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Given this fixture:

```erb
george:
  name: George the Monkey
  fruits: apple

apple:
  name: apple
```

If the join table (`fruit_monkeys`) contains `created_at` or `updated_at` columns, these will now be populated when loading the fixture. Previously, fixture loading would crash if these columns were required, and leave them as null otherwise.

This means the examples at https://api.rubyonrails.org/classes/ActiveRecord/FixtureSet.html will now work even if you create your tables with `t.timestamps` (the default, which is `null: false`)
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# frozen_string_literal: true
require "erb"
require "yaml"
require "zlib"
require "set"
require "active_support/dependencies"
require "active_support/core_ext/digest/uuid"
require "active_record/fixture_set/file"
require "active_record/fixture_set/render_context"
require "active_record/fixture_set/table_rows"
require "active_record/test_fixtures"
module ActiveRecord
class FixtureClassNotFound < ActiveRecord::ActiveRecordError #:nodoc:
end
# \Fixtures are a way of organizing data that you want to test against; in short, sample data.
#
# They are stored in YAML files, one file per model, which are placed in the directory
# appointed by <tt>ActiveSupport::TestCase.fixture_path=(path)</tt> (this is automatically
# configured for Rails, so you can just put your files in <tt><your-rails-app>/test/fixtures/</tt>).
# The fixture file ends with the +.yml+ file extension, for example:
# <tt><your-rails-app>/test/fixtures/web_sites.yml</tt>).
#
# The format of a fixture file looks like this:
#
# rubyonrails:
# id: 1
# name: Ruby on Rails
# url: http://www.rubyonrails.org
#
# google:
# id: 2
# name: Google
# url: http://www.google.com
#
# This fixture file includes two fixtures. Each YAML fixture (ie. record) is given a name and
# is followed by an indented list of key/value pairs in the "key: value" format. Records are
# separated by a blank line for your viewing pleasure.
#
# Note: Fixtures are unordered. If you want ordered fixtures, use the omap YAML type.
# See https://yaml.org/type/omap.html
# for the specification. You will need ordered fixtures when you have foreign key constraints
# on keys in the same table. This is commonly needed for tree structures. Example:
#
# --- !omap
# - parent:
# id: 1
# parent_id: NULL
# title: Parent
# - child:
# id: 2
# parent_id: 1
# title: Child
#
# = Using Fixtures in Test Cases
#
# Since fixtures are a testing construct, we use them in our unit and functional tests. There
# are two ways to use the fixtures, but first let's take a look at a sample unit test:
#
# require "test_helper"
#
# class WebSiteTest < ActiveSupport::TestCase
# test "web_site_count" do
# assert_equal 2, WebSite.count
# end
# end
#
# By default, +test_helper.rb+ will load all of your fixtures into your test
# database, so this test will succeed.
#
# The testing environment will automatically load all the fixtures into the database before each
# test. To ensure consistent data, the environment deletes the fixtures before running the load.
#
# In addition to being available in the database, the fixture's data may also be accessed by
# using a special dynamic method, which has the same name as the model.
#
# Passing in a fixture name to this dynamic method returns the fixture matching this name:
#
# test "find one" do
# assert_equal "Ruby on Rails", web_sites(:rubyonrails).name
# end
#
# Passing in multiple fixture names returns all fixtures matching these names:
#
# test "find all by name" do
# assert_equal 2, web_sites(:rubyonrails, :google).length
# end
#
# Passing in no arguments returns all fixtures:
#
# test "find all" do
# assert_equal 2, web_sites.length
# end
#
# Passing in any fixture name that does not exist will raise <tt>StandardError</tt>:
#
# test "find by name that does not exist" do
# assert_raise(StandardError) { web_sites(:reddit) }
# end
#
# Alternatively, you may enable auto-instantiation of the fixture data. For instance, take the
# following tests:
#
# test "find_alt_method_1" do
# assert_equal "Ruby on Rails", @web_sites['rubyonrails']['name']
# end
#
# test "find_alt_method_2" do
# assert_equal "Ruby on Rails", @rubyonrails.name
# end
#
# In order to use these methods to access fixtured data within your test cases, you must specify one of the
# following in your ActiveSupport::TestCase-derived class:
#
# - to fully enable instantiated fixtures (enable alternate methods #1 and #2 above)
# self.use_instantiated_fixtures = true
#
# - create only the hash for the fixtures, do not 'find' each instance (enable alternate method #1 only)
# self.use_instantiated_fixtures = :no_instances
#
# Using either of these alternate methods incurs a performance hit, as the fixtured data must be fully
# traversed in the database to create the fixture hash and/or instance variables. This is expensive for
# large sets of fixtured data.
#
# = Dynamic fixtures with ERB
#
# Sometimes you don't care about the content of the fixtures as much as you care about the volume.
# In these cases, you can mix ERB in with your YAML fixtures to create a bunch of fixtures for load
# testing, like:
#
# <% 1.upto(1000) do |i| %>
# fix_<%= i %>:
# id: <%= i %>
# name: guy_<%= i %>
# <% end %>
#
# This will create 1000 very simple fixtures.
#
# Using ERB, you can also inject dynamic values into your fixtures with inserts like
# <tt><%= Date.today.strftime("%Y-%m-%d") %></tt>.
# This is however a feature to be used with some caution. The point of fixtures are that they're
# stable units of predictable sample data. If you feel that you need to inject dynamic values, then
# perhaps you should reexamine whether your application is properly testable. Hence, dynamic values
# in fixtures are to be considered a code smell.
#
# Helper methods defined in a fixture will not be available in other fixtures, to prevent against
# unwanted inter-test dependencies. Methods used by multiple fixtures should be defined in a module
# that is included in ActiveRecord::FixtureSet.context_class.
#
# - define a helper method in <tt>test_helper.rb</tt>
# module FixtureFileHelpers
# def file_sha(path)
# OpenSSL::Digest::SHA256.hexdigest(File.read(Rails.root.join('test/fixtures', path)))
# end
# end
# ActiveRecord::FixtureSet.context_class.include FixtureFileHelpers
#
# - use the helper method in a fixture
# photo:
# name: kitten.png
# sha: <%= file_sha 'files/kitten.png' %>
#
# = Transactional Tests
#
# Test cases can use begin+rollback to isolate their changes to the database instead of having to
# delete+insert for every test case.
#
# class FooTest < ActiveSupport::TestCase
# self.use_transactional_tests = true
#
# test "godzilla" do
# assert_not_empty Foo.all
# Foo.destroy_all
# assert_empty Foo.all
# end
#
# test "godzilla aftermath" do
# assert_not_empty Foo.all
# end
# end
#
# If you preload your test database with all fixture data (probably by running <tt>bin/rails db:fixtures:load</tt>)
# and use transactional tests, then you may omit all fixtures declarations in your test cases since
# all the data's already there and every case rolls back its changes.
#
# In order to use instantiated fixtures with preloaded data, set +self.pre_loaded_fixtures+ to
# true. This will provide access to fixture data for every table that has been loaded through
# fixtures (depending on the value of +use_instantiated_fixtures+).
#
# When *not* to use transactional tests:
#
# 1. You're testing whether a transaction works correctly. Nested transactions don't commit until
# all parent transactions commit, particularly, the fixtures transaction which is begun in setup
# and rolled back in teardown. Thus, you won't be able to verify
# the results of your transaction until Active Record supports nested transactions or savepoints (in progress).
# 2. Your database does not support transactions. Every Active Record database supports transactions except MySQL MyISAM.
# Use InnoDB, MaxDB, or NDB instead.
#
# = Advanced Fixtures
#
# Fixtures that don't specify an ID get some extra features:
#
# * Stable, autogenerated IDs
# * Label references for associations (belongs_to, has_one, has_many)
# * HABTM associations as inline lists
#
# There are some more advanced features available even if the id is specified:
#
# * Autofilled timestamp columns
# * Fixture label interpolation
# * Support for YAML defaults
#
# == Stable, Autogenerated IDs
#
# Here, have a monkey fixture:
#
# george:
# id: 1
# name: George the Monkey
#
# reginald:
# id: 2
# name: Reginald the Pirate
#
# Each of these fixtures has two unique identifiers: one for the database
# and one for the humans. Why don't we generate the primary key instead?
# Hashing each fixture's label yields a consistent ID:
#
# george: # generated id: 503576764
# name: George the Monkey
#
# reginald: # generated id: 324201669
# name: Reginald the Pirate
#
# Active Record looks at the fixture's model class, discovers the correct
# primary key, and generates it right before inserting the fixture
# into the database.
#
# The generated ID for a given label is constant, so we can discover
# any fixture's ID without loading anything, as long as we know the label.
#
# == Label references for associations (belongs_to, has_one, has_many)
#
# Specifying foreign keys in fixtures can be very fragile, not to
# mention difficult to read. Since Active Record can figure out the ID of
# any fixture from its label, you can specify FK's by label instead of ID.
#
# === belongs_to
#
# Let's break out some more monkeys and pirates.
#
# ### in pirates.yml
#
# reginald:
# id: 1
# name: Reginald the Pirate
# monkey_id: 1
#
# ### in monkeys.yml
#
# george:
# id: 1
# name: George the Monkey
# pirate_id: 1
#
# Add a few more monkeys and pirates and break this into multiple files,
# and it gets pretty hard to keep track of what's going on. Let's
# use labels instead of IDs:
#
# ### in pirates.yml
#
# reginald:
# name: Reginald the Pirate
# monkey: george
#
# ### in monkeys.yml
#
# george:
# name: George the Monkey
# pirate: reginald
#
# Pow! All is made clear. Active Record reflects on the fixture's model class,
# finds all the +belongs_to+ associations, and allows you to specify
# a target *label* for the *association* (monkey: george) rather than
# a target *id* for the *FK* (<tt>monkey_id: 1</tt>).
#
# ==== Polymorphic belongs_to
#
# Supporting polymorphic relationships is a little bit more complicated, since
# Active Record needs to know what type your association is pointing at. Something
# like this should look familiar:
#
# ### in fruit.rb
#
# belongs_to :eater, polymorphic: true
#
# ### in fruits.yml
#
# apple:
# id: 1
# name: apple
# eater_id: 1
# eater_type: Monkey
#
# Can we do better? You bet!
#
# apple:
# eater: george (Monkey)
#
# Just provide the polymorphic target type and Active Record will take care of the rest.
#
# === has_and_belongs_to_many or has_many :through
#
# Time to give our monkey some fruit.
#
# ### in monkeys.yml
#
# george:
# id: 1
# name: George the Monkey
#
# ### in fruits.yml
#
# apple:
# id: 1
# name: apple
#
# orange:
# id: 2
# name: orange
#
# grape:
# id: 3
# name: grape
#
# ### in fruits_monkeys.yml
#
# apple_george:
# fruit_id: 1
# monkey_id: 1
#
# orange_george:
# fruit_id: 2
# monkey_id: 1
#
# grape_george:
# fruit_id: 3
# monkey_id: 1
#
# Let's make the HABTM fixture go away.
#
# ### in monkeys.yml
#
# george:
# id: 1
# name: George the Monkey
# fruits: apple, orange, grape
#
# ### in fruits.yml
#
# apple:
# name: apple
#
# orange:
# name: orange
#
# grape:
# name: grape
#
# Zap! No more fruits_monkeys.yml file. We've specified the list of fruits
# on George's fixture, but we could've just as easily specified a list
# of monkeys on each fruit. As with +belongs_to+, Active Record reflects on
# the fixture's model class and discovers the +has_and_belongs_to_many+
# associations.
#
# == Autofilled Timestamp Columns
#
# If your table/model specifies any of Active Record's
# standard timestamp columns (+created_at+, +created_on+, +updated_at+, +updated_on+),
# they will automatically be set to <tt>Time.now</tt>.
#
# If you've set specific values, they'll be left alone.
#
# == Fixture label interpolation
#
# The label of the current fixture is always available as a column value:
#
# geeksomnia:
# name: Geeksomnia's Account
# subdomain: $LABEL
# email: $LABEL@email.com
#
# Also, sometimes (like when porting older join table fixtures) you'll need
# to be able to get a hold of the identifier for a given label. ERB
# to the rescue:
#
# george_reginald:
# monkey_id: <%= ActiveRecord::FixtureSet.identify(:reginald) %>
# pirate_id: <%= ActiveRecord::FixtureSet.identify(:george) %>
#
# == Support for YAML defaults
#
# You can set and reuse defaults in your fixtures YAML file.
# This is the same technique used in the +database.yml+ file to specify
# defaults:
#
# DEFAULTS: &DEFAULTS
# created_on: <%= 3.weeks.ago.to_s(:db) %>
#
# first:
# name: Smurf
# <<: *DEFAULTS
#
# second:
# name: Fraggle
# <<: *DEFAULTS
#
# Any fixture labeled "DEFAULTS" is safely ignored.
#
# Besides using "DEFAULTS", you can also specify what fixtures will
# be ignored by setting "ignore" in "_fixture" section.
#
# # users.yml
# _fixture:
# ignore:
# - base
# # or use "ignore: base" when there is only one fixture that needs to be ignored.
#
# base: &base
# admin: false
# introduction: "This is a default description"
#
# admin:
# <<: *base
# admin: true
#
# visitor:
# <<: *base
#
# In the above example, 'base' will be ignored when creating fixtures.
# This can be used for common attributes inheriting.
#
# == Configure the fixture model class
#
# It's possible to set the fixture's model class directly in the YAML file.
# This is helpful when fixtures are loaded outside tests and
# +set_fixture_class+ is not available (e.g.
# when running <tt>bin/rails db:fixtures:load</tt>).
#
# _fixture:
# model_class: User
# david:
# name: David
#
# Any fixtures labeled "_fixture" are safely ignored.
class FixtureSet
#--
# An instance of FixtureSet is normally stored in a single YAML file and
# possibly in a folder with the same name.
#++
MAX_ID = 2**30 - 1
@@all_cached_fixtures = Hash.new { |h, k| h[k] = {} }
cattr_accessor :all_loaded_fixtures, default: {}
class ClassCache
def initialize(class_names, config)
@class_names = class_names.stringify_keys
@config = config
# Remove string values that aren't constants or subclasses of AR
@class_names.delete_if do |klass_name, klass|
!insert_class(@class_names, klass_name, klass)
end
end
def [](fs_name)
@class_names.fetch(fs_name) do
klass = default_fixture_model(fs_name, @config).safe_constantize
insert_class(@class_names, fs_name, klass)
end
end
private
def insert_class(class_names, name, klass)
# We only want to deal with AR objects.
if klass && klass < ActiveRecord::Base
class_names[name] = klass
else
class_names[name] = nil
end
end
def default_fixture_model(fs_name, config)
ActiveRecord::FixtureSet.default_fixture_model_name(fs_name, config)
end
end
class << self
def default_fixture_model_name(fixture_set_name, config = ActiveRecord::Base) # :nodoc:
config.pluralize_table_names ?
fixture_set_name.singularize.camelize :
fixture_set_name.camelize
end
def default_fixture_table_name(fixture_set_name, config = ActiveRecord::Base) # :nodoc:
"#{ config.table_name_prefix }"\
"#{ fixture_set_name.tr('/', '_') }"\
"#{ config.table_name_suffix }".to_sym
end
def reset_cache
@@all_cached_fixtures.clear
end
def cache_for_connection(connection)
@@all_cached_fixtures[connection]
end
def fixture_is_cached?(connection, table_name)
cache_for_connection(connection)[table_name]
end
def cached_fixtures(connection, keys_to_fetch = nil)
if keys_to_fetch
cache_for_connection(connection).values_at(*keys_to_fetch)
else
cache_for_connection(connection).values
end
end
def cache_fixtures(connection, fixtures_map)
cache_for_connection(connection).update(fixtures_map)
end
def instantiate_fixtures(object, fixture_set, load_instances = true)
return unless load_instances
fixture_set.each do |fixture_name, fixture|
object.instance_variable_set "@#{fixture_name}", fixture.find
rescue FixtureClassNotFound
nil
end
end
def instantiate_all_loaded_fixtures(object, load_instances = true)
all_loaded_fixtures.each_value do |fixture_set|
instantiate_fixtures(object, fixture_set, load_instances)
end
end
def create_fixtures(fixtures_directory, fixture_set_names, class_names = {}, config = ActiveRecord::Base, &block)
fixture_set_names = Array(fixture_set_names).map(&:to_s)
class_names = ClassCache.new class_names, config
# FIXME: Apparently JK uses this.
connection = block_given? ? block : lambda { ActiveRecord::Base.connection }
fixture_files_to_read = fixture_set_names.reject do |fs_name|
fixture_is_cached?(connection.call, fs_name)
end
if fixture_files_to_read.any?
fixtures_map = read_and_insert(
fixtures_directory,
fixture_files_to_read,
class_names,
connection,
)
cache_fixtures(connection.call, fixtures_map)
end
cached_fixtures(connection.call, fixture_set_names)
end
# Returns a consistent, platform-independent identifier for +label+.
# Integer identifiers are values less than 2^30. UUIDs are RFC 4122 version 5 SHA-1 hashes.
def identify(label, column_type = :integer)
if column_type == :uuid
Digest::UUID.uuid_v5(Digest::UUID::OID_NAMESPACE, label.to_s)
else
Zlib.crc32(label.to_s) % MAX_ID
end
end
def signed_global_id(fixture_set_name, label, column_type: :integer, **options)
identifier = identify(label, column_type)
model_name = default_fixture_model_name(fixture_set_name)
uri = URI::GID.build([GlobalID.app, model_name, identifier, {}])
SignedGlobalID.new(uri, **options)
end
# Superclass for the evaluation contexts used by ERB fixtures.
def context_class
@context_class ||= Class.new
end
private
def read_and_insert(fixtures_directory, fixture_files, class_names, connection) # :nodoc:
fixtures_map = {}
fixture_sets = fixture_files.map do |fixture_set_name|
klass = class_names[fixture_set_name]
fixtures_map[fixture_set_name] = new( # ActiveRecord::FixtureSet.new
nil,
fixture_set_name,
klass,
::File.join(fixtures_directory, fixture_set_name)
)
end
update_all_loaded_fixtures(fixtures_map)
insert(fixture_sets, connection)
fixtures_map
end
def insert(fixture_sets, connection) # :nodoc:
fixture_sets_by_connection = fixture_sets.group_by do |fixture_set|
if fixture_set.model_class
fixture_set.model_class.connection
else
connection.call
end
end
fixture_sets_by_connection.each do |conn, set|
table_rows_for_connection = Hash.new { |h, k| h[k] = [] }
set.each do |fixture_set|
fixture_set.table_rows.each do |table, rows|
table_rows_for_connection[table].unshift(*rows)
end
end
conn.insert_fixtures_set(table_rows_for_connection, table_rows_for_connection.keys)
# Cap primary key sequences to max(pk).
if conn.respond_to?(:reset_pk_sequence!)
set.each { |fs| conn.reset_pk_sequence!(fs.table_name) }
end
end
end
def update_all_loaded_fixtures(fixtures_map) # :nodoc:
all_loaded_fixtures.update(fixtures_map)
end
end
attr_reader :table_name, :name, :fixtures, :model_class, :ignored_fixtures, :config
def initialize(_, name, class_name, path, config = ActiveRecord::Base)
@name = name
@path = path
@config = config
self.model_class = class_name
@fixtures = read_fixture_files(path)
@table_name = model_class&.table_name || self.class.default_fixture_table_name(name, config)
end
def [](x)
fixtures[x]
end
def []=(k, v)
fixtures[k] = v
end
def each(&block)
fixtures.each(&block)
end
def size
fixtures.size
end
# Returns a hash of rows to be inserted. The key is the table, the value is
# a list of rows to insert to that table.
def table_rows
# allow specifying fixtures to be ignored by setting `ignore` in `_fixture` section
fixtures.except!(*ignored_fixtures)
TableRows.new(
table_name,
model_class: model_class,
fixtures: fixtures,
config: config,
).to_hash
end
private
def model_class=(class_name)
if class_name.is_a?(Class) # TODO: Should be an AR::Base type class, or any?
@model_class = class_name
else
@model_class = class_name.safe_constantize if class_name
end
end
def ignored_fixtures=(base)
@ignored_fixtures =
case base
when Array
base
when String
[base]
else
[]
end
@ignored_fixtures << "DEFAULTS" unless @ignored_fixtures.include?("DEFAULTS")
@ignored_fixtures.compact
end
# Loads the fixtures from the YAML file at +path+.
# If the file sets the +model_class+ and current instance value is not set,
# it uses the file value.
def read_fixture_files(path)
yaml_files = Dir["#{path}/{**,*}/*.yml"].select { |f|
::File.file?(f)
} + [yaml_file_path(path)]
yaml_files.each_with_object({}) do |file, fixtures|
FixtureSet::File.open(file) do |fh|
self.model_class ||= fh.model_class if fh.model_class
self.ignored_fixtures ||= fh.ignored_fixtures
fh.each do |fixture_name, row|
fixtures[fixture_name] = ActiveRecord::Fixture.new(row, model_class)
end
end
end
end
def yaml_file_path(path)
"#{path}.yml"
end
end
class Fixture #:nodoc:
include Enumerable
class FixtureError < StandardError #:nodoc:
end
class FormatError < FixtureError #:nodoc:
end
attr_reader :model_class, :fixture
def initialize(fixture, model_class)
@fixture = fixture
@model_class = model_class
end
def class_name
model_class.name if model_class
end
def each
fixture.each { |item| yield item }
end
def [](key)
fixture[key]
end
alias :to_hash :fixture
def find
raise FixtureClassNotFound, "No class attached to find." unless model_class
object = model_class.unscoped do
model_class.find(fixture[model_class.primary_key])
end
# Fixtures can't be eagerly loaded
object.instance_variable_set(:@strict_loading, false)
object
end
end
end
ActiveSupport.run_load_hooks :active_record_fixture_set, ActiveRecord::FixtureSet