will look for "product_id" instead of "id". Remember
    # that this is a global setting for all Active Records.
    cattr_accessor :primary_key_prefix_type, :instance_writer => false
    @@primary_key_prefix_type = nil

    ##
    # :singleton-method:
    # Accessor for the name of the prefix string to prepend to every table name. So if set
    # to "basecamp_", all table names will be named like "basecamp_projects", "basecamp_people",
    # etc. This is a convenient way of creating a namespace for tables in a shared database.
    # By default, the prefix is the empty string.
    #
    # If you are organising your models within modules you can add a prefix to the models within
    # a namespace by defining a singleton method in the parent module called table_name_prefix which
    # returns your chosen prefix.
    class_attribute :table_name_prefix, :instance_writer => false
    self.table_name_prefix = ""

    ##
    # :singleton-method:
    # Works like +table_name_prefix+, but appends instead of prepends (set to "_basecamp" gives "projects_basecamp",
    # "people_basecamp"). By default, the suffix is the empty string.
    class_attribute :table_name_suffix, :instance_writer => false
    self.table_name_suffix = ""

    ##
    # :singleton-method:
    # Indicates whether table names should be the pluralized versions of the corresponding class names.
    # If true, the default table name for a Product class will be +products+. If false, it would just be +product+.
    # See table_name for the full rules on table/class naming. This is true, by default.
    class_attribute :pluralize_table_names, :instance_writer => false
    self.pluralize_table_names = true

    ##
    # :singleton-method:
    # Determines whether to use Time.local (using :local) or Time.utc (using :utc) when pulling
    # dates and times from the database. This is set to :local by default.
    cattr_accessor :default_timezone, :instance_writer => false
    @@default_timezone = :local

    ##
    # :singleton-method:
    # Specifies the format to use when dumping the database schema with Rails'
    # Rakefile. If :sql, the schema is dumped as (potentially database-
    # specific) SQL statements. If :ruby, the schema is dumped as an
    # ActiveRecord::Schema file which can be loaded into any database that
    # supports migrations. Use :ruby if you want to have different database
    # adapters for, e.g., your development and test environments.
    cattr_accessor :schema_format , :instance_writer => false
    @@schema_format = :ruby

    ##
    # :singleton-method:
    # Specify whether or not to use timestamps for migration versions
    cattr_accessor :timestamped_migrations , :instance_writer => false
    @@timestamped_migrations = true

    # Determine whether to store the full constant name including namespace when using STI
    class_attribute :store_full_sti_class
    self.store_full_sti_class = true

    # Stores the default scope for the class
    class_attribute :default_scopes, :instance_writer => false
    self.default_scopes = []

    # Returns a hash of all the attributes that have been specified for serialization as
    # keys and their class restriction as values.
    class_attribute :serialized_attributes
    self.serialized_attributes = {}

    class_attribute :_attr_readonly, :instance_writer => false
    self._attr_readonly = []

    class << self # Class methods
      delegate :find, :first, :first!, :last, :last!, :all, :exists?, :any?, :many?, :to => :scoped
      delegate :destroy, :destroy_all, :delete, :delete_all, :update, :update_all, :to => :scoped
      delegate :find_each, :find_in_batches, :to => :scoped
      delegate :select, :group, :order, :except, :reorder, :limit, :offset, :joins, :where, :preload, :eager_load, :includes, :from, :lock, :readonly, :having, :create_with, :to => :scoped
      delegate :count, :average, :minimum, :maximum, :sum, :calculate, :to => :scoped

      # Executes a custom SQL query against your database and returns all the results. The results will
      # be returned as an array with columns requested encapsulated as attributes of the model you call
      # this method from. If you call <tt>Product.find_by_sql</tt> then the results will be returned in
      # a Product object with the attributes you specified in the SQL query.
      #
      # If you call a complicated SQL query which spans multiple tables the columns specified by the
      # SELECT will be attributes of the model, whether or not they are columns of the corresponding
      # table.
      #
      # The +sql+ parameter is a full SQL query as a string. It will be called as is, there will be
      # no database agnostic conversions performed. This should be a last resort because using, for example,
      # MySQL specific terms will lock you to using that particular database engine or require you to
      # change your call if you switch engines.
      #
      # ==== Examples
      # # A simple SQL query spanning multiple tables
      # Post.find_by_sql "SELECT p.title, c.author FROM posts p, comments c WHERE p.id = c.post_id"
      # > [#<Post:0x36bff9c @attributes={"title"=>"Ruby Meetup", "first_name"=>"Quentin"}>, ...]
      #
      # # You can use the same string replacement techniques as you can with ActiveRecord#find
      # Post.find_by_sql ["SELECT title FROM posts WHERE author = ? AND created > ?", author_id, start_date]
      # > [#<Post:0x36bff9c @attributes={"title"=>"The Cheap Man Buys Twice"}>, ...]
      def find_by_sql(sql, binds = [])
        connection.select_all(sanitize_sql(sql), "#{name} Load", binds).collect! { |record| instantiate(record) }
      end

      # Creates an object (or multiple objects) and saves it to the database, if validations pass.
      # The resulting object is returned whether the object was saved successfully to the database or not.
      #
      # The +attributes+ parameter can be either be a Hash or an Array of Hashes. These Hashes describe the
      # attributes on the objects that are to be created.
      #
      # +create+ respects mass-assignment security and accepts either +:as+ or +:without_protection+ options
      # in the +options+ parameter.
      #
      # ==== Examples
      # # Create a single new object
      # User.create(:first_name => 'Jamie')
      #
      # # Create a single new object using the :admin mass-assignment security role
      # User.create({ :first_name => 'Jamie', :is_admin => true }, :as => :admin)
      #
      # # Create a single new object bypassing mass-assignment security
      # User.create({ :first_name => 'Jamie', :is_admin => true }, :without_protection => true)
      #
      # # Create an Array of new objects
      # User.create([{ :first_name => 'Jamie' }, { :first_name => 'Jeremy' }])
      #
      # # Create a single object and pass it into a block to set other attributes.
      # User.create(:first_name => 'Jamie') do |u|
      # u.is_admin = false
      # end
      #
      # # Creating an Array of new objects using a block, where the block is executed for each object:
      # User.create([{ :first_name => 'Jamie' }, { :first_name => 'Jeremy' }]) do |u|
      # u.is_admin = false
      # end
      def create(attributes = nil, options = {}, &block)
        if attributes.is_a?(Array)
          attributes.collect { |attr| create(attr, options, &block) }
        else
          object = new(attributes, options, &block)
          object.save
          object
        end
      end

      # Returns the result of an SQL statement that should only include a COUNT(*) in the SELECT part.
      # The use of this method should be restricted to complicated SQL queries that can't be executed
      # using the ActiveRecord::Calculations class methods. Look into those before using this.
      #
      # ==== Parameters
      #
      # * +sql+ - An SQL statement which should return a count query from the database, see the example below.
      #
      # ==== Examples
      #
      # Product.count_by_sql "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM sales s, customers c WHERE s.customer_id = c.id"
      def count_by_sql(sql)
        sql = sanitize_conditions(sql)
        connection.select_value(sql, "#{name} Count").to_i
      end

      # Attributes listed as readonly will be used to create a new record but update operations will
      # ignore these fields.
      def attr_readonly(*attributes)
        self._attr_readonly = Set.new(attributes.map { |a| a.to_s }) + (self._attr_readonly || [])
      end

      # Returns an array of all the attributes that have been specified as readonly.
      def readonly_attributes
        self._attr_readonly
      end

      # If you have an attribute that needs to be saved to the database as an object, and retrieved as the same object,
      # then specify the name of that attribute using this method and it will be handled automatically.
      # The serialization is done through YAML. If +class_name+ is specified, the serialized object must be of that
      # class on retrieval or SerializationTypeMismatch will be raised.
      #
      # ==== Parameters
      #
      # * +attr_name+ - The field name that should be serialized.
      # * +class_name+ - Optional, class name that the object type should be equal to.
      #
      # ==== Example
      # # Serialize a preferences attribute
      # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      # serialize :preferences
      # end
      def serialize(attr_name, class_name = Object)
        coder = if [:load, :dump].all? { |x| class_name.respond_to?(x) }
                  class_name
                else
                  Coders::YAMLColumn.new(class_name)
                end

        # merge new serialized attribute and create new hash to ensure that each class in inheritance hierarchy
        # has its own hash of own serialized attributes
        self.serialized_attributes = serialized_attributes.merge(attr_name.to_s => coder)
      end

      # Guesses the table name (in forced lower-case) based on the name of the class in the
      # inheritance hierarchy descending directly from ActiveRecord::Base. So if the hierarchy
      # looks like: Reply < Message < ActiveRecord::Base, then Message is used
      # to guess the table name even when called on Reply. The rules used to do the guess
      # are handled by the Inflector class in Active Support, which knows almost all common
      # English inflections. You can add new inflections in config/initializers/inflections.rb.
      #
      # Nested classes are given table names prefixed by the singular form of
      # the parent's table name. Enclosing modules are not considered.
      #
      # ==== Examples
      #
      # class Invoice < ActiveRecord::Base
      # end
      #
      # file class table_name
      # invoice.rb Invoice invoices
      #
      # class Invoice < ActiveRecord::Base
      # class Lineitem < ActiveRecord::Base
      # end
      # end
      #
      # file class table_name
      # invoice.rb Invoice::Lineitem invoice_lineitems
      #
      # module Invoice
      # class Lineitem < ActiveRecord::Base
      # end
      # end
      #
      # file class table_name
      # invoice/lineitem.rb Invoice::Lineitem lineitems
      #
      # Additionally, the class-level +table_name_prefix+ is prepended and the
      # +table_name_suffix+ is appended. So if you have "myapp_" as a prefix,
      # the table name guess for an Invoice class becomes "myapp_invoices".
      # Invoice::Lineitem becomes "myapp_invoice_lineitems".
      #
      # You can also overwrite this class method to allow for unguessable
      # links, such as a Mouse class with a link to a "mice" table. Example:
      #
      # class Mouse < ActiveRecord::Base
      # set_table_name "mice"
      # end
      def table_name
        reset_table_name
      end

      # Returns a quoted version of the table name, used to construct SQL statements.
      def quoted_table_name
        @quoted_table_name ||= connection.quote_table_name(table_name)
      end

      # Computes the table name, (re)sets it internally, and returns it.
      def reset_table_name #:nodoc:
        self.table_name = compute_table_name
      end

      def full_table_name_prefix #:nodoc:
        (parents.detect{ |p| p.respond_to?(:table_name_prefix) } || self).table_name_prefix
      end

      # Defines the column name for use with single table inheritance. Use
      # <tt>set_inheritance_column</tt> to set a different value.
      def inheritance_column
        @inheritance_column ||= "type"
      end

      # Lazy-set the sequence name to the connection's default. This method
      # is only ever called once since set_sequence_name overrides it.
      def sequence_name #:nodoc:
        reset_sequence_name
      end

      def reset_sequence_name #:nodoc:
        default = connection.default_sequence_name(table_name, primary_key)
        set_sequence_name(default)
        default
      end

      # Sets the table name. If the value is nil or false then the value returned by the given
      # block is used.
      #
      # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
      # set_table_name "project"
      # end
      def set_table_name(value = nil, &block)
        @quoted_table_name = nil
        define_attr_method :table_name, value, &block
        @arel_table = nil

        @relation = Relation.new(self, arel_table)
      end
      alias :table_name= :set_table_name

      # Sets the name of the inheritance column to use to the given value,
      # or (if the value # is nil or false) to the value returned by the
      # given block.
      #
      # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
      # set_inheritance_column do
      # original_inheritance_column + "_id"
      # end
      # end
      def set_inheritance_column(value = nil, &block)
        define_attr_method :inheritance_column, value, &block
      end
      alias :inheritance_column= :set_inheritance_column

      # Sets the name of the sequence to use when generating ids to the given
      # value, or (if the value is nil or false) to the value returned by the
      # given block. This is required for Oracle and is useful for any
      # database which relies on sequences for primary key generation.
      #
      # If a sequence name is not explicitly set when using Oracle or Firebird,
      # it will default to the commonly used pattern of: #{table_name}_seq
      #
      # If a sequence name is not explicitly set when using PostgreSQL, it
      # will discover the sequence corresponding to your primary key for you.
      #
      # class Project < ActiveRecord::Base
      # set_sequence_name "projectseq" # default would have been "project_seq"
      # end
      def set_sequence_name(value = nil, &block)
        define_attr_method :sequence_name, value, &block
      end
      alias :sequence_name= :set_sequence_name

      # Indicates whether the table associated with this class exists
      def table_exists?
        connection.table_exists?(table_name)
      end

      # Returns an array of column objects for the table associated with this class.
      def columns
        connection_pool.columns[table_name]
      end

      # Returns a hash of column objects for the table associated with this class.
      def columns_hash
        connection_pool.columns_hash[table_name]
      end

      # Returns a hash where the keys are column names and the values are
      # default values when instantiating the AR object for this table.
      def column_defaults
        connection_pool.column_defaults[table_name]
      end

      # Returns an array of column names as strings.
      def column_names
        @column_names ||= columns.map { |column| column.name }
      end

      # Returns an array of column objects where the primary id, all columns ending in "_id" or "_count",
      # and columns used for single table inheritance have been removed.
      def content_columns
        @content_columns ||= columns.reject { |c| c.primary || c.name =~ /(_id|_count)$/ || c.name == inheritance_column }
      end

      # Returns a hash of all the methods added to query each of the columns in the table with the name of the method as the key
      # and true as the value. This makes it possible to do O(1) lookups in respond_to? to check if a given method for attribute
      # is available.
      def column_methods_hash #:nodoc:
        @dynamic_methods_hash ||= column_names.inject(Hash.new(false)) do |methods, attr|
          attr_name = attr.to_s
          methods[attr.to_sym] = attr_name
          methods["#{attr}=".to_sym] = attr_name
          methods["#{attr}?".to_sym] = attr_name
          methods["#{attr}_before_type_cast".to_sym] = attr_name
          methods
        end
      end

      # Resets all the cached information about columns, which will cause them
      # to be reloaded on the next request.
      #
      # The most common usage pattern for this method is probably in a migration,
      # when just after creating a table you want to populate it with some default
      # values, eg:
      #
      # class CreateJobLevels < ActiveRecord::Migration
      # def self.up
      # create_table :job_levels do |t|
      # t.integer :id
      # t.string :name
      #
      # t.timestamps
      # end
      #
      # JobLevel.reset_column_information
      # %w{assistant executive manager director}.each do |type|
      # JobLevel.create(:name => type)
      # end
      # end
      #
      # def self.down
      # drop_table :job_levels
      # end
      # end
      def reset_column_information
        connection.clear_cache!
        undefine_attribute_methods
        connection_pool.clear_table_cache!(table_name) if table_exists?

        @column_names = @content_columns = @dynamic_methods_hash = @inheritance_column = nil
        @arel_engine = @relation = nil
      end

      def clear_cache! # :nodoc:
        connection_pool.clear_cache!
      end

      def attribute_method?(attribute)
        super || (table_exists? && column_names.include?(attribute.to_s.sub(/=$/, '')))
      end

      # Returns an array of column names as strings if it's not
      # an abstract class and table exists.
      # Otherwise it returns an empty array.
      def attribute_names
        @attribute_names ||= if !abstract_class? && table_exists?
            column_names
          else
            []
          end
      end

      # Set the lookup ancestors for ActiveModel.
      def lookup_ancestors #:nodoc:
        klass = self
        classes = [klass]
        return classes if klass == ActiveRecord::Base

        while klass != klass.base_class
          classes << klass = klass.superclass
        end
        classes
      end

      # Set the i18n scope to overwrite ActiveModel.
      def i18n_scope #:nodoc:
        :activerecord
      end

      # True if this isn't a concrete subclass needing a STI type condition.
      def descends_from_active_record?
        if superclass.abstract_class?
          superclass.descends_from_active_record?
        else
          superclass == Base || !columns_hash.include?(inheritance_column)
        end
      end

      def finder_needs_type_condition? #:nodoc:
        # This is like this because benchmarking justifies the strange :false stuff
        :true == (@finder_needs_type_condition ||= descends_from_active_record? ? :false : :true)
      end

      # Returns a string like 'Post(id:integer, title:string, body:text)'
      def inspect
        if self == Base
          super
        elsif abstract_class?
          "#{super}(abstract)"
        elsif table_exists?
          attr_list = columns.map { |c| "#{c.name}: #{c.type}" } * ', '
          "#{super}(#{attr_list})"
        else
          "#{super}(Table doesn't exist)"
        end
      end

      def quote_value(value, column = nil) #:nodoc:
        connection.quote(value,column)
      end

      # Used to sanitize objects before they're used in an SQL SELECT statement. Delegates to <tt>connection.quote</tt>.
      def sanitize(object) #:nodoc:
        connection.quote(object)
      end

      # Overwrite the default class equality method to provide support for association proxies.
      def ===(object)
        object.is_a?(self)
      end

      def symbolized_base_class
        @symbolized_base_class ||= base_class.to_s.to_sym
      end

      def symbolized_sti_name
        @symbolized_sti_name ||= sti_name.present? ? sti_name.to_sym : symbolized_base_class
      end

      # Returns the base AR subclass that this class descends from. If A
      # extends AR::Base, A.base_class will return A. If B descends from A
      # through some arbitrarily deep hierarchy, B.base_class will return A.
      #
      # If B < A and C < B and if A is an abstract_class then both B.base_class
      # and C.base_class would return B as the answer since A is an abstract_class.
      def base_class
        class_of_active_record_descendant(self)
      end

      # Set this to true if this is an abstract class (see <tt>abstract_class?</tt>).
      attr_accessor :abstract_class

      # Returns whether this class is an abstract class or not.
      def abstract_class?
        defined?(@abstract_class) && @abstract_class == true
      end

      def respond_to?(method_id, include_private = false)
        if match = DynamicFinderMatch.match(method_id)
          return true if all_attributes_exists?(match.attribute_names)
        elsif match = DynamicScopeMatch.match(method_id)
          return true if all_attributes_exists?(match.attribute_names)
        end

        super
      end

      def sti_name
        store_full_sti_class ? name : name.demodulize
      end

      def arel_table
        @arel_table ||= Arel::Table.new(table_name, arel_engine)
      end

      def arel_engine
        @arel_engine ||= begin
          if self == ActiveRecord::Base
            ActiveRecord::Base
          else
            connection_handler.connection_pools[name] ? self : superclass.arel_engine
          end
        end
      end

      # Returns a scope for this class without taking into account the default_scope.
      #
      # class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      # def self.default_scope
      # where :published => true
      # end
      # end
      #
      # Post.all # Fires "SELECT * FROM posts WHERE published = true"
      # Post.unscoped.all # Fires "SELECT * FROM posts"
      #
      # This method also accepts a block meaning that all queries inside the block will
      # not use the default_scope:
      #
      # Post.unscoped {
      # Post.limit(10) # Fires "SELECT * FROM posts LIMIT 10"
      # }
      #
      # It is recommended to use block form of unscoped because chaining unscoped with <tt>scope</tt>
      # does not work. Assuming that <tt>published</tt> is a <tt>scope</tt> following two statements are same.
      #
      # Post.unscoped.published
      # Post.published
      def unscoped #:nodoc:
        block_given? ? relation.scoping { yield } : relation
      end

      def before_remove_const #:nodoc:
        self.current_scope = nil
      end

      # Specifies how the record is loaded by +Marshal+.
      #
      # +_load+ sets an instance variable for each key in the hash it takes as input.
      # Override this method if you require more complex marshalling.
      def _load(data)
        record = allocate
        record.init_with(Marshal.load(data))
        record
      end


      # Finder methods must instantiate through this method to work with the
      # single-table inheritance model that makes it possible to create
      # objects of different types from the same table.
      def instantiate(record)
        sti_class = find_sti_class(record[inheritance_column])
        record_id = sti_class.primary_key && record[sti_class.primary_key]

        if ActiveRecord::IdentityMap.enabled? && record_id
          if (column = sti_class.columns_hash[sti_class.primary_key]) && column.number?
            record_id = record_id.to_i
          end
          if instance = IdentityMap.get(sti_class, record_id)
            instance.reinit_with('attributes' => record)
          else
            instance = sti_class.allocate.init_with('attributes' => record)
            IdentityMap.add(instance)
          end
        else
          instance = sti_class.allocate.init_with('attributes' => record)
        end

        instance
      end

      private

        def relation #:nodoc:
          @relation ||= Relation.new(self, arel_table)

          if finder_needs_type_condition?
            @relation.where(type_condition).create_with(inheritance_column.to_sym => sti_name)
          else
            @relation
          end
        end

        def find_sti_class(type_name)
          if type_name.blank? || !columns_hash.include?(inheritance_column)
            self
          else
            begin
              if store_full_sti_class
                ActiveSupport::Dependencies.constantize(type_name)
              else
                compute_type(type_name)
              end
            rescue NameError
              raise SubclassNotFound,
                "The single-table inheritance mechanism failed to locate the subclass: '#{type_name}'. " +
                "This error is raised because the column '#{inheritance_column}' is reserved for storing the class in case of inheritance. " +
                "Please rename this column if you didn't intend it to be used for storing the inheritance class " +
                "or overwrite #{name}.inheritance_column to use another column for that information."
            end
          end
        end

        def construct_finder_arel(options = {}, scope = nil)
          relation = options.is_a?(Hash) ? unscoped.apply_finder_options(options) : options
          relation = scope.merge(relation) if scope
          relation
        end

        def type_condition(table = arel_table)
          sti_column = table[inheritance_column.to_sym]
          sti_names = ([self] + descendants).map { |model| model.sti_name }

          sti_column.in(sti_names)
        end

        # Guesses the table name, but does not decorate it with prefix and suffix information.
        def undecorated_table_name(class_name = base_class.name)
          table_name = class_name.to_s.demodulize.underscore
          table_name = table_name.pluralize if pluralize_table_names
          table_name
        end

        # Computes and returns a table name according to default conventions.
        def compute_table_name
          base = base_class
          if self == base
            # Nested classes are prefixed with singular parent table name.
            if parent < ActiveRecord::Base && !parent.abstract_class?
              contained = parent.table_name
              contained = contained.singularize if parent.pluralize_table_names
              contained += '_'
            end
            "#{full_table_name_prefix}#{contained}#{undecorated_table_name(name)}#{table_name_suffix}"
          else
            # STI subclasses always use their superclass' table.
            base.table_name
          end
        end

        # Enables dynamic finders like <tt>User.find_by_user_name(user_name)</tt> and
        # <tt>User.scoped_by_user_name(user_name). Refer to Dynamic attribute-based finders
        # section at the top of this file for more detailed information.
        #
        # It's even possible to use all the additional parameters to +find+. For example, the
        # full interface for +find_all_by_amount+ is actually <tt>find_all_by_amount(amount, options)</tt>.
        #
        # Each dynamic finder using <tt>scoped_by_*</tt> is also defined in the class after it
        # is first invoked, so that future attempts to use it do not run through method_missing.
        def method_missing(method_id, *arguments, &block)
          if match = (DynamicFinderMatch.match(method_id) || DynamicScopeMatch.match(method_id))
            attribute_names = match.attribute_names
            super unless all_attributes_exists?(attribute_names)
            if arguments.size < attribute_names.size
              method_trace = "#{__FILE__}:#{__LINE__}:in `#{method_id}'"
              backtrace = [method_trace] + caller
              raise ArgumentError, "wrong number of arguments (#{arguments.size} for #{attribute_names.size})", backtrace
            end
            if match.respond_to?(:scope?) && match.scope?
              self.class_eval <<-METHOD, __FILE__, __LINE__ + 1
def self.#{method_id}(*args) # def self.scoped_by_user_name_and_password(*args)
attributes = Hash[[:#{attribute_names.join(',:')}].zip(args)] # attributes = Hash[[:user_name, :password].zip(args)]
#
scoped(:conditions => attributes) # scoped(:conditions => attributes)
end # end
METHOD
              send(method_id, *arguments)
            elsif match.finder?
              options = arguments.extract_options!
              relation = options.any? ? scoped(options) : scoped
              relation.send :find_by_attributes, match, attribute_names, *arguments, &block
            elsif match.instantiator?
              scoped.send :find_or_instantiator_by_attributes, match, attribute_names, *arguments, &block
            end
          else
            super
          end
        end

        # Similar in purpose to +expand_hash_conditions_for_aggregates+.
        def expand_attribute_names_for_aggregates(attribute_names)
          attribute_names.map { |attribute_name|
            unless (aggregation = reflect_on_aggregation(attribute_name.to_sym)).nil?
              aggregate_mapping(aggregation).map do |field_attr, _|
                field_attr.to_sym
              end
            else
              attribute_name.to_sym
            end
          }.flatten
        end

        def all_attributes_exists?(attribute_names)
          (expand_attribute_names_for_aggregates(attribute_names) -
           column_methods_hash.keys).empty?
        end

      protected
        # with_scope lets you apply options to inner block incrementally. It takes a hash and the keys must be
        # <tt>:find</tt> or <tt>:create</tt>. <tt>:find</tt> parameter is <tt>Relation</tt> while
        # <tt>:create</tt> parameters are an attributes hash.
        #
        # class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
        # def self.create_with_scope
        # with_scope(:find => where(:blog_id => 1), :create => { :blog_id => 1 }) do
        # find(1) # => SELECT * from articles WHERE blog_id = 1 AND id = 1
        # a = create(1)
        # a.blog_id # => 1
        # end
        # end
        # end
        #
        # In nested scopings, all previous parameters are overwritten by the innermost rule, with the exception of
        # <tt>where</tt>, <tt>includes</tt>, and <tt>joins</tt> operations in <tt>Relation</tt>, which are merged.
        #
        # <tt>joins</tt> operations are uniqued so multiple scopes can join in the same table without table aliasing
        # problems. If you need to join multiple tables, but still want one of the tables to be uniqued, use the
        # array of strings format for your joins.
        #
        # class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
        # def self.find_with_scope
        # with_scope(:find => where(:blog_id => 1).limit(1), :create => { :blog_id => 1 }) do
        # with_scope(:find => limit(10)) do
        # all # => SELECT * from articles WHERE blog_id = 1 LIMIT 10
        # end
        # with_scope(:find => where(:author_id => 3)) do
        # all # => SELECT * from articles WHERE blog_id = 1 AND author_id = 3 LIMIT 1
        # end
        # end
        # end
        # end
        #
        # You can ignore any previous scopings by using the <tt>with_exclusive_scope</tt> method.
        #
        # class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
        # def self.find_with_exclusive_scope
        # with_scope(:find => where(:blog_id => 1).limit(1)) do
        # with_exclusive_scope(:find => limit(10)) do
        # all # => SELECT * from articles LIMIT 10
        # end
        # end
        # end
        # end
        #
        # *Note*: the +:find+ scope also has effect on update and deletion methods, like +update_all+ and +delete_all+.
        def with_scope(scope = {}, action = :merge, &block)
          # If another Active Record class has been passed in, get its current scope
          scope = scope.current_scope if !scope.is_a?(Relation) && scope.respond_to?(:current_scope)

          previous_scope = self.current_scope

          if scope.is_a?(Hash)
            # Dup first and second level of hash (method and params).
            scope = scope.dup
            scope.each do |method, params|
              scope[method] = params.dup unless params == true
            end

            scope.assert_valid_keys([ :find, :create ])
            relation = construct_finder_arel(scope[:find] || {})
            relation.default_scoped = true unless action == :overwrite

            if previous_scope && previous_scope.create_with_value && scope[:create]
              scope_for_create = if action == :merge
                previous_scope.create_with_value.merge(scope[:create])
              else
                scope[:create]
              end

              relation = relation.create_with(scope_for_create)
            else
              scope_for_create = scope[:create]
              scope_for_create ||= previous_scope.create_with_value if previous_scope
              relation = relation.create_with(scope_for_create) if scope_for_create
            end

            scope = relation
          end

          scope = previous_scope.merge(scope) if previous_scope && action == :merge

          self.current_scope = scope
          begin
            yield
          ensure
            self.current_scope = previous_scope
          end
        end

        # Works like with_scope, but discards any nested properties.
        def with_exclusive_scope(method_scoping = {}, &block)
          if method_scoping.values.any? { |e| e.is_a?(ActiveRecord::Relation) }
            raise ArgumentError, <<-MSG
New finder API can not be used with_exclusive_scope. You can either call unscoped to get an anonymous scope not bound to the default_scope:

User.unscoped.where(:active => true)

Or call unscoped with a block:

User.unscoped do
User.where(:active => true).all
end

MSG
          end
          with_scope(method_scoping, :overwrite, &block)
        end

        def current_scope #:nodoc:
          Thread.current["#{self}_current_scope"]
        end

        def current_scope=(scope) #:nodoc:
          Thread.current["#{self}_current_scope"] = scope
        end

        # Use this macro in your model to set a default scope for all operations on
        # the model.
        #
        # class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
        # default_scope where(:published => true)
        # end
        #
        # Article.all # => SELECT * FROM articles WHERE published = true
        #
        # The <tt>default_scope</tt> is also applied while creating/building a record. It is not
        # applied while updating a record.
        #
        # Article.new.published # => true
        # Article.create.published # => true
        #
        # You can also use <tt>default_scope</tt> with a block, in order to have it lazily evaluated:
        #
        # class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
        # default_scope { where(:published_at => Time.now - 1.week) }
        # end
        #
        # (You can also pass any object which responds to <tt>call</tt> to the <tt>default_scope</tt>
        # macro, and it will be called when building the default scope.)
        #
        # If you use multiple <tt>default_scope</tt> declarations in your model then they will
        # be merged together:
        #
        # class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
        # default_scope where(:published => true)
        # default_scope where(:rating => 'G')
        # end
        #
        # Article.all # => SELECT * FROM articles WHERE published = true AND rating = 'G'
        #
        # This is also the case with inheritance and module includes where the parent or module
        # defines a <tt>default_scope</tt> and the child or including class defines a second one.
        #
        # If you need to do more complex things with a default scope, you can alternatively
        # define it as a class method:
        #
        # class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
        # def self.default_scope
        # # Should return a scope, you can call 'super' here etc.
        # end
        # end
        def default_scope(scope = {})
          scope = Proc.new if block_given?
          self.default_scopes = default_scopes + [scope]
        end

        # The @ignore_default_scope flag is used to prevent an infinite recursion situation where
        # a default scope references a scope which has a default scope which references a scope...
        def build_default_scope #:nodoc:
          return if defined?(@ignore_default_scope) && @ignore_default_scope
          @ignore_default_scope = true

          if method(:default_scope).owner != Base.singleton_class
            default_scope
          elsif default_scopes.any?
            default_scopes.inject(relation) do |default_scope, scope|
              if scope.is_a?(Hash)
                default_scope.apply_finder_options(scope)
              elsif !scope.is_a?(Relation) && scope.respond_to?(:call)
                default_scope.merge(scope.call)
              else
                default_scope.merge(scope)
              end
            end
          end
        ensure
          @ignore_default_scope = false
        end

        # Returns the class type of the record using the current module as a prefix. So descendants of
        # MyApp::Business::Account would appear as MyApp::Business::AccountSubclass.
        def compute_type(type_name)
          if type_name.match(/^::/)
            # If the type is prefixed with a scope operator then we assume that
            # the type_name is an absolute reference.
            ActiveSupport::Dependencies.constantize(type_name)
          else
            # Build a list of candidates to search for
            candidates = []
            name.scan(/::|$/) { candidates.unshift "#{$`}::#{type_name}" }
            candidates << type_name

            candidates.each do |candidate|
              begin
                constant = ActiveSupport::Dependencies.constantize(candidate)
                return constant if candidate == constant.to_s
              rescue NameError => e
                # We don't want to swallow NoMethodError < NameError errors
                raise e unless e.instance_of?(NameError)
              end
            end

            raise NameError, "uninitialized constant #{candidates.first}"
          end
        end

        # Returns the class descending directly from ActiveRecord::Base or an
        # abstract class, if any, in the inheritance hierarchy.
        def class_of_active_record_descendant(klass)
          if klass.superclass == Base || klass.superclass.abstract_class?
            klass
          elsif klass.superclass.nil?
            raise ActiveRecordError, "#{name} doesn't belong in a hierarchy descending from ActiveRecord"
          else
            class_of_active_record_descendant(klass.superclass)
          end
        end

        # Accepts an array, hash, or string of SQL conditions and sanitizes
        # them into a valid SQL fragment for a WHERE clause.
        # ["name='%s' and group_id='%s'", "foo'bar", 4] returns "name='foo''bar' and group_id='4'"
        # { :name => "foo'bar", :group_id => 4 } returns "name='foo''bar' and group_id='4'"
        # "name='foo''bar' and group_id='4'" returns "name='foo''bar' and group_id='4'"
        def sanitize_sql_for_conditions(condition, table_name = self.table_name)
          return nil if condition.blank?

          case condition
            when Array; sanitize_sql_array(condition)
            when Hash; sanitize_sql_hash_for_conditions(condition, table_name)
            else condition
          end
        end
        alias_method :sanitize_sql, :sanitize_sql_for_conditions

        # Accepts an array, hash, or string of SQL conditions and sanitizes
        # them into a valid SQL fragment for a SET clause.
        # { :name => nil, :group_id => 4 } returns "name = NULL , group_id='4'"
        def sanitize_sql_for_assignment(assignments)
          case assignments
            when Array; sanitize_sql_array(assignments)
            when Hash; sanitize_sql_hash_for_assignment(assignments)
            else assignments
          end
        end

        def aggregate_mapping(reflection)
          mapping = reflection.options[:mapping] || [reflection.name, reflection.name]
          mapping.first.is_a?(Array) ? mapping : [mapping]
        end

        # Accepts a hash of SQL conditions and replaces those attributes
        # that correspond to a +composed_of+ relationship with their expanded
        # aggregate attribute values.
        # Given:
        # class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
        # composed_of :address, :class_name => "Address",
        # :mapping => [%w(address_street street), %w(address_city city)]
        # end
        # Then:
        # { :address => Address.new("813 abc st.", "chicago") }
        # # => { :address_street => "813 abc st.", :address_city => "chicago" }
        def expand_hash_conditions_for_aggregates(attrs)
          expanded_attrs = {}
          attrs.each do |attr, value|
            unless (aggregation = reflect_on_aggregation(attr.to_sym)).nil?
              mapping = aggregate_mapping(aggregation)
              mapping.each do |field_attr, aggregate_attr|
                if mapping.size == 1 && !value.respond_to?(aggregate_attr)
                  expanded_attrs[field_attr] = value
                else
                  expanded_attrs[field_attr] = value.send(aggregate_attr)
                end
              end
            else
              expanded_attrs[attr] = value
            end
          end
          expanded_attrs
        end

        # Sanitizes a hash of attribute/value pairs into SQL conditions for a WHERE clause.
        # { :name => "foo'bar", :group_id => 4 }
        # # => "name='foo''bar' and group_id= 4"
        # { :status => nil, :group_id => [1,2,3] }
        # # => "status IS NULL and group_id IN (1,2,3)"
        # { :age => 13..18 }
        # # => "age BETWEEN 13 AND 18"
        # { 'other_records.id' => 7 }
        # # => "`other_records`.`id` = 7"
        # { :other_records => { :id => 7 } }
        # # => "`other_records`.`id` = 7"
        # And for value objects on a composed_of relationship:
        # { :address => Address.new("123 abc st.", "chicago") }
        # # => "address_street='123 abc st.' and address_city='chicago'"
        def sanitize_sql_hash_for_conditions(attrs, default_table_name = self.table_name)
          attrs = expand_hash_conditions_for_aggregates(attrs)

          table = Arel::Table.new(table_name).alias(default_table_name)
          viz = Arel::Visitors.for(arel_engine)
          PredicateBuilder.build_from_hash(arel_engine, attrs, table).map { |b|
            viz.accept b
          }.join(' AND ')
        end
        alias_method :sanitize_sql_hash, :sanitize_sql_hash_for_conditions

        # Sanitizes a hash of attribute/value pairs into SQL conditions for a SET clause.
        # { :status => nil, :group_id => 1 }
        # # => "status = NULL , group_id = 1"
        def sanitize_sql_hash_for_assignment(attrs)
          attrs.map do |attr, value|
            "#{connection.quote_column_name(attr)} = #{quote_bound_value(value)}"
          end.join(', ')
        end

        # Accepts an array of conditions. The array has each value
        # sanitized and interpolated into the SQL statement.
        # ["name='%s' and group_id='%s'", "foo'bar", 4] returns "name='foo''bar' and group_id='4'"
        def sanitize_sql_array(ary)
          statement, *values = ary
          if values.first.is_a?(Hash) && statement =~ /:\w+/
            replace_named_bind_variables(statement, values.first)
          elsif statement.include?('?')
            replace_bind_variables(statement, values)
          elsif statement.blank?
            statement
          else
            statement % values.collect { |value| connection.quote_string(value.to_s) }
          end
        end

        alias_method :sanitize_conditions, :sanitize_sql

        def replace_bind_variables(statement, values) #:nodoc:
          raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, statement.count('?'), values.size)
          bound = values.dup
          c = connection
          statement.gsub('?') { quote_bound_value(bound.shift, c) }
        end

        def replace_named_bind_variables(statement, bind_vars) #:nodoc:
          statement.gsub(/(:?):([a-zA-Z]\w*)/) do
            if $1 == ':' # skip postgresql casts
              $& # return the whole match
            elsif bind_vars.include?(match = $2.to_sym)
              quote_bound_value(bind_vars[match])
            else
              raise PreparedStatementInvalid, "missing value for :#{match} in #{statement}"
            end
          end
        end

        def expand_range_bind_variables(bind_vars) #:nodoc:
          expanded = []

          bind_vars.each do |var|
            next if var.is_a?(Hash)

            if var.is_a?(Range)
              expanded << var.first
              expanded << var.last
            else
              expanded << var
            end
          end

          expanded
        end

        def quote_bound_value(value, c = connection) #:nodoc:
          if value.respond_to?(:map) && !value.acts_like?(:string)
            if value.respond_to?(:empty?) && value.empty?
              c.quote(nil)
            else
              value.map { |v| c.quote(v) }.join(',')
            end
          else
            c.quote(value)
          end
        end

        def raise_if_bind_arity_mismatch(statement, expected, provided) #:nodoc:
          unless expected == provided
            raise PreparedStatementInvalid, "wrong number of bind variables (#{provided} for #{expected}) in: #{statement}"
          end
        end

        def encode_quoted_value(value) #:nodoc:
          quoted_value = connection.quote(value)
          quoted_value = "'#{quoted_value[1..-2].gsub(/\'/, "\\\\'")}'" if quoted_value.include?("\\\'") # (for ruby mode) "
          quoted_value
        end
    end

    public
      # New objects can be instantiated as either empty (pass no construction parameter) or pre-set with
      # attributes but not yet saved (pass a hash with key names matching the associated table column names).
      # In both instances, valid attribute keys are determined by the column names of the associated table --
      # hence you can't have attributes that aren't part of the table columns.
      #
      # +initialize+ respects mass-assignment security and accepts either +:as+ or +:without_protection+ options
      # in the +options+ parameter.
      #
      # ==== Examples
      # # Instantiates a single new object
      # User.new(:first_name => 'Jamie')
      #
      # # Instantiates a single new object using the :admin mass-assignment security role
      # User.new({ :first_name => 'Jamie', :is_admin => true }, :as => :admin)
      #
      # # Instantiates a single new object bypassing mass-assignment security
      # User.new({ :first_name => 'Jamie', :is_admin => true }, :without_protection => true)
      def initialize(attributes = nil, options = {})
        @attributes = attributes_from_column_definition
        @association_cache = {}
        @aggregation_cache = {}
        @attributes_cache = {}
        @new_record = true
        @readonly = false
        @destroyed = false
        @marked_for_destruction = false
        @previously_changed = {}
        @changed_attributes = {}
        @relation = nil

        ensure_proper_type
        set_serialized_attributes

        populate_with_current_scope_attributes

        assign_attributes(attributes, options) if attributes

        yield self if block_given?
        run_callbacks :initialize
      end

      # Populate +coder+ with attributes about this record that should be
      # serialized. The structure of +coder+ defined in this method is
      # guaranteed to match the structure of +coder+ passed to the +init_with+
      # method.
      #
      # Example:
      #
      # class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      # end
      # coder = {}
      # Post.new.encode_with(coder)
      # coder # => { 'id' => nil, ... }
      def encode_with(coder)
        coder['attributes'] = attributes
      end

      # Initialize an empty model object from +coder+. +coder+ must contain
      # the attributes necessary for initializing an empty model object. For
      # example:
      #
      # class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
      # end
      #
      # post = Post.allocate
      # post.init_with('attributes' => { 'title' => 'hello world' })
      # post.title # => 'hello world'
      def init_with(coder)
        @attributes = coder['attributes']
        @relation = nil

        set_serialized_attributes

        @attributes_cache, @previously_changed, @changed_attributes = {}, {}, {}
        @association_cache = {}
        @aggregation_cache = {}
        @readonly = @destroyed = @marked_for_destruction = false
        @new_record = false
        run_callbacks :find
        run_callbacks :initialize

        self
      end

      # Specifies how the record is dumped by +Marshal+.
      #
      # +_dump+ emits a marshalled hash which has been passed to +encode_with+. Override this
      # method if you require more complex marshalling.
      def _dump(level)
        dump = {}
        encode_with(dump)
        Marshal.dump(dump)
      end

      # Returns a String, which Action Pack uses for constructing an URL to this
      # object. The default implementation returns this record's id as a String,
      # or nil if this record's unsaved.
      #
      # For example, suppose that you have a User model, and that you have a
      # <tt>resources :users</tt> route. Normally, +user_path+ will
      # construct a path with the user object's 'id' in it:
      #
      # user = User.find_by_name('Phusion')
      # user_path(user) # => "/users/1"
      #
      # You can override +to_param+ in your model to make +user_path+ construct
      # a path using the user's name instead of the user's id:
      #
      # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      # def to_param # overridden
      # name
      # end
      # end
      #
      # user = User.find_by_name('Phusion')
      # user_path(user) # => "/users/Phusion"
      def to_param
        # We can't use alias_method here, because method 'id' optimizes itself on the fly.
        id && id.to_s # Be sure to stringify the id for routes
      end

      # Returns a cache key that can be used to identify this record.
      #
      # ==== Examples
      #
      # Product.new.cache_key # => "products/new"
      # Product.find(5).cache_key # => "products/5" (updated_at not available)
      # Person.find(5).cache_key # => "people/5-20071224150000" (updated_at available)
      def cache_key
        case
        when new_record?
          "#{self.class.model_name.cache_key}/new"
        when timestamp = self[:updated_at]
          timestamp = timestamp.utc.to_s(:number)
          "#{self.class.model_name.cache_key}/#{id}-#{timestamp}"
        else
          "#{self.class.model_name.cache_key}/#{id}"
        end
      end

      def quoted_id #:nodoc:
        quote_value(id, column_for_attribute(self.class.primary_key))
      end

      # Returns true if the given attribute is in the attributes hash
      def has_attribute?(attr_name)
        @attributes.has_key?(attr_name.to_s)
      end

      # Returns an array of names for the attributes available on this object.
      def attribute_names
        @attributes.keys
      end

      # Allows you to set all the attributes at once by passing in a hash with keys
      # matching the attribute names (which again matches the column names).
      #
      # If any attributes are protected by either +attr_protected+ or
      # +attr_accessible+ then only settable attributes will be assigned.
      #
      # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      # attr_protected :is_admin
      # end
      #
      # user = User.new
      # user.attributes = { :username => 'Phusion', :is_admin => true }
      # user.username # => "Phusion"
      # user.is_admin? # => false
      def attributes=(new_attributes)
        return unless new_attributes.is_a?(Hash)

        assign_attributes(new_attributes)
      end

      # Allows you to set all the attributes for a particular mass-assignment
      # security role by passing in a hash of attributes with keys matching
      # the attribute names (which again matches the column names) and the role
      # name using the :as option.
      #
      # To bypass mass-assignment security you can use the :without_protection => true
      # option.
      #
      # class User < ActiveRecord::Base
      # attr_accessible :name
      # attr_accessible :name, :is_admin, :as => :admin
      # end
      #
      # user = User.new
      # user.assign_attributes({ :name => 'Josh', :is_admin => true })
      # user.name # => "Josh"
      # user.is_admin? # => false
      #
      # user = User.new
      # user.assign_attributes({ :name => 'Josh', :is_admin => true }, :as => :admin)
      # user.name # => "Josh"
      # user.is_admin? # => true
      #
      # user = User.new
      # user.assign_attributes({ :name => 'Josh', :is_admin => true }, :without_protection => true)
      # user.name # => "Josh"
      # user.is_admin? # => true
      def assign_attributes(new_attributes, options = {})
        return unless new_attributes

        attributes = new_attributes.stringify_keys
        multi_parameter_attributes = []
        @mass_assignment_options = options

        unless options[:without_protection]
          attributes = sanitize_for_mass_assignment(attributes, mass_assignment_role)
        end

        attributes.each do |k, v|
          if k.include?("(")
            multi_parameter_attributes << [ k, v ]
          elsif respond_to?("#{k}=")
            send("#{k}=", v)
          else
            raise(UnknownAttributeError, "unknown attribute: #{k}")
          end
        end

        @mass_assignment_options = nil
        assign_multiparameter_attributes(multi_parameter_attributes)
      end

      # Returns a hash of all the attributes with their names as keys and the values of the attributes as values.
      def attributes
        Hash[@attributes.map { |name, _| [name, read_attribute(name)] }]
      end

      # Returns an <tt>#inspect</tt>-like string for the value of the
      # attribute +attr_name+. String attributes are truncated upto 50
      # characters, and Date and Time attributes are returned in the
      # <tt>:db</tt> format. Other attributes return the value of
      # <tt>#inspect</tt> without modification.
      #
      # person = Person.create!(:name => "David Heinemeier Hansson " * 3)
      #
      # person.attribute_for_inspect(:name)
      # # => '"David Heinemeier Hansson David Heinemeier Hansson D..."'
      #
      # person.attribute_for_inspect(:created_at)
      # # => '"2009-01-12 04:48:57"'
      def attribute_for_inspect(attr_name)
        value = read_attribute(attr_name)

        if value.is_a?(String) && value.length > 50
          "#{value[0..50]}...".inspect
        elsif value.is_a?(Date) || value.is_a?(Time)
          %("#{value.to_s(:db)}")
        else
          value.inspect
        end
      end

      # Returns true if the specified +attribute+ has been set by the user or by a database load and is neither
      # nil nor empty? (the latter only applies to objects that respond to empty?, most notably Strings).
      def attribute_present?(attribute)
        !_read_attribute(attribute).blank?
      end

      # Returns the column object for the named attribute.
      def column_for_attribute(name)
        self.class.columns_hash[name.to_s]
      end

      # Returns true if +comparison_object+ is the same exact object, or +comparison_object+
      # is of the same type and +self+ has an ID and it is equal to +comparison_object.id+.
      #
      # Note that new records are different from any other record by definition, unless the
      # other record is the receiver itself. Besides, if you fetch existing records with
      # +select+ and leave the ID out, you're on your own, this predicate will return false.
      #
      # Note also that destroying a record preserves its ID in the model instance, so deleted
      # models are still comparable.
      def ==(comparison_object)
        super ||
          comparison_object.instance_of?(self.class) &&
          id.present? &&
          comparison_object.id == id
      end
      alias :eql? :==

      # Delegates to id in order to allow two records of the same type and id to work with something like:
      # [ Person.find(1), Person.find(2), Person.find(3) ] & [ Person.find(1), Person.find(4) ] # => [ Person.find(1) ]
      def hash
        id.hash
      end

      # Freeze the attributes hash such that associations are still accessible, even on destroyed records.
      def freeze
        @attributes.freeze; self
      end

      # Returns +true+ if the attributes hash has been frozen.
      def frozen?
        @attributes.frozen?
      end

      # Allows sort on objects
      def <=>(other_object)
        if other_object.is_a?(self.class)
          self.to_key <=> other_object.to_key
        else
          nil
        end
      end

      # Backport dup from 1.9 so that initialize_dup() gets called
      unless Object.respond_to?(:initialize_dup)
        def dup # :nodoc:
          copy = super
          copy.initialize_dup(self)
          copy
        end
      end

      # Duped objects have no id assigned and are treated as new records. Note
      # that this is a "shallow" copy as it copies the object's attributes
      # only, not its associations. The extent of a "deep" copy is application
      # specific and is therefore left to the application to implement according
      # to its need.
      # The dup method does not preserve the timestamps (created|updated)_(at|on).
      def initialize_dup(other)
        cloned_attributes = other.clone_attributes(:read_attribute_before_type_cast)
        cloned_attributes.delete(self.class.primary_key)

        @attributes = cloned_attributes

        _run_after_initialize_callbacks if respond_to?(:_run_after_initialize_callbacks)

        @changed_attributes = {}
        attributes_from_column_definition.each do |attr, orig_value|
          @changed_attributes[attr] = orig_value if field_changed?(attr, orig_value, @attributes[attr])
        end

        @aggregation_cache = {}
        @association_cache = {}
        @attributes_cache = {}
        @new_record = true

        ensure_proper_type
        populate_with_current_scope_attributes
        clear_timestamp_attributes
      end

      # Returns +true+ if the record is read only. Records loaded through joins with piggy-back
      # attributes will be marked as read only since they cannot be saved.
      def readonly?
        @readonly
      end

      # Marks this record as read only.
      def readonly!
        @readonly = true
      end

      # Returns the contents of the record as a nicely formatted string.
      def inspect
        inspection = if @attributes
                       self.class.column_names.collect { |name|
                         if has_attribute?(name)
                           "#{name}: #{attribute_for_inspect(name)}"
                         end
                       }.compact.join(", ")
                     else
                       "not initialized"
                     end
        "#<#{self.class} #{inspection}>"
      end

    protected
      def clone_attributes(reader_method = :read_attribute, attributes = {})
        attribute_names.each do |name|
          attributes[name] = clone_attribute_value(reader_method, name)
        end
        attributes
      end

      def clone_attribute_value(reader_method, attribute_name)
        value = send(reader_method, attribute_name)
        value.duplicable? ? value.clone : value
      rescue TypeError, NoMethodError
        value
      end

      def mass_assignment_options
        @mass_assignment_options ||= {}
      end

      def mass_assignment_role
        mass_assignment_options[:as] || :default
      end

    private

      # Under Ruby 1.9, Array#flatten will call #to_ary (recursively) on each of the elements
      # of the array, and then rescues from the possible NoMethodError. If those elements are
      # ActiveRecord::Base's, then this triggers the various method_missing's that we have,
      # which significantly impacts upon performance.
      #
      # So we can avoid the method_missing hit by explicitly defining #to_ary as nil here.
      #
      # See also http://tenderlovemaking.com/2011/06/28/til-its-ok-to-return-nil-from-to_ary/
      def to_ary # :nodoc:
        nil
      end

      def set_serialized_attributes
        sattrs = self.class.serialized_attributes

        sattrs.each do |key, coder|
          @attributes[key] = coder.load @attributes[key] if @attributes.key?(key)
        end
      end

      # Sets the attribute used for single table inheritance to this class name if this is not the
      # ActiveRecord::Base descendant.
      # Considering the hierarchy Reply < Message < ActiveRecord::Base, this makes it possible to
      # do Reply.new without having to set <tt>Reply[Reply.inheritance_column] = "Reply"</tt> yourself.
      # No such attribute would be set for objects of the Message class in that example.
      def ensure_proper_type
        klass = self.class
        if klass.finder_needs_type_condition?
          write_attribute(klass.inheritance_column, klass.sti_name)
        end
      end

      # The primary key and inheritance column can never be set by mass-assignment for security reasons.
      def self.attributes_protected_by_default
        default = [ primary_key, inheritance_column ]
        default << 'id' unless primary_key.eql? 'id'
        default
      end

      # Returns a copy of the attributes hash where all the values have been safely quoted for use in
      # an Arel insert/update method.
      def arel_attributes_values(include_primary_key = true, include_readonly_attributes = true, attribute_names = @attributes.keys)
        attrs = {}
        klass = self.class
        arel_table = klass.arel_table

        attribute_names.each do |name|
          if (column = column_for_attribute(name)) && (include_primary_key || !column.primary)

            if include_readonly_attributes || (!include_readonly_attributes && !self.class.readonly_attributes.include?(name))

              value = if coder = klass.serialized_attributes[name]
                        coder.dump @attributes[name]
                      else
                        # FIXME: we need @attributes to be used consistently.
                        # If the values stored in @attributes were already type
                        # casted, this code could be simplified
                        read_attribute(name)
                      end

              attrs[arel_table[name]] = value
            end
          end
        end
        attrs
      end

      # Quote strings appropriately for SQL statements.
      def quote_value(value, column = nil)
        self.class.connection.quote(value, column)
      end

      # Instantiates objects for all attribute classes that needs more than one constructor parameter. This is done
      # by calling new on the column type or aggregation type (through composed_of) object with these parameters.
      # So having the pairs written_on(1) = "2004", written_on(2) = "6", written_on(3) = "24", will instantiate
      # written_on (a date type) with Date.new("2004", "6", "24"). You can also specify a typecast character in the
      # parentheses to have the parameters typecasted before they're used in the constructor. Use i for Fixnum,
      # f for Float, s for String, and a for Array. If all the values for a given attribute are empty, the
      # attribute will be set to nil.
      def assign_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
        execute_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(
          extract_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
        )
      end

      def instantiate_time_object(name, values)
        if self.class.send(:create_time_zone_conversion_attribute?, name, column_for_attribute(name))
          Time.zone.local(*values)
        else
          Time.time_with_datetime_fallback(@@default_timezone, *values)
        end
      end

      def execute_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(callstack)
        errors = []
        callstack.each do |name, values_with_empty_parameters|
          begin
            send(name + "=", read_value_from_parameter(name, values_with_empty_parameters))
          rescue => ex
            errors << AttributeAssignmentError.new("error on assignment #{values_with_empty_parameters.values.inspect} to #{name}", ex, name)
          end
        end
        unless errors.empty?
          raise MultiparameterAssignmentErrors.new(errors), "#{errors.size} error(s) on assignment of multiparameter attributes"
        end
      end

      def read_value_from_parameter(name, values_hash_from_param)
        klass = (self.class.reflect_on_aggregation(name.to_sym) || column_for_attribute(name)).klass
        if values_hash_from_param.values.all?{|v|v.nil?}
          nil
        elsif klass == Time
          read_time_parameter_value(name, values_hash_from_param)
        elsif klass == Date
          read_date_parameter_value(name, values_hash_from_param)
        else
          read_other_parameter_value(klass, name, values_hash_from_param)
        end
      end

      def read_time_parameter_value(name, values_hash_from_param)
        # If Date bits were not provided, error
        raise "Missing Parameter" if [1,2,3].any?{|position| !values_hash_from_param.has_key?(position)}
        max_position = extract_max_param_for_multiparameter_attributes(values_hash_from_param, 6)
        # If Date bits were provided but blank, then return nil
        return nil if (1..3).any? {|position| values_hash_from_param[position].blank?}

        set_values = (1..max_position).collect{|position| values_hash_from_param[position] }
        # If Time bits are not there, then default to 0
        (3..5).each {|i| set_values[i] = set_values[i].blank? ? 0 : set_values[i]}
        instantiate_time_object(name, set_values)
      end

      def read_date_parameter_value(name, values_hash_from_param)
        return nil if (1..3).any? {|position| values_hash_from_param[position].blank?}
        set_values = [values_hash_from_param[1], values_hash_from_param[2], values_hash_from_param[3]]
        begin
          Date.new(*set_values)
        rescue ArgumentError # if Date.new raises an exception on an invalid date
          instantiate_time_object(name, set_values).to_date # we instantiate Time object and convert it back to a date thus using Time's logic in handling invalid dates
        end
      end

      def read_other_parameter_value(klass, name, values_hash_from_param)
        max_position = extract_max_param_for_multiparameter_attributes(values_hash_from_param)
        values = (1..max_position).collect do |position|
          raise "Missing Parameter" if !values_hash_from_param.has_key?(position)
          values_hash_from_param[position]
        end
        klass.new(*values)
      end

      def extract_max_param_for_multiparameter_attributes(values_hash_from_param, upper_cap = 100)
        [values_hash_from_param.keys.max,upper_cap].min
      end

      def extract_callstack_for_multiparameter_attributes(pairs)
        attributes = { }

        pairs.each do |pair|
          multiparameter_name, value = pair
          attribute_name = multiparameter_name.split("(").first
          attributes[attribute_name] = {} unless attributes.include?(attribute_name)

          parameter_value = value.empty? ? nil : type_cast_attribute_value(multiparameter_name, value)
          attributes[attribute_name][find_parameter_position(multiparameter_name)] ||= parameter_value
        end

        attributes
      end

      def type_cast_attribute_value(multiparameter_name, value)
        multiparameter_name =~ /\([0-9]*([if])\)/ ? value.send("to_" + $1) : value
      end

      def find_parameter_position(multiparameter_name)
        multiparameter_name.scan(/\(([0-9]*).*\)/).first.first.to_i
      end

      # Returns a comma-separated pair list, like "key1 = val1, key2 = val2".
      def comma_pair_list(hash)
        hash.map { |k,v| "#{k} = #{v}" }.join(", ")
      end

      def quote_columns(quoter, hash)
        Hash[hash.map { |name, value| [quoter.quote_column_name(name), value] }]
      end

      def quoted_comma_pair_list(quoter, hash)
        comma_pair_list(quote_columns(quoter, hash))
      end

      def convert_number_column_value(value)
        if value == false
          0
        elsif value == true
          1
        elsif value.is_a?(String) && value.blank?
          nil
        else
          value
        end
      end

      def populate_with_current_scope_attributes
        return unless self.class.scope_attributes?

        self.class.scope_attributes.each do |att,value|
          send("#{att}=", value) if respond_to?("#{att}=")
        end
      end

      # Clear attributes and changed_attributes
      def clear_timestamp_attributes
        all_timestamp_attributes_in_model.each do |attribute_name|
          self[attribute_name] = nil
          changed_attributes.delete(attribute_name)
        end
      end
  end

  Base.class_eval do
    include ActiveRecord::Persistence
    extend ActiveModel::Naming
    extend QueryCache::ClassMethods
    extend ActiveSupport::Benchmarkable
    extend ActiveSupport::DescendantsTracker

    include ActiveModel::Conversion
    include Validations
    extend CounterCache
    include Locking::Optimistic, Locking::Pessimistic
    include AttributeMethods
    include AttributeMethods::Read, AttributeMethods::Write, AttributeMethods::BeforeTypeCast, AttributeMethods::Query
    include AttributeMethods::PrimaryKey
    include AttributeMethods::TimeZoneConversion
    include AttributeMethods::Dirty
    include ActiveModel::MassAssignmentSecurity
    include Callbacks, ActiveModel::Observing, Timestamp
    include Associations, NamedScope
    include IdentityMap
    include ActiveModel::SecurePassword

    # AutosaveAssociation needs to be included before Transactions, because we want
    # #save_with_autosave_associations to be wrapped inside a transaction.
    include AutosaveAssociation, NestedAttributes
    include Aggregations, Transactions, Reflection, Serialization

    NilClass.add_whiner(self) if NilClass.respond_to?(:add_whiner)

    # Returns the value of the attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> after it has been typecast (for example,
    # "2004-12-12" in a data column is cast to a date object, like Date.new(2004, 12, 12)).
    # (Alias for the protected read_attribute method).
    alias [] read_attribute

    # Updates the attribute identified by <tt>attr_name</tt> with the specified +value+.
    # (Alias for the protected write_attribute method).
    alias []= write_attribute

    public :[], :[]=
  end
end

ActiveSupport.run_load_hooks(:active_record, ActiveRecord::Base)
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