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module ActiveRecord
  module Locking
    # Locking::Pessimistic provides support for row-level locking using
    # SELECT ... FOR UPDATE and other lock types.
    #
    # Pass <tt>:lock => true</tt> to <tt>ActiveRecord::Base.find</tt> to obtain an exclusive
    # lock on the selected rows:
    # # select * from accounts where id=1 for update
    # Account.find(1, :lock => true)
    #
    # Pass <tt>:lock => 'some locking clause'</tt> to give a database-specific locking clause
    # of your own such as 'LOCK IN SHARE MODE' or 'FOR UPDATE NOWAIT'. Example:
    #
    # Account.transaction do
    # # select * from accounts where name = 'shugo' limit 1 for update
    # shugo = Account.where("name = 'shugo'").lock(true).first
    # yuko = Account.where("name = 'yuko'").lock(true).first
    # shugo.balance -= 100
    # shugo.save!
    # yuko.balance += 100
    # yuko.save!
    # end
    #
    # You can also use <tt>ActiveRecord::Base#lock!</tt> method to lock one record by id.
    # This may be better if you don't need to lock every row. Example:
    #
    # Account.transaction do
    # # select * from accounts where ...
    # accounts = Account.where(...).all
    # account1 = accounts.detect { |account| ... }
    # account2 = accounts.detect { |account| ... }
    # # select * from accounts where id=? for update
    # account1.lock!
    # account2.lock!
    # account1.balance -= 100
    # account1.save!
    # account2.balance += 100
    # account2.save!
    # end
    #
    # You can start a transaction and acquire the lock in one go by calling
    # <tt>with_lock</tt> with a block. The block is called from within
    # a transaction, the object is already locked. Example:
    #
    # account = Account.first
    # account.with_lock do
    # # This block is called within a transaction,
    # # account is already locked.
    # account.balance -= 100
    # account.save!
    # end
    #
    # Database-specific information on row locking:
    # MySQL: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.1/en/innodb-locking-reads.html
    # PostgreSQL: http://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/interactive/sql-select.html#SQL-FOR-UPDATE-SHARE
    module Pessimistic
      # Obtain a row lock on this record. Reloads the record to obtain the requested
      # lock. Pass an SQL locking clause to append the end of the SELECT statement
      # or pass true for "FOR UPDATE" (the default, an exclusive row lock). Returns
      # the locked record.
      def lock!(lock = true)
        reload(:lock => lock) if persisted?
        self
      end

      # Wraps the passed block in a transaction, locking the object
      # before yielding. You pass can the SQL locking clause
      # as argument (see <tt>lock!</tt>).
      def with_lock(lock = true)
        transaction do
          lock!(lock)
          yield
        end
      end
    end
  end
end
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