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require 'action_controller/mime_type'
require 'action_controller/request'
require 'action_controller/response'
require 'action_controller/routing'
require 'action_controller/resources'
require 'action_controller/url_rewriter'
require 'action_controller/status_codes'
require 'drb'
require 'set'
module ActionController #:nodoc:
class ActionControllerError < StandardError #:nodoc:
end
class SessionRestoreError < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
end
class MissingTemplate < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
end
class RoutingError < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
attr_reader :failures
def initialize(message, failures=[])
super(message)
@failures = failures
end
end
class UnknownController < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
end
class UnknownAction < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
end
class MissingFile < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
end
class RenderError < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
end
class SessionOverflowError < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
DEFAULT_MESSAGE = 'Your session data is larger than the data column in which it is to be stored. You must increase the size of your data column if you intend to store large data.'
def initialize(message = nil)
super(message || DEFAULT_MESSAGE)
end
end
class DoubleRenderError < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
DEFAULT_MESSAGE = "Render and/or redirect were called multiple times in this action. Please note that you may only call render OR redirect, and only once per action. Also note that neither redirect nor render terminate execution of the action, so if you want to exit an action after redirecting, you need to do something like \"redirect_to(...) and return\". Finally, note that to cause a before filter to halt execution of the rest of the filter chain, the filter must return false, explicitly, so \"render(...) and return false\"."
def initialize(message = nil)
super(message || DEFAULT_MESSAGE)
end
end
class RedirectBackError < ActionControllerError #:nodoc:
DEFAULT_MESSAGE = 'No HTTP_REFERER was set in the request to this action, so redirect_to :back could not be called successfully. If this is a test, make sure to specify request.env["HTTP_REFERER"].'
def initialize(message = nil)
super(message || DEFAULT_MESSAGE)
end
end
# Action Controllers are the core of a web request in Rails. They are made up of one or more actions that are executed
# on request and then either render a template or redirect to another action. An action is defined as a public method
# on the controller, which will automatically be made accessible to the web-server through Rails Routes.
#
# A sample controller could look like this:
#
# class GuestBookController < ActionController::Base
# def index
# @entries = Entry.find(:all)
# end
#
# def sign
# Entry.create(params[:entry])
# redirect_to :action => "index"
# end
# end
#
# Actions, by default, render a template in the <tt>app/views</tt> directory corresponding to the name of the controller and action
# after executing code in the action. For example, the +index+ action of the +GuestBookController+ would render the
# template <tt>app/views/guestbook/index.erb</tt> by default after populating the <tt>@entries</tt> instance variable.
#
# Unlike index, the sign action will not render a template. After performing its main purpose (creating a
# new entry in the guest book), it initiates a redirect instead. This redirect works by returning an external
# "302 Moved" HTTP response that takes the user to the index action.
#
# The index and sign represent the two basic action archetypes used in Action Controllers. Get-and-show and do-and-redirect.
# Most actions are variations of these themes.
#
# == Requests
#
# Requests are processed by the Action Controller framework by extracting the value of the "action" key in the request parameters.
# This value should hold the name of the action to be performed. Once the action has been identified, the remaining
# request parameters, the session (if one is available), and the full request with all the http headers are made available to
# the action through instance variables. Then the action is performed.
#
# The full request object is available with the request accessor and is primarily used to query for http headers. These queries
# are made by accessing the environment hash, like this:
#
# def server_ip
# location = request.env["SERVER_ADDR"]
# render :text => "This server hosted at #{location}"
# end
#
# == Parameters
#
# All request parameters, whether they come from a GET or POST request, or from the URL, are available through the params method
# which returns a hash. For example, an action that was performed through <tt>/weblog/list?category=All&limit=5</tt> will include
# <tt>{ "category" => "All", "limit" => 5 }</tt> in params.
#
# It's also possible to construct multi-dimensional parameter hashes by specifying keys using brackets, such as:
#
# <input type="text" name="post[name]" value="david">
# <input type="text" name="post[address]" value="hyacintvej">
#
# A request stemming from a form holding these inputs will include <tt>{ "post" => { "name" => "david", "address" => "hyacintvej" } }</tt>.
# If the address input had been named "post[address][street]", the params would have included
# <tt>{ "post" => { "address" => { "street" => "hyacintvej" } } }</tt>. There's no limit to the depth of the nesting.
#
# == Sessions
#
# Sessions allows you to store objects in between requests. This is useful for objects that are not yet ready to be persisted,
# such as a Signup object constructed in a multi-paged process, or objects that don't change much and are needed all the time, such
# as a User object for a system that requires login. The session should not be used, however, as a cache for objects where it's likely
# they could be changed unknowingly. It's usually too much work to keep it all synchronized -- something databases already excel at.
#
# You can place objects in the session by using the <tt>session</tt> method, which accesses a hash:
#
# session[:person] = Person.authenticate(user_name, password)
#
# And retrieved again through the same hash:
#
# Hello #{session[:person]}
#
# For removing objects from the session, you can either assign a single key to nil, like <tt>session[:person] = nil</tt>, or you can
# remove the entire session with reset_session.
#
# By default, sessions are stored on the file system in <tt>RAILS_ROOT/tmp/sessions</tt>. Any object can be placed in the session
# (as long as it can be Marshalled). But remember that 1000 active sessions each storing a 50kb object could lead to a 50MB store on the filesystem.
# In other words, think carefully about size and caching before resorting to the use of the session on the filesystem.
#
# An alternative to storing sessions on disk is to use ActiveRecordStore to store sessions in your database, which can solve problems
# caused by storing sessions in the file system and may speed up your application. To use ActiveRecordStore, uncomment the line:
#
# config.action_controller.session_store = :active_record_store
#
# in your <tt>environment.rb</tt> and run <tt>rake db:sessions:create</tt>.
#
# == Responses
#
# Each action results in a response, which holds the headers and document to be sent to the user's browser. The actual response
# object is generated automatically through the use of renders and redirects and requires no user intervention.
#
# == Renders
#
# Action Controller sends content to the user by using one of five rendering methods. The most versatile and common is the rendering
# of a template. Included in the Action Pack is the Action View, which enables rendering of ERb templates. It's automatically configured.
# The controller passes objects to the view by assigning instance variables:
#
# def show
# @post = Post.find(params[:id])
# end
#
# Which are then automatically available to the view:
#
# Title: <%= @post.title %>
#
# You don't have to rely on the automated rendering. Especially actions that could result in the rendering of different templates will use
# the manual rendering methods:
#
# def search
# @results = Search.find(params[:query])
# case @results
# when 0 then render :action => "no_results"
# when 1 then render :action => "show"
# when 2..10 then render :action => "show_many"
# end
# end
#
# Read more about writing ERb and Builder templates in link:classes/ActionView/Base.html.
#
# == Redirects
#
# Redirects are used to move from one action to another. For example, after a <tt>create</tt> action, which stores a blog entry to a database,
# we might like to show the user the new entry. Because we're following good DRY principles (Don't Repeat Yourself), we're going to reuse (and redirect to)
# a <tt>show</tt> action that we'll assume has already been created. The code might look like this:
#
# def create
# @entry = Entry.new(params[:entry])
# if @entry.save
# # The entry was saved correctly, redirect to show
# redirect_to :action => 'show', :id => @entry.id
# else
# # things didn't go so well, do something else
# end
# end
#
# In this case, after saving our new entry to the database, the user is redirected to the <tt>show</tt> method which is then executed.
#
# == Calling multiple redirects or renders
#
# An action should conclude with a single render or redirect. Attempting to try to do either again will result in a DoubleRenderError:
#
# def do_something
# redirect_to :action => "elsewhere"
# render :action => "overthere" # raises DoubleRenderError
# end
#
# If you need to redirect on the condition of something, then be sure to add "and return" to halt execution.
#
# def do_something
# redirect_to(:action => "elsewhere") and return if monkeys.nil?
# render :action => "overthere" # won't be called unless monkeys is nil
# end
#
class Base
DEFAULT_RENDER_STATUS_CODE = "200 OK"
include Reloadable::Deprecated
include StatusCodes
# Determines whether the view has access to controller internals @request, @response, @session, and @template.
# By default, it does.
@@view_controller_internals = true
cattr_accessor :view_controller_internals
# Protected instance variable cache
@@protected_variables_cache = nil
cattr_accessor :protected_variables_cache
# Prepends all the URL-generating helpers from AssetHelper. This makes it possible to easily move javascripts, stylesheets,
# and images to a dedicated asset server away from the main web server. Example:
# ActionController::Base.asset_host = "http://assets.example.com"
@@asset_host = ""
cattr_accessor :asset_host
# All requests are considered local by default, so everyone will be exposed to detailed debugging screens on errors.
# When the application is ready to go public, this should be set to false, and the protected method <tt>local_request?</tt>
# should instead be implemented in the controller to determine when debugging screens should be shown.
@@consider_all_requests_local = true
cattr_accessor :consider_all_requests_local
# Enable or disable the collection of failure information for RoutingErrors.
# This information can be extremely useful when tweaking custom routes, but is
# pointless once routes have been tested and verified.
@@debug_routes = true
cattr_accessor :debug_routes
# Controls whether the application is thread-safe, so multi-threaded servers like WEBrick know whether to apply a mutex
# around the performance of each action. Action Pack and Active Record are by default thread-safe, but many applications
# may not be. Turned off by default.
@@allow_concurrency = false
cattr_accessor :allow_concurrency
# Modern REST web services often need to submit complex data to the web application.
# The param_parsers hash lets you register handlers which will process the http body and add parameters to the
# <tt>params</tt> hash. These handlers are invoked for post and put requests.
#
# By default application/xml is enabled. A XmlSimple class with the same param name as the root will be instanciated
# in the <tt>params</tt>. This allows XML requests to mask themselves as regular form submissions, so you can have one
# action serve both regular forms and web service requests.
#
# Example of doing your own parser for a custom content type:
#
# ActionController::Base.param_parsers[Mime::Type.lookup('application/atom+xml')] = Proc.new do |data|
# node = REXML::Document.new(post)
# { node.root.name => node.root }
# end
#
# Note: Up until release 1.1 of Rails, Action Controller would default to using XmlSimple configured to discard the
# root node for such requests. The new default is to keep the root, such that "<r><name>David</name></r>" results
# in params[:r][:name] for "David" instead of params[:name]. To get the old behavior, you can
# re-register XmlSimple as application/xml handler ike this:
#
# ActionController::Base.param_parsers[Mime::XML] =
# Proc.new { |data| XmlSimple.xml_in(data, 'ForceArray' => false) }
#
# A YAML parser is also available and can be turned on with:
#
# ActionController::Base.param_parsers[Mime::YAML] = :yaml
@@param_parsers = { Mime::XML => :xml_simple }
cattr_accessor :param_parsers
# Controls the default charset for all renders.
@@default_charset = "utf-8"
cattr_accessor :default_charset
# The logger is used for generating information on the action run-time (including benchmarking) if available.
# Can be set to nil for no logging. Compatible with both Ruby's own Logger and Log4r loggers.
cattr_accessor :logger
# Determines which template class should be used by ActionController.
cattr_accessor :template_class
# Turn on +ignore_missing_templates+ if you want to unit test actions without making the associated templates.
cattr_accessor :ignore_missing_templates
# Holds the request object that's primarily used to get environment variables through access like
# <tt>request.env["REQUEST_URI"]</tt>.
attr_internal :request
# Holds a hash of all the GET, POST, and Url parameters passed to the action. Accessed like <tt>params["post_id"]</tt>
# to get the post_id. No type casts are made, so all values are returned as strings.
attr_internal :params
# Holds the response object that's primarily used to set additional HTTP headers through access like
# <tt>response.headers["Cache-Control"] = "no-cache"</tt>. Can also be used to access the final body HTML after a template
# has been rendered through response.body -- useful for <tt>after_filter</tt>s that wants to manipulate the output,
# such as a OutputCompressionFilter.
attr_internal :response
# Holds a hash of objects in the session. Accessed like <tt>session[:person]</tt> to get the object tied to the "person"
# key. The session will hold any type of object as values, but the key should be a string or symbol.
attr_internal :session
# Holds a hash of header names and values. Accessed like <tt>headers["Cache-Control"]</tt> to get the value of the Cache-Control
# directive. Values should always be specified as strings.
attr_internal :headers
# Holds the hash of variables that are passed on to the template class to be made available to the view. This hash
# is generated by taking a snapshot of all the instance variables in the current scope just before a template is rendered.
attr_accessor :assigns
# Returns the name of the action this controller is processing.
attr_accessor :action_name
# Templates that are exempt from layouts
@@exempt_from_layout = Set.new([/\.rjs$/])
class << self
# Factory for the standard create, process loop where the controller is discarded after processing.
def process(request, response) #:nodoc:
new.process(request, response)
end
# Converts the class name from something like "OneModule::TwoModule::NeatController" to "NeatController".
def controller_class_name
@controller_class_name ||= name.demodulize
end
# Converts the class name from something like "OneModule::TwoModule::NeatController" to "neat".
def controller_name
@controller_name ||= controller_class_name.sub(/Controller$/, '').underscore
end
# Converts the class name from something like "OneModule::TwoModule::NeatController" to "one_module/two_module/neat".
def controller_path
@controller_path ||= name.gsub(/Controller$/, '').underscore
end
# Return an array containing the names of public methods that have been marked hidden from the action processor.
# By default, all methods defined in ActionController::Base and included modules are hidden.
# More methods can be hidden using <tt>hide_actions</tt>.
def hidden_actions
write_inheritable_attribute(:hidden_actions, ActionController::Base.public_instance_methods) unless read_inheritable_attribute(:hidden_actions)
read_inheritable_attribute(:hidden_actions)
end
# Hide each of the given methods from being callable as actions.
def hide_action(*names)
write_inheritable_attribute(:hidden_actions, hidden_actions | names.collect { |n| n.to_s })
end
# Deprecated. Use view_paths instead.
def template_root=(path)
prepend_view_path path
template_root
end
# Deprecated. Use view_paths instead.
def template_root
view_paths.first
end
deprecate :template_root => :view_paths
@@view_paths = {}
# View load paths determine the bases from which template references can be made. So a call to
# render("test/template") will be looked up in the view load paths array and the closest match will be
# returned.
def view_paths=(value)
@@view_paths[name] = value
end
# View load paths for controller.
def view_paths
if paths = @@view_paths[name]
paths
else
if superclass.respond_to?(:view_paths)
superclass.view_paths.dup.freeze
else
@@view_paths[name] = []
end
end
end
# Adds a view_path to the front of the view_paths array.
# If the current class has no view paths, copy them from
# the superclass
def prepend_view_path(path)
self.view_paths = view_paths.dup if view_paths.frozen?
view_paths.unshift(path)
end
# Adds a view_path to the end of the view_paths array.
# If the current class has no view paths, copy them from
# the superclass
def append_view_path(path)
self.view_paths = view_paths.dup if view_paths.frozen?
view_paths << path
end
# Replace sensitive paramater data from the request log.
# Filters paramaters that have any of the arguments as a substring.
# Looks in all subhashes of the param hash for keys to filter.
# If a block is given, each key and value of the paramater hash and all
# subhashes is passed to it, the value or key
# can be replaced using String#replace or similar method.
#
# Examples:
# filter_parameter_logging
# => Does nothing, just slows the logging process down
#
# filter_parameter_logging :password
# => replaces the value to all keys matching /password/i with "[FILTERED]"
#
# filter_parameter_logging :foo, "bar"
# => replaces the value to all keys matching /foo|bar/i with "[FILTERED]"
#
# filter_parameter_logging { |k,v| v.reverse! if k =~ /secret/i }
# => reverses the value to all keys matching /secret/i
#
# filter_parameter_logging(:foo, "bar") { |k,v| v.reverse! if k =~ /secret/i }
# => reverses the value to all keys matching /secret/i, and
# replaces the value to all keys matching /foo|bar/i with "[FILTERED]"
def filter_parameter_logging(*filter_words, &block)
parameter_filter = Regexp.new(filter_words.collect{ |s| s.to_s }.join('|'), true) if filter_words.length > 0
define_method(:filter_parameters) do |unfiltered_parameters|
filtered_parameters = {}
unfiltered_parameters.each do |key, value|
if key =~ parameter_filter
filtered_parameters[key] = '[FILTERED]'
elsif value.is_a?(Hash)
filtered_parameters[key] = filter_parameters(value)
elsif block_given?
key, value = key.dup, value.dup
yield key, value
filtered_parameters[key] = value
else
filtered_parameters[key] = value
end
end
filtered_parameters
end
end
# Don't render layouts for templates with the given extensions.
def exempt_from_layout(*extensions)
regexps = extensions.collect do |extension|
extension.is_a?(Regexp) ? extension : /\.#{Regexp.escape(extension.to_s)}$/
end
@@exempt_from_layout.merge regexps
end
end
public
# Extracts the action_name from the request parameters and performs that action.
def process(request, response, method = :perform_action, *arguments) #:nodoc:
initialize_template_class(response)
assign_shortcuts(request, response)
initialize_current_url
assign_names
forget_variables_added_to_assigns
log_processing
send(method, *arguments)
assign_default_content_type_and_charset
response.request = request
response.prepare!
response
ensure
process_cleanup
end
# Returns a URL that has been rewritten according to the options hash and the defined Routes.
# (For doing a complete redirect, use redirect_to).
#  
# <tt>url_for</tt> is used to:
#  
# All keys given to url_for are forwarded to the Route module, save for the following:
# * <tt>:anchor</tt> -- specifies the anchor name to be appended to the path. For example,
# <tt>url_for :controller => 'posts', :action => 'show', :id => 10, :anchor => 'comments'</tt>
# will produce "/posts/show/10#comments".
# * <tt>:only_path</tt> -- if true, returns the relative URL (omitting the protocol, host name, and port) (<tt>false</tt> by default)
# * <tt>:trailing_slash</tt> -- if true, adds a trailing slash, as in "/archive/2005/". Note that this
# is currently not recommended since it breaks caching.
# * <tt>:host</tt> -- overrides the default (current) host if provided
# * <tt>:protocol</tt> -- overrides the default (current) protocol if provided
# * <tt>:user</tt> -- Inline HTTP authentication (only plucked out if :password is also present)
# * <tt>:password</tt> -- Inline HTTP authentication (only plucked out if :user is also present)
#
# The URL is generated from the remaining keys in the hash. A URL contains two key parts: the <base> and a query string.
# Routes composes a query string as the key/value pairs not included in the <base>.
#
# The default Routes setup supports a typical Rails path of "controller/action/id" where action and id are optional, with
# action defaulting to 'index' when not given. Here are some typical url_for statements and their corresponding URLs:
#  
# url_for :controller => 'posts', :action => 'recent' # => 'proto://host.com/posts/recent'
# url_for :controller => 'posts', :action => 'index' # => 'proto://host.com/posts'
# url_for :controller => 'posts', :action => 'show', :id => 10 # => 'proto://host.com/posts/show/10'
# url_for :controller => 'posts', :user => 'd', :password => '123' # => 'proto://d:123@host.com/posts'
#
# When generating a new URL, missing values may be filled in from the current request's parameters. For example,
# <tt>url_for :action => 'some_action'</tt> will retain the current controller, as expected. This behavior extends to
# other parameters, including <tt>:controller</tt>, <tt>:id</tt>, and any other parameters that are placed into a Route's
# path.
#  
# The URL helpers such as <tt>url_for</tt> have a limited form of memory: when generating a new URL, they can look for
# missing values in the current request's parameters. Routes attempts to guess when a value should and should not be
# taken from the defaults. There are a few simple rules on how this is performed:
#
# * If the controller name begins with a slash, no defaults are used: <tt>url_for :controller => '/home'</tt>
# * If the controller changes, the action will default to index unless provided
#
# The final rule is applied while the URL is being generated and is best illustrated by an example. Let us consider the
# route given by <tt>map.connect 'people/:last/:first/:action', :action => 'bio', :controller => 'people'</tt>.
#
# Suppose that the current URL is "people/hh/david/contacts". Let's consider a few different cases of URLs which are generated
# from this page.
#
# * <tt>url_for :action => 'bio'</tt> -- During the generation of this URL, default values will be used for the first and
# last components, and the action shall change. The generated URL will be, "people/hh/david/bio".
# * <tt>url_for :first => 'davids-little-brother'</tt> This generates the URL 'people/hh/davids-little-brother' -- note
# that this URL leaves out the assumed action of 'bio'.
#
# However, you might ask why the action from the current request, 'contacts', isn't carried over into the new URL. The
# answer has to do with the order in which the parameters appear in the generated path. In a nutshell, since the
# value that appears in the slot for <tt>:first</tt> is not equal to default value for <tt>:first</tt> we stop using
# defaults. On it's own, this rule can account for much of the typical Rails URL behavior.
#  
# Although a convienence, defaults can occasionaly get in your way. In some cases a default persists longer than desired.
# The default may be cleared by adding <tt>:name => nil</tt> to <tt>url_for</tt>'s options.
# This is often required when writing form helpers, since the defaults in play may vary greatly depending upon where the
# helper is used from. The following line will redirect to PostController's default action, regardless of the page it is
# displayed on:
#
# url_for :controller => 'posts', :action => nil
#
# If you explicitly want to create a URL that's almost the same as the current URL, you can do so using the
# :overwrite_params options. Say for your posts you have different views for showing and printing them.
# Then, in the show view, you get the URL for the print view like this
#
# url_for :overwrite_params => { :action => 'print' }
#
# This takes the current URL as is and only exchanges the action. In contrast, <tt>url_for :action => 'print'</tt>
# would have slashed-off the path components after the changed action.
def url_for(options = nil) #:doc:
case options || {}
when String
options
when Hash
@url.rewrite(rewrite_options(options))
else
polymorphic_url(options)
end
end
# Converts the class name from something like "OneModule::TwoModule::NeatController" to "NeatController".
def controller_class_name
self.class.controller_class_name
end
# Converts the class name from something like "OneModule::TwoModule::NeatController" to "neat".
def controller_name
self.class.controller_name
end
# Converts the class name from something like "OneModule::TwoModule::NeatController" to "one_module/two_module/neat".
def controller_path
self.class.controller_path
end
def session_enabled?
request.session_options && request.session_options[:disabled] != false
end
# View load paths for controller.
def view_paths
self.class.view_paths
end
protected
# Renders the content that will be returned to the browser as the response body.
#
# === Rendering an action
#
# Action rendering is the most common form and the type used automatically by Action Controller when nothing else is
# specified. By default, actions are rendered within the current layout (if one exists).
#
# # Renders the template for the action "goal" within the current controller
# render :action => "goal"
#
# # Renders the template for the action "short_goal" within the current controller,
# # but without the current active layout
# render :action => "short_goal", :layout => false
#
# # Renders the template for the action "long_goal" within the current controller,
# # but with a custom layout
# render :action => "long_goal", :layout => "spectacular"
#
# _Deprecation_ _notice_: This used to have the signatures <tt>render_action("action", status = 200)</tt>,
# <tt>render_without_layout("controller/action", status = 200)</tt>, and
# <tt>render_with_layout("controller/action", status = 200, layout)</tt>.
#
# === Rendering partials
#
# Partial rendering in a controller is most commonly used together with Ajax calls that only update one or a few elements on a page
# without reloading. Rendering of partials from the controller makes it possible to use the same partial template in
# both the full-page rendering (by calling it from within the template) and when sub-page updates happen (from the
# controller action responding to Ajax calls). By default, the current layout is not used.
#
# # Renders the same partial with a local variable.
# render :partial => "person", :locals => { :name => "david" }
#
# # Renders a collection of the same partial by making each element
# # of @winners available through the local variable "person" as it
# # builds the complete response.
# render :partial => "person", :collection => @winners
#
# # Renders the same collection of partials, but also renders the
# # person_divider partial between each person partial.
# render :partial => "person", :collection => @winners, :spacer_template => "person_divider"
#
# # Renders a collection of partials located in a view subfolder
# # outside of our current controller. In this example we will be
# # rendering app/views/shared/_note.r(html|xml) Inside the partial
# # each element of @new_notes is available as the local var "note".
# render :partial => "shared/note", :collection => @new_notes
#
# # Renders the partial with a status code of 500 (internal error).
# render :partial => "broken", :status => 500
#
# Note that the partial filename must also be a valid Ruby variable name,
# so e.g. 2005 and register-user are invalid.
#
#
# == Automatic etagging
#
# Rendering will automatically insert the etag header on 200 OK responses. The etag is calculated using MD5 of the
# response body. If a request comes in that has a matching etag, the response will be changed to a 304 Not Modified
# and the response body will be set to an empty string. No etag header will be inserted if it's already set.
#
# === Rendering a template
#
# Template rendering works just like action rendering except that it takes a path relative to the template root.
# The current layout is automatically applied.
#
# # Renders the template located in [TEMPLATE_ROOT]/weblog/show.r(html|xml) (in Rails, app/views/weblog/show.erb)
# render :template => "weblog/show"
#
# === Rendering a file
#
# File rendering works just like action rendering except that it takes a filesystem path. By default, the path
# is assumed to be absolute, and the current layout is not applied.
#
# # Renders the template located at the absolute filesystem path
# render :file => "/path/to/some/template.erb"
# render :file => "c:/path/to/some/template.erb"
#
# # Renders a template within the current layout, and with a 404 status code
# render :file => "/path/to/some/template.erb", :layout => true, :status => 404
# render :file => "c:/path/to/some/template.erb", :layout => true, :status => 404
#
# # Renders a template relative to the template root and chooses the proper file extension
# render :file => "some/template", :use_full_path => true
#
# _Deprecation_ _notice_: This used to have the signature <tt>render_file(path, status = 200)</tt>
#
# === Rendering text
#
# Rendering of text is usually used for tests or for rendering prepared content, such as a cache. By default, text
# rendering is not done within the active layout.
#
# # Renders the clear text "hello world" with status code 200
# render :text => "hello world!"
#
# # Renders the clear text "Explosion!" with status code 500
# render :text => "Explosion!", :status => 500
#
# # Renders the clear text "Hi there!" within the current active layout (if one exists)
# render :text => "Explosion!", :layout => true
#
# # Renders the clear text "Hi there!" within the layout
# # placed in "app/views/layouts/special.r(html|xml)"
# render :text => "Explosion!", :layout => "special"
#
# The :text option can also accept a Proc object, which can be used to manually control the page generation. This should
# generally be avoided, as it violates the separation between code and content, and because almost everything that can be
# done with this method can also be done more cleanly using one of the other rendering methods, most notably templates.
#
# # Renders "Hello from code!"
# render :text => proc { |response, output| output.write("Hello from code!") }
#
# _Deprecation_ _notice_: This used to have the signature <tt>render_text("text", status = 200)</tt>
#
# === Rendering JSON
#
# Rendering JSON sets the content type to text/x-json and optionally wraps the JSON in a callback. It is expected
# that the response will be eval'd for use as a data structure.
#
# # Renders '{name: "David"}'
# render :json => {:name => "David"}.to_json
#
# Sometimes the result isn't handled directly by a script (such as when the request comes from a SCRIPT tag),
# so the callback option is provided for these cases.
#
# # Renders 'show({name: "David"})'
# render :json => {:name => "David"}.to_json, :callback => 'show'
#
# === Rendering an inline template
#
# Rendering of an inline template works as a cross between text and action rendering where the source for the template
# is supplied inline, like text, but its interpreted with ERb or Builder, like action. By default, ERb is used for rendering
# and the current layout is not used.
#
# # Renders "hello, hello, hello, again"
# render :inline => "<%= 'hello, ' * 3 + 'again' %>"
#
# # Renders "<p>Good seeing you!</p>" using Builder
# render :inline => "xml.p { 'Good seeing you!' }", :type => :builder
#
# # Renders "hello david"
# render :inline => "<%= 'hello ' + name %>", :locals => { :name => "david" }
#
# _Deprecation_ _notice_: This used to have the signature <tt>render_template(template, status = 200, type = :rhtml)</tt>
#
# === Rendering inline JavaScriptGenerator page updates
#
# In addition to rendering JavaScriptGenerator page updates with Ajax in RJS templates (see ActionView::Base for details),
# you can also pass the <tt>:update</tt> parameter to +render+, along with a block, to render page updates inline.
#
# render :update do |page|
# page.replace_html 'user_list', :partial => 'user', :collection => @users
# page.visual_effect :highlight, 'user_list'
# end
#
# === Rendering with status and location headers
#
# All renders take the :status and :location options and turn them into headers. They can even be used together:
#
# render :xml => post.to_xml, :status => :created, :location => post_url(post)
def render(options = nil, deprecated_status = nil, &block) #:doc:
raise DoubleRenderError, "Can only render or redirect once per action" if performed?
if options.nil?
return render_file(default_template_name, deprecated_status, true)
else
# Backwards compatibility
unless options.is_a?(Hash)
if options == :update
options = { :update => true }
else
ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn(
"You called render('#{options}'), which is a deprecated API call. Instead you use " +
"render :file => #{options}. Calling render with just a string will be removed from Rails 2.0.",
caller
)
return render_file(options, deprecated_status, true)
end
end
end
if content_type = options[:content_type]
response.content_type = content_type.to_s
end
if location = options[:location]
response.headers["Location"] = url_for(location)
end
if text = options[:text]
render_text(text, options[:status])
else
if file = options[:file]
render_file(file, options[:status], options[:use_full_path], options[:locals] || {})
elsif template = options[:template]
render_file(template, options[:status], true)
elsif inline = options[:inline]
render_template(inline, options[:status], options[:type], options[:locals] || {})
elsif action_name = options[:action]
ActiveSupport::Deprecation.silence do
render_action(action_name, options[:status], options[:layout])
end
elsif xml = options[:xml]
render_xml(xml, options[:status])
elsif json = options[:json]
render_json(json, options[:callback], options[:status])
elsif partial = options[:partial]
partial = default_template_name if partial == true
if collection = options[:collection]
render_partial_collection(partial, collection, options[:spacer_template], options[:locals], options[:status])
else
render_partial(partial, ActionView::Base::ObjectWrapper.new(options[:object]), options[:locals], options[:status])
end
elsif options[:update]
add_variables_to_assigns
@template.send :evaluate_assigns
generator = ActionView::Helpers::PrototypeHelper::JavaScriptGenerator.new(@template, &block)
render_javascript(generator.to_s)
elsif options[:nothing]
# Safari doesn't pass the headers of the return if the response is zero length
render_text(" ", options[:status])
else
render_file(default_template_name, options[:status], true)
end
end
end
# Renders according to the same rules as <tt>render</tt>, but returns the result in a string instead
# of sending it as the response body to the browser.
def render_to_string(options = nil, &block) #:doc:
ActiveSupport::Deprecation.silence { render(options, &block) }
ensure
erase_render_results
forget_variables_added_to_assigns
reset_variables_added_to_assigns
end
def render_action(action_name, status = nil, with_layout = true) #:nodoc:
template = default_template_name(action_name.to_s)
if with_layout && !template_exempt_from_layout?(template)
render_with_layout(:file => template, :status => status, :use_full_path => true, :layout => true)
else
render_without_layout(:file => template, :status => status, :use_full_path => true)
end
end
def render_file(template_path, status = nil, use_full_path = false, locals = {}) #:nodoc:
add_variables_to_assigns
assert_existence_of_template_file(template_path) if use_full_path
logger.info("Rendering #{template_path}" + (status ? " (#{status})" : '')) if logger
render_text(@template.render_file(template_path, use_full_path, locals), status)
end
def render_template(template, status = nil, type = :erb, local_assigns = {}) #:nodoc:
add_variables_to_assigns
render_text(@template.render_template(type, template, nil, local_assigns), status)
end
def render_text(text = nil, status = nil, append_response = false) #:nodoc:
@performed_render = true
response.headers['Status'] = interpret_status(status || DEFAULT_RENDER_STATUS_CODE)
if append_response
response.body ||= ''
response.body << text.to_s
else
response.body = text.is_a?(Proc) ? text : text.to_s
end
end
def render_javascript(javascript, status = nil, append_response = true) #:nodoc:
response.content_type = Mime::JS
render_text(javascript, status, append_response)
end
def render_xml(xml, status = nil) #:nodoc:
response.content_type = Mime::XML
render_text(xml.respond_to?(:to_xml) ? xml.to_xml : xml, status)
end
def render_json(json, callback = nil, status = nil) #:nodoc:
json = "#{callback}(#{json})" unless callback.blank?
response.content_type = Mime::JSON
render_text(json, status)
end
def render_nothing(status = nil) #:nodoc:
render_text(' ', status)
end
def render_partial(partial_path = default_template_name, object = nil, local_assigns = nil, status = nil) #:nodoc:
add_variables_to_assigns
render_text(@template.send(:render_partial, partial_path, object, local_assigns), status)
end
def render_partial_collection(partial_name, collection, partial_spacer_template = nil, local_assigns = nil, status = nil) #:nodoc:
add_variables_to_assigns
render_text(@template.send(:render_partial_collection, partial_name, collection, partial_spacer_template, local_assigns), status)
end
def render_with_layout(template_name = default_template_name, status = nil, layout = nil) #:nodoc:
render_with_a_layout(template_name, status, layout)
end
def render_without_layout(template_name = default_template_name, status = nil) #:nodoc:
render_with_no_layout(template_name, status)
end
# Return a response that has no content (merely headers). The options
# argument is interpreted to be a hash of header names and values.
# This allows you to easily return a response that consists only of
# significant headers:
#
# head :created, :location => person_path(@person)
#
# It can also be used to return exceptional conditions:
#
# return head(:method_not_allowed) unless request.post?
# return head(:bad_request) unless valid_request?
# render
def head(*args)
if args.length > 2
raise ArgumentError, "too many arguments to head"
elsif args.empty?
raise ArgumentError, "too few arguments to head"
elsif args.length == 2
status = args.shift
options = args.shift
elsif args.first.is_a?(Hash)
options = args.first
else
status = args.first
options = {}
end
raise ArgumentError, "head requires an options hash" if !options.is_a?(Hash)
status = interpret_status(status || options.delete(:status) || :ok)
options.each do |key, value|
headers[key.to_s.dasherize.split(/-/).map { |v| v.capitalize }.join("-")] = value.to_s
end
render :nothing => true, :status => status
end
# Clears the rendered results, allowing for another render to be performed.
def erase_render_results #:nodoc:
response.body = nil
@performed_render = false
end
# Clears the redirected results from the headers, resets the status to 200 and returns
# the URL that was used to redirect or nil if there was no redirected URL
# Note that +redirect_to+ will change the body of the response to indicate a redirection.
# The response body is not reset here, see +erase_render_results+
def erase_redirect_results #:nodoc:
@performed_redirect = false
response.redirected_to = nil
response.redirected_to_method_params = nil
response.headers['Status'] = DEFAULT_RENDER_STATUS_CODE
response.headers.delete('Location')
end
# Erase both render and redirect results
def erase_results #:nodoc:
erase_render_results
erase_redirect_results
end
def rewrite_options(options) #:nodoc:
if defaults = default_url_options(options)
defaults.merge(options)
else
options
end
end
# Overwrite to implement a number of default options that all url_for-based methods will use. The default options should come in
# the form of a hash, just like the one you would use for url_for directly. Example:
#
# def default_url_options(options)
# { :project => @project.active? ? @project.url_name : "unknown" }
# end
#
# As you can infer from the example, this is mostly useful for situations where you want to centralize dynamic decisions about the
# urls as they stem from the business domain. Please note that any individual url_for call can always override the defaults set
# by this method.
def default_url_options(options) #:doc:
end
# Redirects the browser to the target specified in +options+. This parameter can take one of three forms:
#
# * <tt>Hash</tt>: The URL will be generated by calling url_for with the +options+.
# * <tt>Record</tt>: The URL will be generated by calling url_for with the +options+, which will reference a named URL for that record.
# * <tt>String starting with protocol:// (like http://)</tt>: Is passed straight through as the target for redirection.
# * <tt>String not containing a protocol</tt>: The current protocol and host is prepended to the string.
# * <tt>:back</tt>: Back to the page that issued the request. Useful for forms that are triggered from multiple places.
# Short-hand for redirect_to(request.env["HTTP_REFERER"])
#
# Examples:
# redirect_to :action => "show", :id => 5
# redirect_to post
# redirect_to "http://www.rubyonrails.org"
# redirect_to "/images/screenshot.jpg"
# redirect_to :back
#
# The redirection happens as a "302 Moved" header.
#
# When using <tt>redirect_to :back</tt>, if there is no referrer,
# RedirectBackError will be raised. You may specify some fallback
# behavior for this case by rescueing RedirectBackError.
def redirect_to(options = {}) #:doc:
case options
when %r{^\w+://.*}
raise DoubleRenderError if performed?
logger.info("Redirected to #{options}") if logger
response.redirect(options)
response.redirected_to = options
@performed_redirect = true
when String
redirect_to(request.protocol + request.host_with_port + options)
when :back
request.env["HTTP_REFERER"] ? redirect_to(request.env["HTTP_REFERER"]) : raise(RedirectBackError)
when Hash
redirect_to(url_for(options))
response.redirected_to = options
else
redirect_to(url_for(options))
end
end
# Sets a HTTP 1.1 Cache-Control header. Defaults to issuing a "private" instruction, so that
# intermediate caches shouldn't cache the response.
#
# Examples:
# expires_in 20.minutes
# expires_in 3.hours, :private => false
# expires in 3.hours, 'max-stale' => 5.hours, :private => nil, :public => true
#
# This method will overwrite an existing Cache-Control header.
# See http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html for more possibilities.
def expires_in(seconds, options = {}) #:doc:
cache_options = { 'max-age' => seconds, 'private' => true }.symbolize_keys.merge!(options.symbolize_keys)
cache_options.delete_if { |k,v| v.nil? or v == false }
cache_control = cache_options.map{ |k,v| v == true ? k.to_s : "#{k.to_s}=#{v.to_s}"}
response.headers["Cache-Control"] = cache_control.join(', ')
end
# Sets a HTTP 1.1 Cache-Control header of "no-cache" so no caching should occur by the browser or
# intermediate caches (like caching proxy servers).
def expires_now #:doc:
response.headers["Cache-Control"] = "no-cache"
end
# Resets the session by clearing out all the objects stored within and initializing a new session object.
def reset_session #:doc:
request.reset_session
@_session = request.session
response.session = @_session
end
private
def self.view_class
@view_class ||=
# create a new class based on the default template class and include helper methods
returning Class.new(ActionView::Base) do |view_class|
view_class.send(:include, master_helper_module)
end
end
def initialize_template_class(response)
raise "You must assign a template class through ActionController.template_class= before processing a request" unless @@template_class
response.template = self.class.view_class.new(view_paths, {}, self)
response.redirected_to = nil
@performed_render = @performed_redirect = false
end
def assign_shortcuts(request, response)
@_request, @_params, @_cookies = request, request.parameters, request.cookies
@_response = response
@_response.session = request.session
@_session = @_response.session
@template = @_response.template
@assigns = @_response.template.assigns
@_headers = @_response.headers
end
def initialize_current_url
@url = UrlRewriter.new(request, params.clone)
end
def log_processing
if logger
logger.info "\n\nProcessing #{controller_class_name}\##{action_name} (for #{request_origin}) [#{request.method.to_s.upcase}]"
logger.info " Session ID: #{@_session.session_id}" if @_session and @_session.respond_to?(:session_id)
logger.info " Parameters: #{respond_to?(:filter_parameters) ? filter_parameters(params).inspect : params.inspect}"
end
end
def perform_action
if self.class.action_methods.include?(action_name)
send(action_name)
render unless performed?
elsif respond_to? :method_missing
send(:method_missing, action_name)
render unless performed?
elsif template_exists? && template_public?
render
else
raise UnknownAction, "No action responded to #{action_name}", caller
end
end
def performed?
@performed_render || @performed_redirect
end
def assign_names
@action_name = (params['action'] || 'index')
end
def assign_default_content_type_and_charset
response.content_type ||= Mime::HTML
response.charset ||= self.class.default_charset unless sending_file?
end
def sending_file?
response.headers["Content-Transfer-Encoding"] == "binary"
end
def action_methods
self.class.action_methods
end
def self.action_methods
@action_methods ||= Set.new(public_instance_methods - hidden_actions)
end
def add_variables_to_assigns
unless @variables_added
add_instance_variables_to_assigns
add_class_variables_to_assigns if view_controller_internals
@variables_added = true
end
end
def forget_variables_added_to_assigns
@variables_added = nil
end
def reset_variables_added_to_assigns
@template.instance_variable_set("@assigns_added", nil)
end
def add_instance_variables_to_assigns
@@protected_variables_cache ||= Set.new(protected_instance_variables)
instance_variables.each do |var|
next if @@protected_variables_cache.include?(var)
@assigns[var[1..-1]] = instance_variable_get(var)
end
end
def add_class_variables_to_assigns
%w(view_paths logger template_class ignore_missing_templates).each do |cvar|
@assigns[cvar] = self.send(cvar)
end
end
def protected_instance_variables
if view_controller_internals
%w(@assigns @performed_redirect @performed_render)
else
%w(@assigns @performed_redirect @performed_render
@_request @request @_response @response @_params @params
@_session @session @_cookies @cookies
@template @request_origin @parent_controller)
end
end
def request_origin
# this *needs* to be cached!
# otherwise you'd get different results if calling it more than once
@request_origin ||= "#{request.remote_ip} at #{Time.now.to_s(:db)}"
end
def complete_request_uri
"#{request.protocol}#{request.host}#{request.request_uri}"
end
def close_session
@_session.close if @_session && @_session.respond_to?(:close)
end
def template_exists?(template_name = default_template_name)
@template.file_exists?(template_name)
end
def template_public?(template_name = default_template_name)
@template.file_public?(template_name)
end
def template_exempt_from_layout?(template_name = default_template_name)
extension = @template && @template.pick_template_extension(template_name)
name_with_extension = !template_name.include?('.') && extension ? "#{template_name}.#{extension}" : template_name
extension == :rjs || @@exempt_from_layout.any? { |ext| name_with_extension =~ ext }
end
def assert_existence_of_template_file(template_name)
unless template_exists?(template_name) || ignore_missing_templates
full_template_path = template_name.include?('.') ? template_name : @template.full_template_path(template_name, "#{@template.template_format}.erb")
template_type = (template_name =~ /layouts/i) ? 'layout' : 'template'
raise(MissingTemplate, "Missing #{template_type} #{full_template_path}")
end
end
def default_template_name(action_name = self.action_name)
if action_name
action_name = action_name.to_s
if action_name.include?('/') && template_path_includes_controller?(action_name)
action_name = strip_out_controller(action_name)
end
end
"#{self.class.controller_path}/#{action_name}"
end
def strip_out_controller(path)
path.split('/', 2).last
end
def template_path_includes_controller?(path)
self.class.controller_path.split('/')[-1] == path.split('/')[0]
end
def process_cleanup
close_session
end
end
end
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