Skip to content
Permalink
main
Switch branches/tags
Go to file
124 contributors

Users who have contributed to this file

@kamipo @sgrif @rafaelfranca @tenderlove @fxn @senny @jonleighton @carlosantoniodasilva @smartinez87 @josevalim @kaspth @spastorino
# frozen_string_literal: true
require "active_record/insert_all"
module ActiveRecord
# = Active Record \Persistence
module Persistence
extend ActiveSupport::Concern
module ClassMethods
# Creates an object (or multiple objects) and saves it to the database, if validations pass.
# The resulting object is returned whether the object was saved successfully to the database or not.
#
# The +attributes+ parameter can be either a Hash or an Array of Hashes. These Hashes describe the
# attributes on the objects that are to be created.
#
# ==== Examples
# # Create a single new object
# User.create(first_name: 'Jamie')
#
# # Create an Array of new objects
# User.create([{ first_name: 'Jamie' }, { first_name: 'Jeremy' }])
#
# # Create a single object and pass it into a block to set other attributes.
# User.create(first_name: 'Jamie') do |u|
# u.is_admin = false
# end
#
# # Creating an Array of new objects using a block, where the block is executed for each object:
# User.create([{ first_name: 'Jamie' }, { first_name: 'Jeremy' }]) do |u|
# u.is_admin = false
# end
def create(attributes = nil, &block)
if attributes.is_a?(Array)
attributes.collect { |attr| create(attr, &block) }
else
object = new(attributes, &block)
object.save
object
end
end
# Creates an object (or multiple objects) and saves it to the database,
# if validations pass. Raises a RecordInvalid error if validations fail,
# unlike Base#create.
#
# The +attributes+ parameter can be either a Hash or an Array of Hashes.
# These describe which attributes to be created on the object, or
# multiple objects when given an Array of Hashes.
def create!(attributes = nil, &block)
if attributes.is_a?(Array)
attributes.collect { |attr| create!(attr, &block) }
else
object = new(attributes, &block)
object.save!
object
end
end
# Inserts a single record into the database in a single SQL INSERT
# statement. It does not instantiate any models nor does it trigger
# Active Record callbacks or validations. Though passed values
# go through Active Record's type casting and serialization.
#
# See <tt>ActiveRecord::Persistence#insert_all</tt> for documentation.
def insert(attributes, returning: nil, unique_by: nil)
insert_all([ attributes ], returning: returning, unique_by: unique_by)
end
# Inserts multiple records into the database in a single SQL INSERT
# statement. It does not instantiate any models nor does it trigger
# Active Record callbacks or validations. Though passed values
# go through Active Record's type casting and serialization.
#
# The +attributes+ parameter is an Array of Hashes. Every Hash determines
# the attributes for a single row and must have the same keys.
#
# Rows are considered to be unique by every unique index on the table. Any
# duplicate rows are skipped.
# Override with <tt>:unique_by</tt> (see below).
#
# Returns an <tt>ActiveRecord::Result</tt> with its contents based on
# <tt>:returning</tt> (see below).
#
# ==== Options
#
# [:returning]
# (PostgreSQL only) An array of attributes to return for all successfully
# inserted records, which by default is the primary key.
# Pass <tt>returning: %w[ id name ]</tt> for both id and name
# or <tt>returning: false</tt> to omit the underlying <tt>RETURNING</tt> SQL
# clause entirely.
#
# You can also pass an SQL string if you need more control on the return values
# (for example, <tt>returning: "id, name as new_name"</tt>).
#
# [:unique_by]
# (PostgreSQL and SQLite only) By default rows are considered to be unique
# by every unique index on the table. Any duplicate rows are skipped.
#
# To skip rows according to just one unique index pass <tt>:unique_by</tt>.
#
# Consider a Book model where no duplicate ISBNs make sense, but if any
# row has an existing id, or is not unique by another unique index,
# <tt>ActiveRecord::RecordNotUnique</tt> is raised.
#
# Unique indexes can be identified by columns or name:
#
# unique_by: :isbn
# unique_by: %i[ author_id name ]
# unique_by: :index_books_on_isbn
#
# Because it relies on the index information from the database
# <tt>:unique_by</tt> is recommended to be paired with
# Active Record's schema_cache.
#
# ==== Example
#
# # Insert records and skip inserting any duplicates.
# # Here "Eloquent Ruby" is skipped because its id is not unique.
#
# Book.insert_all([
# { id: 1, title: "Rework", author: "David" },
# { id: 1, title: "Eloquent Ruby", author: "Russ" }
# ])
#
# # insert_all works on chained scopes, and you can use create_with
# # to set default attributes for all inserted records.
#
# author.books.create_with(created_at: Time.now).insert_all([
# { id: 1, title: "Rework" },
# { id: 2, title: "Eloquent Ruby" }
# ])
def insert_all(attributes, returning: nil, unique_by: nil)
InsertAll.new(self, attributes, on_duplicate: :skip, returning: returning, unique_by: unique_by).execute
end
# Inserts a single record into the database in a single SQL INSERT
# statement. It does not instantiate any models nor does it trigger
# Active Record callbacks or validations. Though passed values
# go through Active Record's type casting and serialization.
#
# See <tt>ActiveRecord::Persistence#insert_all!</tt> for more.
def insert!(attributes, returning: nil)
insert_all!([ attributes ], returning: returning)
end
# Inserts multiple records into the database in a single SQL INSERT
# statement. It does not instantiate any models nor does it trigger
# Active Record callbacks or validations. Though passed values
# go through Active Record's type casting and serialization.
#
# The +attributes+ parameter is an Array of Hashes. Every Hash determines
# the attributes for a single row and must have the same keys.
#
# Raises <tt>ActiveRecord::RecordNotUnique</tt> if any rows violate a
# unique index on the table. In that case, no rows are inserted.
#
# To skip duplicate rows, see <tt>ActiveRecord::Persistence#insert_all</tt>.
# To replace them, see <tt>ActiveRecord::Persistence#upsert_all</tt>.
#
# Returns an <tt>ActiveRecord::Result</tt> with its contents based on
# <tt>:returning</tt> (see below).
#
# ==== Options
#
# [:returning]
# (PostgreSQL only) An array of attributes to return for all successfully
# inserted records, which by default is the primary key.
# Pass <tt>returning: %w[ id name ]</tt> for both id and name
# or <tt>returning: false</tt> to omit the underlying <tt>RETURNING</tt> SQL
# clause entirely.
#
# You can also pass an SQL string if you need more control on the return values
# (for example, <tt>returning: "id, name as new_name"</tt>).
#
# ==== Examples
#
# # Insert multiple records
# Book.insert_all!([
# { title: "Rework", author: "David" },
# { title: "Eloquent Ruby", author: "Russ" }
# ])
#
# # Raises ActiveRecord::RecordNotUnique because "Eloquent Ruby"
# # does not have a unique id.
# Book.insert_all!([
# { id: 1, title: "Rework", author: "David" },
# { id: 1, title: "Eloquent Ruby", author: "Russ" }
# ])
def insert_all!(attributes, returning: nil)
InsertAll.new(self, attributes, on_duplicate: :raise, returning: returning).execute
end
# Updates or inserts (upserts) a single record into the database in a
# single SQL INSERT statement. It does not instantiate any models nor does
# it trigger Active Record callbacks or validations. Though passed values
# go through Active Record's type casting and serialization.
#
# See <tt>ActiveRecord::Persistence#upsert_all</tt> for documentation.
def upsert(attributes, on_duplicate: :update, returning: nil, unique_by: nil)
upsert_all([ attributes ], on_duplicate: on_duplicate, returning: returning, unique_by: unique_by)
end
# Updates or inserts (upserts) multiple records into the database in a
# single SQL INSERT statement. It does not instantiate any models nor does
# it trigger Active Record callbacks or validations. Though passed values
# go through Active Record's type casting and serialization.
#
# The +attributes+ parameter is an Array of Hashes. Every Hash determines
# the attributes for a single row and must have the same keys.
#
# Returns an <tt>ActiveRecord::Result</tt> with its contents based on
# <tt>:returning</tt> (see below).
#
# ==== Options
#
# [:returning]
# (PostgreSQL only) An array of attributes to return for all successfully
# inserted records, which by default is the primary key.
# Pass <tt>returning: %w[ id name ]</tt> for both id and name
# or <tt>returning: false</tt> to omit the underlying <tt>RETURNING</tt> SQL
# clause entirely.
#
# You can also pass an SQL string if you need more control on the return values
# (for example, <tt>returning: "id, name as new_name"</tt>).
#
# [:unique_by]
# (PostgreSQL and SQLite only) By default rows are considered to be unique
# by every unique index on the table. Any duplicate rows are skipped.
#
# To skip rows according to just one unique index pass <tt>:unique_by</tt>.
#
# Consider a Book model where no duplicate ISBNs make sense, but if any
# row has an existing id, or is not unique by another unique index,
# <tt>ActiveRecord::RecordNotUnique</tt> is raised.
#
# Unique indexes can be identified by columns or name:
#
# unique_by: :isbn
# unique_by: %i[ author_id name ]
# unique_by: :index_books_on_isbn
#
# Because it relies on the index information from the database
# <tt>:unique_by</tt> is recommended to be paired with
# Active Record's schema_cache.
#
# [:on_duplicate]
# Specify a custom SQL for updating rows on conflict.
#
# NOTE: in this case you must provide all the columns you want to update by yourself.
#
# ==== Examples
#
# # Inserts multiple records, performing an upsert when records have duplicate ISBNs.
# # Here "Eloquent Ruby" overwrites "Rework" because its ISBN is duplicate.
#
# Book.upsert_all([
# { title: "Rework", author: "David", isbn: "1" },
# { title: "Eloquent Ruby", author: "Russ", isbn: "1" }
# ], unique_by: :isbn)
#
# Book.find_by(isbn: "1").title # => "Eloquent Ruby"
def upsert_all(attributes, on_duplicate: :update, returning: nil, unique_by: nil)
InsertAll.new(self, attributes, on_duplicate: on_duplicate, returning: returning, unique_by: unique_by).execute
end
# Given an attributes hash, +instantiate+ returns a new instance of
# the appropriate class. Accepts only keys as strings.
#
# For example, +Post.all+ may return Comments, Messages, and Emails
# by storing the record's subclass in a +type+ attribute. By calling
# +instantiate+ instead of +new+, finder methods ensure they get new
# instances of the appropriate class for each record.
#
# See <tt>ActiveRecord::Inheritance#discriminate_class_for_record</tt> to see
# how this "single-table" inheritance mapping is implemented.
def instantiate(attributes, column_types = {}, &block)
klass = discriminate_class_for_record(attributes)
instantiate_instance_of(klass, attributes, column_types, &block)
end
# Updates an object (or multiple objects) and saves it to the database, if validations pass.
# The resulting object is returned whether the object was saved successfully to the database or not.
#
# ==== Parameters
#
# * +id+ - This should be the id or an array of ids to be updated.
# Optional argument, defaults to all records in the relation.
# * +attributes+ - This should be a hash of attributes or an array of hashes.
#
# ==== Examples
#
# # Updates one record
# Person.update(15, user_name: "Samuel", group: "expert")
#
# # Updates multiple records
# people = { 1 => { "first_name" => "David" }, 2 => { "first_name" => "Jeremy" } }
# Person.update(people.keys, people.values)
#
# # Updates multiple records from the result of a relation
# people = Person.where(group: "expert")
# people.update(group: "masters")
#
# Note: Updating a large number of records will run an UPDATE
# query for each record, which may cause a performance issue.
# When running callbacks is not needed for each record update,
# it is preferred to use {update_all}[rdoc-ref:Relation#update_all]
# for updating all records in a single query.
def update(id = :all, attributes)
if id.is_a?(Array)
if id.any?(ActiveRecord::Base)
raise ArgumentError,
"You are passing an array of ActiveRecord::Base instances to `update`. " \
"Please pass the ids of the objects by calling `pluck(:id)` or `map(&:id)`."
end
id.map { |one_id| find(one_id) }.each_with_index { |object, idx|
object.update(attributes[idx])
}
elsif id == :all
all.each { |record| record.update(attributes) }
else
if ActiveRecord::Base === id
raise ArgumentError,
"You are passing an instance of ActiveRecord::Base to `update`. " \
"Please pass the id of the object by calling `.id`."
end
object = find(id)
object.update(attributes)
object
end
end
# Updates the object (or multiple objects) just like #update but calls #update! instead
# of +update+, so an exception is raised if the record is invalid and saving will fail.
def update!(id = :all, attributes)
if id.is_a?(Array)
if id.any?(ActiveRecord::Base)
raise ArgumentError,
"You are passing an array of ActiveRecord::Base instances to `update!`. " \
"Please pass the ids of the objects by calling `pluck(:id)` or `map(&:id)`."
end
id.map { |one_id| find(one_id) }.each_with_index { |object, idx|
object.update!(attributes[idx])
}
elsif id == :all
all.each { |record| record.update!(attributes) }
else
if ActiveRecord::Base === id
raise ArgumentError,
"You are passing an instance of ActiveRecord::Base to `update!`. " \
"Please pass the id of the object by calling `.id`."
end
object = find(id)
object.update!(attributes)
object
end
end
# Destroy an object (or multiple objects) that has the given id. The object is instantiated first,
# therefore all callbacks and filters are fired off before the object is deleted. This method is
# less efficient than #delete but allows cleanup methods and other actions to be run.
#
# This essentially finds the object (or multiple objects) with the given id, creates a new object
# from the attributes, and then calls destroy on it.
#
# ==== Parameters
#
# * +id+ - This should be the id or an array of ids to be destroyed.
#
# ==== Examples
#
# # Destroy a single object
# Todo.destroy(1)
#
# # Destroy multiple objects
# todos = [1,2,3]
# Todo.destroy(todos)
def destroy(id)
if id.is_a?(Array)
find(id).each(&:destroy)
else
find(id).destroy
end
end
# Deletes the row with a primary key matching the +id+ argument, using an
# SQL +DELETE+ statement, and returns the number of rows deleted. Active
# Record objects are not instantiated, so the object's callbacks are not
# executed, including any <tt>:dependent</tt> association options.
#
# You can delete multiple rows at once by passing an Array of <tt>id</tt>s.
#
# Note: Although it is often much faster than the alternative, #destroy,
# skipping callbacks might bypass business logic in your application
# that ensures referential integrity or performs other essential jobs.
#
# ==== Examples
#
# # Delete a single row
# Todo.delete(1)
#
# # Delete multiple rows
# Todo.delete([2,3,4])
def delete(id_or_array)
delete_by(primary_key => id_or_array)
end
def _insert_record(values) # :nodoc:
primary_key = self.primary_key
primary_key_value = nil
if prefetch_primary_key? && primary_key
values[primary_key] ||= begin
primary_key_value = next_sequence_value
_default_attributes[primary_key].with_cast_value(primary_key_value)
end
end
im = Arel::InsertManager.new(arel_table)
if values.empty?
im.insert(connection.empty_insert_statement_value(primary_key))
else
im.insert(values.transform_keys { |name| arel_table[name] })
end
connection.insert(im, "#{self} Create", primary_key || false, primary_key_value)
end
def _update_record(values, constraints) # :nodoc:
constraints = constraints.map { |name, value| predicate_builder[name, value] }
if default_scopes?(all_queries: true)
constraints << default_scoped(all_queries: true).where_clause.ast
end
if current_scope = self.global_current_scope
constraints << current_scope.where_clause.ast
end
um = Arel::UpdateManager.new(arel_table)
um.set(values.transform_keys { |name| arel_table[name] })
um.wheres = constraints
connection.update(um, "#{self} Update")
end
def _delete_record(constraints) # :nodoc:
constraints = constraints.map { |name, value| predicate_builder[name, value] }
if default_scopes?(all_queries: true)
constraints << default_scoped(all_queries: true).where_clause.ast
end
if current_scope = self.global_current_scope
constraints << current_scope.where_clause.ast
end
dm = Arel::DeleteManager.new(arel_table)
dm.wheres = constraints
connection.delete(dm, "#{self} Destroy")
end
private
# Given a class, an attributes hash, +instantiate_instance_of+ returns a
# new instance of the class. Accepts only keys as strings.
def instantiate_instance_of(klass, attributes, column_types = {}, &block)
attributes = klass.attributes_builder.build_from_database(attributes, column_types)
klass.allocate.init_with_attributes(attributes, &block)
end
# Called by +instantiate+ to decide which class to use for a new
# record instance.
#
# See +ActiveRecord::Inheritance#discriminate_class_for_record+ for
# the single-table inheritance discriminator.
def discriminate_class_for_record(record)
self
end
end
# Returns true if this object hasn't been saved yet -- that is, a record
# for the object doesn't exist in the database yet; otherwise, returns false.
def new_record?
@new_record
end
# Returns true if this object was just created -- that is, prior to the last
# save, the object didn't exist in the database and new_record? would have
# returned true.
def previously_new_record?
@previously_new_record
end
# Returns true if this object was previously persisted but now it has been deleted.
def previously_persisted?
!new_record? && destroyed?
end
# Returns true if this object has been destroyed, otherwise returns false.
def destroyed?
@destroyed
end
# Returns true if the record is persisted, i.e. it's not a new record and it was
# not destroyed, otherwise returns false.
def persisted?
!(@new_record || @destroyed)
end
##
# :call-seq:
# save(**options)
#
# Saves the model.
#
# If the model is new, a record gets created in the database, otherwise
# the existing record gets updated.
#
# By default, save always runs validations. If any of them fail the action
# is cancelled and #save returns +false+, and the record won't be saved. However, if you supply
# <tt>validate: false</tt>, validations are bypassed altogether. See
# ActiveRecord::Validations for more information.
#
# By default, #save also sets the +updated_at+/+updated_on+ attributes to
# the current time. However, if you supply <tt>touch: false</tt>, these
# timestamps will not be updated.
#
# There's a series of callbacks associated with #save. If any of the
# <tt>before_*</tt> callbacks throws +:abort+ the action is cancelled and
# #save returns +false+. See ActiveRecord::Callbacks for further
# details.
#
# Attributes marked as readonly are silently ignored if the record is
# being updated.
def save(**options, &block)
create_or_update(**options, &block)
rescue ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid
false
end
##
# :call-seq:
# save!(**options)
#
# Saves the model.
#
# If the model is new, a record gets created in the database, otherwise
# the existing record gets updated.
#
# By default, #save! always runs validations. If any of them fail
# ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid gets raised, and the record won't be saved. However, if you supply
# <tt>validate: false</tt>, validations are bypassed altogether. See
# ActiveRecord::Validations for more information.
#
# By default, #save! also sets the +updated_at+/+updated_on+ attributes to
# the current time. However, if you supply <tt>touch: false</tt>, these
# timestamps will not be updated.
#
# There's a series of callbacks associated with #save!. If any of
# the <tt>before_*</tt> callbacks throws +:abort+ the action is cancelled
# and #save! raises ActiveRecord::RecordNotSaved. See
# ActiveRecord::Callbacks for further details.
#
# Attributes marked as readonly are silently ignored if the record is
# being updated.
#
# Unless an error is raised, returns true.
def save!(**options, &block)
create_or_update(**options, &block) || raise(RecordNotSaved.new("Failed to save the record", self))
end
# Deletes the record in the database and freezes this instance to
# reflect that no changes should be made (since they can't be
# persisted). Returns the frozen instance.
#
# The row is simply removed with an SQL +DELETE+ statement on the
# record's primary key, and no callbacks are executed.
#
# Note that this will also delete records marked as {#readonly?}[rdoc-ref:Core#readonly?].
#
# To enforce the object's +before_destroy+ and +after_destroy+
# callbacks or any <tt>:dependent</tt> association
# options, use #destroy.
def delete
_delete_row if persisted?
@destroyed = true
freeze
end
# Deletes the record in the database and freezes this instance to reflect
# that no changes should be made (since they can't be persisted).
#
# There's a series of callbacks associated with #destroy. If the
# <tt>before_destroy</tt> callback throws +:abort+ the action is cancelled
# and #destroy returns +false+.
# See ActiveRecord::Callbacks for further details.
def destroy
_raise_readonly_record_error if readonly?
destroy_associations
@_trigger_destroy_callback = if persisted?
destroy_row > 0
else
true
end
@destroyed = true
freeze
end
# Deletes the record in the database and freezes this instance to reflect
# that no changes should be made (since they can't be persisted).
#
# There's a series of callbacks associated with #destroy!. If the
# <tt>before_destroy</tt> callback throws +:abort+ the action is cancelled
# and #destroy! raises ActiveRecord::RecordNotDestroyed.
# See ActiveRecord::Callbacks for further details.
def destroy!
destroy || _raise_record_not_destroyed
end
# Returns an instance of the specified +klass+ with the attributes of the
# current record. This is mostly useful in relation to single table
# inheritance (STI) structures where you want a subclass to appear as the
# superclass. This can be used along with record identification in
# Action Pack to allow, say, <tt>Client < Company</tt> to do something
# like render <tt>partial: @client.becomes(Company)</tt> to render that
# instance using the companies/company partial instead of clients/client.
#
# Note: The new instance will share a link to the same attributes as the original class.
# Therefore the STI column value will still be the same.
# Any change to the attributes on either instance will affect both instances.
# If you want to change the STI column as well, use #becomes! instead.
def becomes(klass)
became = klass.allocate
became.send(:initialize) do |becoming|
becoming.instance_variable_set(:@attributes, @attributes)
becoming.instance_variable_set(:@mutations_from_database, @mutations_from_database ||= nil)
becoming.instance_variable_set(:@new_record, new_record?)
becoming.instance_variable_set(:@destroyed, destroyed?)
becoming.errors.copy!(errors)
end
became
end
# Wrapper around #becomes that also changes the instance's STI column value.
# This is especially useful if you want to persist the changed class in your
# database.
#
# Note: The old instance's STI column value will be changed too, as both objects
# share the same set of attributes.
def becomes!(klass)
became = becomes(klass)
sti_type = nil
if !klass.descends_from_active_record?
sti_type = klass.sti_name
end
became.public_send("#{klass.inheritance_column}=", sti_type)
became
end
# Updates a single attribute and saves the record.
# This is especially useful for boolean flags on existing records. Also note that
#
# * Validation is skipped.
# * \Callbacks are invoked.
# * updated_at/updated_on column is updated if that column is available.
# * Updates all the attributes that are dirty in this object.
#
# This method raises an ActiveRecord::ActiveRecordError if the
# attribute is marked as readonly.
#
# Also see #update_column.
def update_attribute(name, value)
name = name.to_s
verify_readonly_attribute(name)
public_send("#{name}=", value)
save(validate: false)
end
# Updates the attributes of the model from the passed-in hash and saves the
# record, all wrapped in a transaction. If the object is invalid, the saving
# will fail and false will be returned.
def update(attributes)
# The following transaction covers any possible database side-effects of the
# attributes assignment. For example, setting the IDs of a child collection.
with_transaction_returning_status do
assign_attributes(attributes)
save
end
end
# Updates its receiver just like #update but calls #save! instead
# of +save+, so an exception is raised if the record is invalid and saving will fail.
def update!(attributes)
# The following transaction covers any possible database side-effects of the
# attributes assignment. For example, setting the IDs of a child collection.
with_transaction_returning_status do
assign_attributes(attributes)
save!
end
end
# Equivalent to <code>update_columns(name => value)</code>.
def update_column(name, value)
update_columns(name => value)
end
# Updates the attributes directly in the database issuing an UPDATE SQL
# statement and sets them in the receiver:
#
# user.update_columns(last_request_at: Time.current)
#
# This is the fastest way to update attributes because it goes straight to
# the database, but take into account that in consequence the regular update
# procedures are totally bypassed. In particular:
#
# * \Validations are skipped.
# * \Callbacks are skipped.
# * +updated_at+/+updated_on+ are not updated.
# * However, attributes are serialized with the same rules as ActiveRecord::Relation#update_all
#
# This method raises an ActiveRecord::ActiveRecordError when called on new
# objects, or when at least one of the attributes is marked as readonly.
def update_columns(attributes)
raise ActiveRecordError, "cannot update a new record" if new_record?
raise ActiveRecordError, "cannot update a destroyed record" if destroyed?
attributes = attributes.transform_keys do |key|
name = key.to_s
name = self.class.attribute_aliases[name] || name
verify_readonly_attribute(name) || name
end
update_constraints = _primary_key_constraints_hash
attributes = attributes.each_with_object({}) do |(k, v), h|
h[k] = @attributes.write_cast_value(k, v)
clear_attribute_change(k)
end
affected_rows = self.class._update_record(
attributes,
update_constraints
)
affected_rows == 1
end
# Initializes +attribute+ to zero if +nil+ and adds the value passed as +by+ (default is 1).
# The increment is performed directly on the underlying attribute, no setter is invoked.
# Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns +self+.
def increment(attribute, by = 1)
self[attribute] ||= 0
self[attribute] += by
self
end
# Wrapper around #increment that writes the update to the database.
# Only +attribute+ is updated; the record itself is not saved.
# This means that any other modified attributes will still be dirty.
# Validations and callbacks are skipped. Supports the +touch+ option from
# +update_counters+, see that for more.
# Returns +self+.
def increment!(attribute, by = 1, touch: nil)
increment(attribute, by)
change = public_send(attribute) - (public_send(:"#{attribute}_in_database") || 0)
self.class.update_counters(id, attribute => change, touch: touch)
public_send(:"clear_#{attribute}_change")
self
end
# Initializes +attribute+ to zero if +nil+ and subtracts the value passed as +by+ (default is 1).
# The decrement is performed directly on the underlying attribute, no setter is invoked.
# Only makes sense for number-based attributes. Returns +self+.
def decrement(attribute, by = 1)
increment(attribute, -by)
end
# Wrapper around #decrement that writes the update to the database.
# Only +attribute+ is updated; the record itself is not saved.
# This means that any other modified attributes will still be dirty.
# Validations and callbacks are skipped. Supports the +touch+ option from
# +update_counters+, see that for more.
# Returns +self+.
def decrement!(attribute, by = 1, touch: nil)
increment!(attribute, -by, touch: touch)
end
# Assigns to +attribute+ the boolean opposite of <tt>attribute?</tt>. So
# if the predicate returns +true+ the attribute will become +false+. This
# method toggles directly the underlying value without calling any setter.
# Returns +self+.
#
# Example:
#
# user = User.first
# user.banned? # => false
# user.toggle(:banned)
# user.banned? # => true
#
def toggle(attribute)
self[attribute] = !public_send("#{attribute}?")
self
end
# Wrapper around #toggle that saves the record. This method differs from
# its non-bang version in the sense that it passes through the attribute setter.
# Saving is not subjected to validation checks. Returns +true+ if the
# record could be saved.
def toggle!(attribute)
toggle(attribute).update_attribute(attribute, self[attribute])
end
# Reloads the record from the database.
#
# This method finds the record by its primary key (which could be assigned
# manually) and modifies the receiver in-place:
#
# account = Account.new
# # => #<Account id: nil, email: nil>
# account.id = 1
# account.reload
# # Account Load (1.2ms) SELECT "accounts".* FROM "accounts" WHERE "accounts"."id" = $1 LIMIT 1 [["id", 1]]
# # => #<Account id: 1, email: 'account@example.com'>
#
# Attributes are reloaded from the database, and caches busted, in
# particular the associations cache and the QueryCache.
#
# If the record no longer exists in the database ActiveRecord::RecordNotFound
# is raised. Otherwise, in addition to the in-place modification the method
# returns +self+ for convenience.
#
# The optional <tt>:lock</tt> flag option allows you to lock the reloaded record:
#
# reload(lock: true) # reload with pessimistic locking
#
# Reloading is commonly used in test suites to test something is actually
# written to the database, or when some action modifies the corresponding
# row in the database but not the object in memory:
#
# assert account.deposit!(25)
# assert_equal 25, account.credit # check it is updated in memory
# assert_equal 25, account.reload.credit # check it is also persisted
#
# Another common use case is optimistic locking handling:
#
# def with_optimistic_retry
# begin
# yield
# rescue ActiveRecord::StaleObjectError
# begin
# # Reload lock_version in particular.
# reload
# rescue ActiveRecord::RecordNotFound
# # If the record is gone there is nothing to do.
# else
# retry
# end
# end
# end
#
def reload(options = nil)
self.class.connection.clear_query_cache
fresh_object = if apply_scoping?(options)
_find_record(options)
else
self.class.unscoped { _find_record(options) }
end
@association_cache = fresh_object.instance_variable_get(:@association_cache)
@attributes = fresh_object.instance_variable_get(:@attributes)
@new_record = false
@previously_new_record = false
self
end
# Saves the record with the updated_at/on attributes set to the current time
# or the time specified.
# Please note that no validation is performed and only the +after_touch+,
# +after_commit+ and +after_rollback+ callbacks are executed.
#
# This method can be passed attribute names and an optional time argument.
# If attribute names are passed, they are updated along with updated_at/on
# attributes. If no time argument is passed, the current time is used as default.
#
# product.touch # updates updated_at/on with current time
# product.touch(time: Time.new(2015, 2, 16, 0, 0, 0)) # updates updated_at/on with specified time
# product.touch(:designed_at) # updates the designed_at attribute and updated_at/on
# product.touch(:started_at, :ended_at) # updates started_at, ended_at and updated_at/on attributes
#
# If used along with {belongs_to}[rdoc-ref:Associations::ClassMethods#belongs_to]
# then +touch+ will invoke +touch+ method on associated object.
#
# class Brake < ActiveRecord::Base
# belongs_to :car, touch: true
# end
#
# class Car < ActiveRecord::Base
# belongs_to :corporation, touch: true
# end
#
# # triggers @brake.car.touch and @brake.car.corporation.touch
# @brake.touch
#
# Note that +touch+ must be used on a persisted object, or else an
# ActiveRecordError will be thrown. For example:
#
# ball = Ball.new
# ball.touch(:updated_at) # => raises ActiveRecordError
#
def touch(*names, time: nil)
_raise_record_not_touched_error unless persisted?
attribute_names = timestamp_attributes_for_update_in_model
attribute_names |= names.map! do |name|
name = name.to_s
self.class.attribute_aliases[name] || name
end unless names.empty?
unless attribute_names.empty?
affected_rows = _touch_row(attribute_names, time)
@_trigger_update_callback = affected_rows == 1
else
true
end
end
private
def strict_loaded_associations
@association_cache.find_all do |_, assoc|
assoc.owner.strict_loading? && !assoc.owner.strict_loading_n_plus_one_only?
end.map(&:first)
end
def _find_record(options)
if options && options[:lock]
self.class.preload(strict_loaded_associations).lock(options[:lock]).find(id)
else
self.class.preload(strict_loaded_associations).find(id)
end
end
def apply_scoping?(options)
!(options && options[:unscoped]) &&
(self.class.default_scopes?(all_queries: true) || self.class.global_current_scope)
end
def _primary_key_constraints_hash
{ @primary_key => id_in_database }
end
# A hook to be overridden by association modules.
def destroy_associations
end
def destroy_row
_delete_row
end
def _delete_row
self.class._delete_record(_primary_key_constraints_hash)
end
def _touch_row(attribute_names, time)
time ||= current_time_from_proper_timezone
attribute_names.each do |attr_name|
_write_attribute(attr_name, time)
end
_update_row(attribute_names, "touch")
end
def _update_row(attribute_names, attempted_action = "update")
self.class._update_record(
attributes_with_values(attribute_names),
_primary_key_constraints_hash
)
end
def create_or_update(**, &block)
_raise_readonly_record_error if readonly?
return false if destroyed?
result = new_record? ? _create_record(&block) : _update_record(&block)
result != false
end
# Updates the associated record with values matching those of the instance attributes.
# Returns the number of affected rows.
def _update_record(attribute_names = self.attribute_names)
attribute_names = attributes_for_update(attribute_names)
if attribute_names.empty?
affected_rows = 0
@_trigger_update_callback = true
else
affected_rows = _update_row(attribute_names)
@_trigger_update_callback = affected_rows == 1
end
@previously_new_record = false
yield(self) if block_given?
affected_rows
end
# Creates a record with values matching those of the instance attributes
# and returns its id.
def _create_record(attribute_names = self.attribute_names)
attribute_names = attributes_for_create(attribute_names)
new_id = self.class._insert_record(
attributes_with_values(attribute_names)
)
self.id ||= new_id if @primary_key
@new_record = false
@previously_new_record = true
yield(self) if block_given?
id
end
def verify_readonly_attribute(name)
raise ActiveRecordError, "#{name} is marked as readonly" if self.class.readonly_attribute?(name)
end
def _raise_record_not_destroyed
@_association_destroy_exception ||= nil
raise @_association_destroy_exception || RecordNotDestroyed.new("Failed to destroy the record", self)
ensure
@_association_destroy_exception = nil
end
def _raise_readonly_record_error
raise ReadOnlyRecord, "#{self.class} is marked as readonly"
end
def _raise_record_not_touched_error
raise ActiveRecordError, <<~MSG.squish
Cannot touch on a new or destroyed record object. Consider using
persisted?, new_record?, or destroyed? before touching.
MSG
end
# The name of the method used to touch a +belongs_to+ association when the
# +:touch+ option is used.
def belongs_to_touch_method
:touch
end
end
end