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module ActionController #:nodoc:
class InvalidAuthenticityToken < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
module RequestForgeryProtection
def self.included(base)
base.class_eval do
class_inheritable_accessor :request_forgery_protection_options
self.request_forgery_protection_options = {}
helper_method :form_authenticity_token
helper_method :protect_against_forgery?
# Protecting controller actions from CSRF attacks by ensuring that all forms are coming from the current web application, not a
# forged link from another site, is done by embedding a token based on the session (which an attacker wouldn't know) in all
# forms and Ajax requests generated by Rails and then verifying the authenticity of that token in the controller. Only
# HTML/JavaScript requests are checked, so this will not protect your XML API (presumably you'll have a different authentication
# scheme there anyway). Also, GET requests are not protected as these should be idempotent anyway.
# This is turned on with the <tt>protect_from_forgery</tt> method, which will check the token and raise an
# ActionController::InvalidAuthenticityToken if it doesn't match what was expected. You can customize the error message in
# production by editing public/422.html. A call to this method in ApplicationController is generated by default in post-Rails 2.0
# applications.
# The token parameter is named <tt>authenticity_token</tt> by default. If you are generating an HTML form manually (without the
# use of Rails' <tt>form_for</tt>, <tt>form_tag</tt> or other helpers), you have to include a hidden field named like that and
# set its value to what is returned by <tt>form_authenticity_token</tt>. Same applies to manually constructed Ajax requests. To
# make the token available through a global variable to scripts on a certain page, you could add something like this to a view:
# <%= javascript_tag "window._token = '#{form_authenticity_token}'" %>
# Request forgery protection is disabled by default in test environment. If you are upgrading from Rails 1.x, add this to
# config/environments/test.rb:
# # Disable request forgery protection in test environment
# config.action_controller.allow_forgery_protection = false
# == Learn more about CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) attacks
# Here are some resources:
# *
# *
# Keep in mind, this is NOT a silver-bullet, plug 'n' play, warm security blanket for your rails application.
# There are a few guidelines you should follow:
# * Keep your GET requests safe and idempotent. More reading material:
# *
# *
# * Make sure the session cookies that Rails creates are non-persistent. Check in Firefox and look for "Expires: at end of session"
module ClassMethods
# Turn on request forgery protection. Bear in mind that only non-GET, HTML/JavaScript requests are checked.
# Example:
# class FooController < ApplicationController
# # uses the cookie session store (then you don't need a separate :secret)
# protect_from_forgery :except => :index
# # uses one of the other session stores that uses a session_id value.
# protect_from_forgery :secret => 'my-little-pony', :except => :index
# # you can disable csrf protection on controller-by-controller basis:
# skip_before_filter :verify_authenticity_token
# end
# Valid Options:
# * <tt>:only/:except</tt> - Passed to the <tt>before_filter</tt> call. Set which actions are verified.
# * <tt>:secret</tt> - Custom salt used to generate the <tt>form_authenticity_token</tt>.
# Leave this off if you are using the cookie session store.
# * <tt>:digest</tt> - Message digest used for hashing. Defaults to 'SHA1'.
def protect_from_forgery(options = {})
self.request_forgery_protection_token ||= :authenticity_token
before_filter :verify_authenticity_token, :only => options.delete(:only), :except => options.delete(:except)
# The actual before_filter that is used. Modify this to change how you handle unverified requests.
def verify_authenticity_token
verified_request? || handle_unverified_request
def handle_unverified_request
# Returns true or false if a request is verified. Checks:
# * is the format restricted? By default, only HTML and AJAX requests are checked.
# * is it a GET request? Gets should be safe and idempotent
# * Does the form_authenticity_token match the given _token value from the params?
def verified_request?
!protect_against_forgery? ||
request.get? ||
form_authenticity_token == form_authenticity_param ||
form_authenticity_token == request.headers['X-CSRF-Token']
def form_authenticity_param
def verifiable_request_format?
!request.content_type.nil? && request.content_type.verify_request?
# Sets the token value for the current session. Pass a <tt>:secret</tt> option
# in +protect_from_forgery+ to add a custom salt to the hash.
def form_authenticity_token
@form_authenticity_token ||= if !session.respond_to?(:session_id)
raise InvalidAuthenticityToken, "Request Forgery Protection requires a valid session. Use #allow_forgery_protection to disable it, or use a valid session."
elsif request_forgery_protection_options[:secret]
elsif session.respond_to?(:dbman) && session.dbman.respond_to?(:generate_digest)
raise InvalidAuthenticityToken, "No :secret given to the #protect_from_forgery call. Set that or use a session store capable of generating its own keys (Cookie Session Store)."
# Generates a unique digest using the session_id and the CSRF secret.
def authenticity_token_from_session_id
key = if request_forgery_protection_options[:secret].respond_to?(:call)
digest = request_forgery_protection_options[:digest] ||= 'SHA1'
OpenSSL::HMAC.hexdigest(, key.to_s, session.session_id.to_s)
# No secret was given, so assume this is a cookie session store.
def authenticity_token_from_cookie_session
session[:csrf_id] ||= CGI::Session.generate_unique_id
def protect_against_forgery?
allow_forgery_protection && request_forgery_protection_token
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