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module ActiveRecord
  module ConnectionAdapters
    class PostgreSQLAdapter < AbstractAdapter
      module DatabaseStatements
        def explain(arel, binds = [])
          sql = "EXPLAIN #{to_sql(arel, binds)}"
          ExplainPrettyPrinter.new.pp(exec_query(sql, 'EXPLAIN', binds))
        end

        class ExplainPrettyPrinter # :nodoc:
          # Pretty prints the result of a EXPLAIN in a way that resembles the output of the
          # PostgreSQL shell:
          #
          # QUERY PLAN
          # ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          # Nested Loop Left Join (cost=0.00..37.24 rows=8 width=0)
          # Join Filter: (posts.user_id = users.id)
          # -> Index Scan using users_pkey on users (cost=0.00..8.27 rows=1 width=4)
          # Index Cond: (id = 1)
          # -> Seq Scan on posts (cost=0.00..28.88 rows=8 width=4)
          # Filter: (posts.user_id = 1)
          # (6 rows)
          #
          def pp(result)
            header = result.columns.first
            lines = result.rows.map(&:first)

            # We add 2 because there's one char of padding at both sides, note
            # the extra hyphens in the example above.
            width = [header, *lines].map(&:length).max + 2

            pp = []

            pp << header.center(width).rstrip
            pp << '-' * width

            pp += lines.map {|line| " #{line}"}

            nrows = result.rows.length
            rows_label = nrows == 1 ? 'row' : 'rows'
            pp << "(#{nrows} #{rows_label})"

            pp.join("\n") + "\n"
          end
        end

        # Executes a SELECT query and returns an array of rows. Each row is an
        # array of field values.
        def select_rows(sql, name = nil)
          select_raw(sql, name).last
        end

        # Executes an INSERT query and returns the new record's ID
        def insert_sql(sql, name = nil, pk = nil, id_value = nil, sequence_name = nil)
          unless pk
            # Extract the table from the insert sql. Yuck.
            table_ref = extract_table_ref_from_insert_sql(sql)
            pk = primary_key(table_ref) if table_ref
          end

          if pk && use_insert_returning?
            select_value("#{sql} RETURNING #{quote_column_name(pk)}")
          elsif pk
            super
            last_insert_id_value(sequence_name || default_sequence_name(table_ref, pk))
          else
            super
          end
        end

        def create
          super.insert
        end

        # create a 2D array representing the result set
        def result_as_array(res) #:nodoc:
          # check if we have any binary column and if they need escaping
          ftypes = Array.new(res.nfields) do |i|
            [i, res.ftype(i)]
          end

          rows = res.values
          return rows unless ftypes.any? { |_, x|
            x == BYTEA_COLUMN_TYPE_OID || x == MONEY_COLUMN_TYPE_OID
          }

          typehash = ftypes.group_by { |_, type| type }
          binaries = typehash[BYTEA_COLUMN_TYPE_OID] || []
          monies = typehash[MONEY_COLUMN_TYPE_OID] || []

          rows.each do |row|
            # unescape string passed BYTEA field (OID == 17)
            binaries.each do |index, _|
              row[index] = unescape_bytea(row[index])
            end

            # If this is a money type column and there are any currency symbols,
            # then strip them off. Indeed it would be prettier to do this in
            # PostgreSQLColumn.string_to_decimal but would break form input
            # fields that call value_before_type_cast.
            monies.each do |index, _|
              data = row[index]
              # Because money output is formatted according to the locale, there are two
              # cases to consider (note the decimal separators):
              # (1) $12,345,678.12
              # (2) $12.345.678,12
              case data
              when /^-?\D+[\d,]+\.\d{2}$/ # (1)
                data.gsub!(/[^-\d.]/, '')
              when /^-?\D+[\d.]+,\d{2}$/ # (2)
                data.gsub!(/[^-\d,]/, '').sub!(/,/, '.')
              end
            end
          end
        end

        # Queries the database and returns the results in an Array-like object
        def query(sql, name = nil) #:nodoc:
          log(sql, name) do
            result_as_array @connection.async_exec(sql)
          end
        end

        # Executes an SQL statement, returning a PGresult object on success
        # or raising a PGError exception otherwise.
        def execute(sql, name = nil)
          log(sql, name) do
            @connection.async_exec(sql)
          end
        end

        def substitute_at(column, index)
          Arel::Nodes::BindParam.new "$#{index + 1}"
        end

        def exec_query(sql, name = 'SQL', binds = [])
          log(sql, name, binds) do
            result = without_prepared_statement?(binds) ? exec_no_cache(sql, binds) :
                                                          exec_cache(sql, binds)

            types = {}
            fields = result.fields
            fields.each_with_index do |fname, i|
              ftype = result.ftype i
              fmod = result.fmod i
              types[fname] = OID::TYPE_MAP.fetch(ftype, fmod) { |oid, mod|
                warn "unknown OID: #{fname}(#{oid}) (#{sql})"
                OID::Identity.new
              }
            end

            ret = ActiveRecord::Result.new(fields, result.values, types)
            result.clear
            return ret
          end
        end

        def exec_delete(sql, name = 'SQL', binds = [])
          log(sql, name, binds) do
            result = without_prepared_statement?(binds) ? exec_no_cache(sql, binds) :
                                                          exec_cache(sql, binds)
            affected = result.cmd_tuples
            result.clear
            affected
          end
        end
        alias :exec_update :exec_delete

        def sql_for_insert(sql, pk, id_value, sequence_name, binds)
          unless pk
            # Extract the table from the insert sql. Yuck.
            table_ref = extract_table_ref_from_insert_sql(sql)
            pk = primary_key(table_ref) if table_ref
          end

          if pk && use_insert_returning?
            sql = "#{sql} RETURNING #{quote_column_name(pk)}"
          end

          [sql, binds]
        end

        def exec_insert(sql, name, binds, pk = nil, sequence_name = nil)
          val = exec_query(sql, name, binds)
          if !use_insert_returning? && pk
            unless sequence_name
              table_ref = extract_table_ref_from_insert_sql(sql)
              sequence_name = default_sequence_name(table_ref, pk)
              return val unless sequence_name
            end
            last_insert_id_result(sequence_name)
          else
            val
          end
        end

        # Executes an UPDATE query and returns the number of affected tuples.
        def update_sql(sql, name = nil)
          super.cmd_tuples
        end

        # Begins a transaction.
        def begin_db_transaction
          execute "BEGIN"
        end

        def begin_isolated_db_transaction(isolation)
          begin_db_transaction
          execute "SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL #{transaction_isolation_levels.fetch(isolation)}"
        end

        # Commits a transaction.
        def commit_db_transaction
          execute "COMMIT"
        end

        # Aborts a transaction.
        def rollback_db_transaction
          execute "ROLLBACK"
        end

        def outside_transaction?
          message = "#outside_transaction? is deprecated. This method was only really used " \
                    "internally, but you can use #transaction_open? instead."
          ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn message
          @connection.transaction_status == PGconn::PQTRANS_IDLE
        end

        def create_savepoint
          execute("SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
        end

        def rollback_to_savepoint
          execute("ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
        end

        def release_savepoint
          execute("RELEASE SAVEPOINT #{current_savepoint_name}")
        end
      end
    end
  end
end
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