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require 'active_support/concern'
require 'active_support/core_ext/hash/indifferent_access'
require 'active_support/rescuable'
module ActionController
# Raised when a required parameter is missing.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new(a: {})
# params.fetch(:b)
# # => ActionController::ParameterMissing: param not found: b
# params.require(:a)
# # => ActionController::ParameterMissing: param not found: a
class ParameterMissing < KeyError
attr_reader :param # :nodoc:
def initialize(param) # :nodoc:
@param = param
super("param not found: #{param}")
end
end
# == Action Controller \Parameters
#
# Allows to choose which attributes should be whitelisted for mass updating
# and thus prevent accidentally exposing that which shouldn’t be exposed.
# Provides two methods for this purpose: #require and #permit. The former is
# used to mark parameters as required. The latter is used to set the parameter
# as permitted and limit which attributes should be allowed for mass updating.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new({
# person: {
# name: 'Francesco',
# age: 22,
# role: 'admin'
# }
# })
#
# permitted = params.require(:person).permit(:name, :age)
# permitted # => {"name"=>"Francesco", "age"=>22}
# permitted.class # => ActionController::Parameters
# permitted.permitted? # => true
#
# Person.first.update_attributes!(permitted)
# # => #<Person id: 1, name: "Francesco", age: 22, role: "user">
#
# It provides a +permit_all_parameters+ option that controls the top-level
# behaviour of new instances. If it's +true+, all the parameters will be
# permitted by default. The default value for +permit_all_parameters+
# option is +false+.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new
# params.permitted? # => false
#
# ActionController::Parameters.permit_all_parameters = true
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new
# params.permitted? # => true
#
# <tt>ActionController::Parameters</tt> is inherited from
# <tt>ActiveSupport::HashWithIndifferentAccess</tt>, this means
# that you can fetch values using either <tt>:key</tt> or <tt>"key"</tt>.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new(key: 'value')
# params[:key] # => "value"
# params["key"] # => "value"
class Parameters < ActiveSupport::HashWithIndifferentAccess
cattr_accessor :permit_all_parameters, instance_accessor: false
attr_accessor :permitted # :nodoc:
# Returns a new instance of <tt>ActionController::Parameters</tt>.
# Also, sets the +permitted+ attribute to the default value of
# <tt>ActionController::Parameters.permit_all_parameters</tt>.
#
# class Person
# include ActiveRecord::Base
# end
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new(name: 'Francesco')
# params.permitted? # => false
# Person.new(params) # => ActiveModel::ForbiddenAttributesError
#
# ActionController::Parameters.permit_all_parameters = true
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new(name: 'Francesco')
# params.permitted? # => true
# Person.new(params) # => #<Person id: nil, name: "Francesco">
def initialize(attributes = nil)
super(attributes)
@permitted = self.class.permit_all_parameters
end
# Returns +true+ if the parameter is permitted, +false+ otherwise.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new
# params.permitted? # => false
# params.permit!
# params.permitted? # => true
def permitted?
@permitted
end
# Sets the +permitted+ attribute to +true+. This can be used to pass
# mass assignment. Returns +self+.
#
# class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
# end
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new(name: 'Francesco')
# params.permitted? # => false
# Person.new(params) # => ActiveModel::ForbiddenAttributesError
# params.permit!
# params.permitted? # => true
# Person.new(params) # => #<Person id: nil, name: "Francesco">
def permit!
each_pair do |key, value|
convert_hashes_to_parameters(key, value)
self[key].permit! if self[key].respond_to? :permit!
end
@permitted = true
self
end
# Ensures that a parameter is present. If it's present, returns
# the parameter at the given +key+, otherwise raises an
# <tt>ActionController::ParameterMissing</tt> error.
#
# ActionController::Parameters.new(person: { name: 'Francesco' }).require(:person)
# # => {"name"=>"Francesco"}
#
# ActionController::Parameters.new(person: nil).require(:person)
# # => ActionController::ParameterMissing: param not found: person
#
# ActionController::Parameters.new(person: {}).require(:person)
# # => ActionController::ParameterMissing: param not found: person
def require(key)
self[key].presence || raise(ParameterMissing.new(key))
end
# Alias of #require.
alias :required :require
# Returns a new <tt>ActionController::Parameters</tt> instance that
# includes only the given +filters+ and sets the +permitted+ attribute
# for the object to +true+. This is useful for limiting which attributes
# should be allowed for mass updating.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new(user: { name: 'Francesco', age: 22, role: 'admin' })
# permitted = params.require(:user).permit(:name, :age)
# permitted.permitted? # => true
# permitted.has_key?(:name) # => true
# permitted.has_key?(:age) # => true
# permitted.has_key?(:role) # => false
#
# You can also use +permit+ on nested parameters, like:
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new({
# person: {
# name: 'Francesco',
# age: 22,
# pets: [{
# name: 'Purplish',
# category: 'dogs'
# }]
# }
# })
#
# permitted = params.permit(person: [ :name, { pets: :name } ])
# permitted.permitted? # => true
# permitted[:person][:name] # => "Francesco"
# permitted[:person][:age] # => nil
# permitted[:person][:pets][0][:name] # => "Purplish"
# permitted[:person][:pets][0][:category] # => nil
#
# Note that if you use +permit+ in a key that points to a hash,
# it won't allow all the hash. You also need to specify which
# attributes inside the hash should be whitelisted.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new({
# person: {
# contact: {
# email: 'none@test.com'
# phone: '555-1234'
# }
# }
# })
#
# params.require(:person).permit(:contact)
# # => {}
#
# params.require(:person).permit(contact: :phone)
# # => {"contact"=>{"phone"=>"555-1234"}}
#
# params.require(:person).permit(contact: [ :email, :phone ])
# # => {"contact"=>{"email"=>"none@test.com", "phone"=>"555-1234"}}
def permit(*filters)
params = self.class.new
filters.flatten.each do |filter|
case filter
when Symbol, String then
if has_key?(filter)
_value = self[filter]
params[filter] = _value unless Hash === _value
end
keys.grep(/\A#{Regexp.escape(filter)}\(\d+[if]?\)\z/) { |key| params[key] = self[key] }
when Hash then
self.slice(*filter.keys).each do |key, values|
return unless values
key = key.to_sym
params[key] = each_element(values) do |value|
# filters are a Hash, so we expect value to be a Hash too
next if filter.is_a?(Hash) && !value.is_a?(Hash)
value = self.class.new(value) if !value.respond_to?(:permit)
value.permit(*Array.wrap(filter[key]))
end
end
end
end
params.permit!
end
# Returns a parameter for the given +key+. If not found,
# returns +nil+.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new(person: { name: 'Francesco' })
# params[:person] # => {"name"=>"Francesco"}
# params[:none] # => nil
def [](key)
convert_hashes_to_parameters(key, super)
end
# Returns a parameter for the given +key+. If the +key+
# can't be found, there are several options: With no other arguments,
# it will raise an <tt>ActionController::ParameterMissing</tt> error;
# if more arguments are given, then that will be returned; if a block
# is given, then that will be run and its result returned.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new(person: { name: 'Francesco' })
# params.fetch(:person) # => {"name"=>"Francesco"}
# params.fetch(:none) # => ActionController::ParameterMissing: param not found: none
# params.fetch(:none, 'Francesco') # => "Francesco"
# params.fetch(:none) { 'Francesco' } # => "Francesco"
def fetch(key, *args)
convert_hashes_to_parameters(key, super)
rescue KeyError
raise ActionController::ParameterMissing.new(key)
end
# Returns a new <tt>ActionController::Parameters</tt> instance that
# includes only the given +keys+. If the given +keys+
# don't exist, returns an empty hash.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new(a: 1, b: 2, c: 3)
# params.slice(:a, :b) # => {"a"=>1, "b"=>2}
# params.slice(:d) # => {}
def slice(*keys)
self.class.new(super)
end
# Returns an exact copy of the <tt>ActionController::Parameters</tt>
# instance. +permitted+ state is kept on the duped object.
#
# params = ActionController::Parameters.new(a: 1)
# params.permit!
# params.permitted? # => true
# copy_params = params.dup # => {"a"=>1}
# copy_params.permitted? # => true
def dup
super.tap do |duplicate|
duplicate.instance_variable_set :@permitted, @permitted
end
end
private
def convert_hashes_to_parameters(key, value)
if value.is_a?(Parameters) || !value.is_a?(Hash)
value
else
# Convert to Parameters on first access
self[key] = self.class.new(value)
end
end
def each_element(object)
if object.is_a?(Array)
object.map { |el| yield el }.compact
elsif object.is_a?(Hash) && object.keys.all? { |k| k =~ /\A-?\d+\z/ }
hash = object.class.new
object.each { |k,v| hash[k] = yield v }
hash
else
yield object
end
end
end
# == Strong \Parameters
#
# It provides an interface for protecting attributes from end-user
# assignment. This makes Action Controller parameters forbidden
# to be used in Active Model mass assignment until they have been
# whitelisted.
#
# In addition, parameters can be marked as required and flow through a
# predefined raise/rescue flow to end up as a 400 Bad Request with no
# effort.
#
# class PeopleController < ActionController::Base
# # Using "Person.create(params[:person])" would raise an
# # ActiveModel::ForbiddenAttributes exception because it'd
# # be using mass assignment without an explicit permit step.
# # This is the recommended form:
# def create
# Person.create(person_params)
# end
#
# # This will pass with flying colors as long as there's a person key in the
# # parameters, otherwise it'll raise an ActionController::MissingParameter
# # exception, which will get caught by ActionController::Base and turned
# # into a 400 Bad Request reply.
# def update
# redirect_to current_account.people.find(params[:id]).tap { |person|
# person.update_attributes!(person_params)
# }
# end
#
# private
# # Using a private method to encapsulate the permissible parameters is
# # just a good pattern since you'll be able to reuse the same permit
# # list between create and update. Also, you can specialize this method
# # with per-user checking of permissible attributes.
# def person_params
# params.require(:person).permit(:name, :age)
# end
# end
#
# In order to use <tt>accepts_nested_attribute_for</tt> with Strong \Parameters, you
# will need to specify which nested attributes should be whitelisted.
#
# class Person
# has_many :pets
# accepts_nested_attributes_for :pets
# end
#
# class PeopleController < ActionController::Base
# def create
# Person.create(person_params)
# end
#
# ...
#
# private
#
# def person_params
# # It's mandatory to specify the nested attributes that should be whitelisted.
# # If you use `permit` with just the key that points to the nested attributes hash,
# # it will return an empty hash.
# params.require(:person).permit(:name, :age, pets_attributes: [ :name, :category ])
# end
# end
#
# See ActionController::Parameters.require and ActionController::Parameters.permit
# for more information.
module StrongParameters
extend ActiveSupport::Concern
include ActiveSupport::Rescuable
included do
rescue_from(ActionController::ParameterMissing) do |parameter_missing_exception|
render text: "Required parameter missing: #{parameter_missing_exception.param}", status: :bad_request
end
end
# Returns a new ActionController::Parameters object that
# has been instantiated with the <tt>request.parameters</tt>.
def params
@_params ||= Parameters.new(request.parameters)
end
# Assigns the given +value+ to the +params+ hash. If +value+
# is a Hash, this will create an ActionController::Parameters
# object that has been instantiated with the given +value+ hash.
def params=(value)
@_params = value.is_a?(Hash) ? Parameters.new(value) : value
end
end
end
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