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module ActiveRecord
module Validations
class UniquenessValidator < ActiveModel::EachValidator # :nodoc:
def initialize(options)
if options[:conditions] && !options[:conditions].respond_to?(:call)
raise ArgumentError, "#{options[:conditions]} was passed as :conditions but is not callable. " \
"Pass a callable instead: `conditions: -> { where(approved: true) }`"
end
super({ case_sensitive: true }.merge!(options))
@klass = options[:class]
end
def validate_each(record, attribute, value)
finder_class = find_finder_class_for(record)
table = finder_class.arel_table
value = deserialize_attribute(record, attribute, value)
relation = build_relation(finder_class, table, attribute, value)
relation = relation.and(table[finder_class.primary_key.to_sym].not_eq(record.id)) if record.persisted?
relation = scope_relation(record, table, relation)
relation = finder_class.unscoped.where(relation)
relation = relation.merge(options[:conditions]) if options[:conditions]
if relation.exists?
error_options = options.except(:case_sensitive, :scope, :conditions)
error_options[:value] = value
record.errors.add(attribute, :taken, error_options)
end
end
protected
# The check for an existing value should be run from a class that
# isn't abstract. This means working down from the current class
# (self), to the first non-abstract class. Since classes don't know
# their subclasses, we have to build the hierarchy between self and
# the record's class.
def find_finder_class_for(record) #:nodoc:
class_hierarchy = [record.class]
while class_hierarchy.first != @klass
class_hierarchy.unshift(class_hierarchy.first.superclass)
end
class_hierarchy.detect { |klass| !klass.abstract_class? }
end
def build_relation(klass, table, attribute, value) #:nodoc:
if reflection = klass.reflect_on_association(attribute)
attribute = reflection.foreign_key
value = value.attributes[reflection.primary_key_column.name] unless value.nil?
end
attribute_name = attribute.to_s
# the attribute may be an aliased attribute
if klass.attribute_aliases[attribute_name]
attribute = klass.attribute_aliases[attribute_name]
attribute_name = attribute.to_s
end
column = klass.columns_hash[attribute_name]
value = klass.connection.type_cast(value, column)
value = value.to_s[0, column.limit] if value && column.limit && column.text?
if !options[:case_sensitive] && value && column.text?
# will use SQL LOWER function before comparison, unless it detects a case insensitive collation
klass.connection.case_insensitive_comparison(table, attribute, column, value)
else
value = klass.connection.case_sensitive_modifier(value) unless value.nil?
table[attribute].eq(value)
end
end
def scope_relation(record, table, relation)
Array(options[:scope]).each do |scope_item|
if reflection = record.class.reflect_on_association(scope_item)
scope_value = record.send(reflection.foreign_key)
scope_item = reflection.foreign_key
else
scope_value = record.read_attribute(scope_item)
end
relation = relation.and(table[scope_item].eq(scope_value))
end
relation
end
def deserialize_attribute(record, attribute, value)
coder = record.class.serialized_attributes[attribute.to_s]
value = coder.dump value if value && coder
value
end
end
module ClassMethods
# Validates whether the value of the specified attributes are unique
# across the system. Useful for making sure that only one user
# can be named "davidhh".
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_uniqueness_of :user_name
# end
#
# It can also validate whether the value of the specified attributes are
# unique based on a <tt>:scope</tt> parameter:
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_uniqueness_of :user_name, scope: :account_id
# end
#
# Or even multiple scope parameters. For example, making sure that a
# teacher can only be on the schedule once per semester for a particular
# class.
#
# class TeacherSchedule < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_uniqueness_of :teacher_id, scope: [:semester_id, :class_id]
# end
#
# It is also possible to limit the uniqueness constraint to a set of
# records matching certain conditions. In this example archived articles
# are not being taken into consideration when validating uniqueness
# of the title attribute:
#
# class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
# validates_uniqueness_of :title, conditions: -> { where.not(status: 'archived') }
# end
#
# When the record is created, a check is performed to make sure that no
# record exists in the database with the given value for the specified
# attribute (that maps to a column). When the record is updated,
# the same check is made but disregarding the record itself.
#
# Configuration options:
#
# * <tt>:message</tt> - Specifies a custom error message (default is:
# "has already been taken").
# * <tt>:scope</tt> - One or more columns by which to limit the scope of
# the uniqueness constraint.
# * <tt>:conditions</tt> - Specify the conditions to be included as a
# <tt>WHERE</tt> SQL fragment to limit the uniqueness constraint lookup
# (e.g. <tt>conditions: -> { where(status: 'active') }</tt>).
# * <tt>:case_sensitive</tt> - Looks for an exact match. Ignored by
# non-text columns (+true+ by default).
# * <tt>:allow_nil</tt> - If set to +true+, skips this validation if the
# attribute is +nil+ (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:allow_blank</tt> - If set to +true+, skips this validation if the
# attribute is blank (default is +false+).
# * <tt>:if</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine
# if the validation should occur (e.g. <tt>if: :allow_validation</tt>,
# or <tt>if: Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }</tt>). The method,
# proc or string should return or evaluate to a +true+ or +false+ value.
# * <tt>:unless</tt> - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to
# determine if the validation should ot occur (e.g. <tt>unless: :skip_validation</tt>,
# or <tt>unless: Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }</tt>). The
# method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a +true+ or +false+
# value.
#
# === Concurrency and integrity
#
# Using this validation method in conjunction with ActiveRecord::Base#save
# does not guarantee the absence of duplicate record insertions, because
# uniqueness checks on the application level are inherently prone to race
# conditions. For example, suppose that two users try to post a Comment at
# the same time, and a Comment's title must be unique. At the database-level,
# the actions performed by these users could be interleaved in the following manner:
#
# User 1 | User 2
# ------------------------------------+--------------------------------------
# # User 1 checks whether there's |
# # already a comment with the title |
# # 'My Post'. This is not the case. |
# SELECT * FROM comments |
# WHERE title = 'My Post' |
# |
# | # User 2 does the same thing and also
# | # infers that their title is unique.
# | SELECT * FROM comments
# | WHERE title = 'My Post'
# |
# # User 1 inserts their comment. |
# INSERT INTO comments |
# (title, content) VALUES |
# ('My Post', 'hi!') |
# |
# | # User 2 does the same thing.
# | INSERT INTO comments
# | (title, content) VALUES
# | ('My Post', 'hello!')
# |
# | # ^^^^^^
# | # Boom! We now have a duplicate
# | # title!
#
# This could even happen if you use transactions with the 'serializable'
# isolation level. The best way to work around this problem is to add a unique
# index to the database table using
# ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::SchemaStatements#add_index. In the
# rare case that a race condition occurs, the database will guarantee
# the field's uniqueness.
#
# When the database catches such a duplicate insertion,
# ActiveRecord::Base#save will raise an ActiveRecord::StatementInvalid
# exception. You can either choose to let this error propagate (which
# will result in the default Rails exception page being shown), or you
# can catch it and restart the transaction (e.g. by telling the user
# that the title already exists, and asking them to re-enter the title).
# This technique is also known as
# {optimistic concurrency control}[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optimistic_concurrency_control].
#
# The bundled ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters distinguish unique index
# constraint errors from other types of database errors by throwing an
# ActiveRecord::RecordNotUnique exception. For other adapters you will
# have to parse the (database-specific) exception message to detect such
# a case.
#
# The following bundled adapters throw the ActiveRecord::RecordNotUnique exception:
#
# * ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::MysqlAdapter.
# * ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::Mysql2Adapter.
# * ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::SQLite3Adapter.
# * ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::PostgreSQLAdapter.
def validates_uniqueness_of(*attr_names)
validates_with UniquenessValidator, _merge_attributes(attr_names)
end
end
end
end
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