Skip to content

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
branch: master
941 lines (877 sloc) 38.441 kb
require 'mail'
require 'action_mailer/collector'
require 'active_support/core_ext/string/inflections'
require 'active_support/core_ext/hash/except'
require 'active_support/core_ext/module/anonymous'
require 'action_mailer/log_subscriber'
module ActionMailer
# Action Mailer allows you to send email from your application using a mailer model and views.
#
# = Mailer Models
#
# To use Action Mailer, you need to create a mailer model.
#
# $ rails generate mailer Notifier
#
# The generated model inherits from <tt>ApplicationMailer</tt> which in turn
# inherits from <tt>ActionMailer::Base</tt>. A mailer model defines methods
# used to generate an email message. In these methods, you can setup variables to be used in
# the mailer views, options on the mail itself such as the <tt>:from</tt> address, and attachments.
#
# class ApplicationMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# default from: 'from@example.com'
# layout 'mailer'
# end
#
# class NotifierMailer < ApplicationMailer
# default from: 'no-reply@example.com',
# return_path: 'system@example.com'
#
# def welcome(recipient)
# @account = recipient
# mail(to: recipient.email_address_with_name,
# bcc: ["bcc@example.com", "Order Watcher <watcher@example.com>"])
# end
# end
#
# Within the mailer method, you have access to the following methods:
#
# * <tt>attachments[]=</tt> - Allows you to add attachments to your email in an intuitive
# manner; <tt>attachments['filename.png'] = File.read('path/to/filename.png')</tt>
#
# * <tt>attachments.inline[]=</tt> - Allows you to add an inline attachment to your email
# in the same manner as <tt>attachments[]=</tt>
#
# * <tt>headers[]=</tt> - Allows you to specify any header field in your email such
# as <tt>headers['X-No-Spam'] = 'True'</tt>. Note that declaring a header multiple times
# will add many fields of the same name. Read #headers doc for more information.
#
# * <tt>headers(hash)</tt> - Allows you to specify multiple headers in your email such
# as <tt>headers({'X-No-Spam' => 'True', 'In-Reply-To' => '1234@message.id'})</tt>
#
# * <tt>mail</tt> - Allows you to specify email to be sent.
#
# The hash passed to the mail method allows you to specify any header that a <tt>Mail::Message</tt>
# will accept (any valid email header including optional fields).
#
# The mail method, if not passed a block, will inspect your views and send all the views with
# the same name as the method, so the above action would send the +welcome.text.erb+ view
# file as well as the +welcome.html.erb+ view file in a +multipart/alternative+ email.
#
# If you want to explicitly render only certain templates, pass a block:
#
# mail(to: user.email) do |format|
# format.text
# format.html
# end
#
# The block syntax is also useful in providing information specific to a part:
#
# mail(to: user.email) do |format|
# format.text(content_transfer_encoding: "base64")
# format.html
# end
#
# Or even to render a special view:
#
# mail(to: user.email) do |format|
# format.text
# format.html { render "some_other_template" }
# end
#
# = Mailer views
#
# Like Action Controller, each mailer class has a corresponding view directory in which each
# method of the class looks for a template with its name.
#
# To define a template to be used with a mailing, create an <tt>.erb</tt> file with the same
# name as the method in your mailer model. For example, in the mailer defined above, the template at
# <tt>app/views/notifier_mailer/welcome.text.erb</tt> would be used to generate the email.
#
# Variables defined in the methods of your mailer model are accessible as instance variables in their
# corresponding view.
#
# Emails by default are sent in plain text, so a sample view for our model example might look like this:
#
# Hi <%= @account.name %>,
# Thanks for joining our service! Please check back often.
#
# You can even use Action View helpers in these views. For example:
#
# You got a new note!
# <%= truncate(@note.body, length: 25) %>
#
# If you need to access the subject, from or the recipients in the view, you can do that through message object:
#
# You got a new note from <%= message.from %>!
# <%= truncate(@note.body, length: 25) %>
#
#
# = Generating URLs
#
# URLs can be generated in mailer views using <tt>url_for</tt> or named routes. Unlike controllers from
# Action Pack, the mailer instance doesn't have any context about the incoming request, so you'll need
# to provide all of the details needed to generate a URL.
#
# When using <tt>url_for</tt> you'll need to provide the <tt>:host</tt>, <tt>:controller</tt>, and <tt>:action</tt>:
#
# <%= url_for(host: "example.com", controller: "welcome", action: "greeting") %>
#
# When using named routes you only need to supply the <tt>:host</tt>:
#
# <%= users_url(host: "example.com") %>
#
# You should use the <tt>named_route_url</tt> style (which generates absolute URLs) and avoid using the
# <tt>named_route_path</tt> style (which generates relative URLs), since clients reading the mail will
# have no concept of a current URL from which to determine a relative path.
#
# It is also possible to set a default host that will be used in all mailers by setting the <tt>:host</tt>
# option as a configuration option in <tt>config/application.rb</tt>:
#
# config.action_mailer.default_url_options = { host: "example.com" }
#
# = Sending mail
#
# Once a mailer action and template are defined, you can deliver your message or create it and save it
# for delivery later:
#
# NotifierMailer.welcome(User.first).deliver_now # sends the email
# mail = NotifierMailer.welcome(User.first) # => an ActionMailer::MessageDelivery object
# mail.deliver_now # sends the email
#
# The <tt>ActionMailer::MessageDelivery</tt> class is a wrapper around a <tt>Mail::Message</tt> object. If
# you want direct access to the <tt>Mail::Message</tt> object you can call the <tt>message</tt> method on
# the <tt>ActionMailer::MessageDelivery</tt> object.
#
# NotifierMailer.welcome(User.first).message # => a Mail::Message object
#
# Action Mailer is nicely integrated with Active Job so you can send emails in the background (example: outside
# of the request-response cycle, so the user doesn't have to wait on it):
#
# NotifierMailer.welcome(User.first).deliver_later # enqueue the email sending to Active Job
#
# You never instantiate your mailer class. Rather, you just call the method you defined on the class itself.
#
# = Multipart Emails
#
# Multipart messages can also be used implicitly because Action Mailer will automatically detect and use
# multipart templates, where each template is named after the name of the action, followed by the content
# type. Each such detected template will be added as a separate part to the message.
#
# For example, if the following templates exist:
# * signup_notification.text.erb
# * signup_notification.html.erb
# * signup_notification.xml.builder
# * signup_notification.yml.erb
#
# Each would be rendered and added as a separate part to the message, with the corresponding content
# type. The content type for the entire message is automatically set to <tt>multipart/alternative</tt>,
# which indicates that the email contains multiple different representations of the same email
# body. The same instance variables defined in the action are passed to all email templates.
#
# Implicit template rendering is not performed if any attachments or parts have been added to the email.
# This means that you'll have to manually add each part to the email and set the content type of the email
# to <tt>multipart/alternative</tt>.
#
# = Attachments
#
# Sending attachment in emails is easy:
#
# class NotifierMailer < ApplicationMailer
# def welcome(recipient)
# attachments['free_book.pdf'] = File.read('path/to/file.pdf')
# mail(to: recipient, subject: "New account information")
# end
# end
#
# Which will (if it had both a <tt>welcome.text.erb</tt> and <tt>welcome.html.erb</tt>
# template in the view directory), send a complete <tt>multipart/mixed</tt> email with two parts,
# the first part being a <tt>multipart/alternative</tt> with the text and HTML email parts inside,
# and the second being a <tt>application/pdf</tt> with a Base64 encoded copy of the file.pdf book
# with the filename +free_book.pdf+.
#
# If you need to send attachments with no content, you need to create an empty view for it,
# or add an empty body parameter like this:
#
# class NotifierMailer < ApplicationMailer
# def welcome(recipient)
# attachments['free_book.pdf'] = File.read('path/to/file.pdf')
# mail(to: recipient, subject: "New account information", body: "")
# end
# end
#
# = Inline Attachments
#
# You can also specify that a file should be displayed inline with other HTML. This is useful
# if you want to display a corporate logo or a photo.
#
# class NotifierMailer < ApplicationMailer
# def welcome(recipient)
# attachments.inline['photo.png'] = File.read('path/to/photo.png')
# mail(to: recipient, subject: "Here is what we look like")
# end
# end
#
# And then to reference the image in the view, you create a <tt>welcome.html.erb</tt> file and
# make a call to +image_tag+ passing in the attachment you want to display and then call
# +url+ on the attachment to get the relative content id path for the image source:
#
# <h1>Please Don't Cringe</h1>
#
# <%= image_tag attachments['photo.png'].url -%>
#
# As we are using Action View's +image_tag+ method, you can pass in any other options you want:
#
# <h1>Please Don't Cringe</h1>
#
# <%= image_tag attachments['photo.png'].url, alt: 'Our Photo', class: 'photo' -%>
#
# = Observing and Intercepting Mails
#
# Action Mailer provides hooks into the Mail observer and interceptor methods. These allow you to
# register classes that are called during the mail delivery life cycle.
#
# An observer class must implement the <tt>:delivered_email(message)</tt> method which will be
# called once for every email sent after the email has been sent.
#
# An interceptor class must implement the <tt>:delivering_email(message)</tt> method which will be
# called before the email is sent, allowing you to make modifications to the email before it hits
# the delivery agents. Your class should make any needed modifications directly to the passed
# in <tt>Mail::Message</tt> instance.
#
# = Default Hash
#
# Action Mailer provides some intelligent defaults for your emails, these are usually specified in a
# default method inside the class definition:
#
# class NotifierMailer < ApplicationMailer
# default sender: 'system@example.com'
# end
#
# You can pass in any header value that a <tt>Mail::Message</tt> accepts. Out of the box,
# <tt>ActionMailer::Base</tt> sets the following:
#
# * <tt>mime_version: "1.0"</tt>
# * <tt>charset: "UTF-8",</tt>
# * <tt>content_type: "text/plain",</tt>
# * <tt>parts_order: [ "text/plain", "text/enriched", "text/html" ]</tt>
#
# <tt>parts_order</tt> and <tt>charset</tt> are not actually valid <tt>Mail::Message</tt> header fields,
# but Action Mailer translates them appropriately and sets the correct values.
#
# As you can pass in any header, you need to either quote the header as a string, or pass it in as
# an underscored symbol, so the following will work:
#
# class NotifierMailer < ApplicationMailer
# default 'Content-Transfer-Encoding' => '7bit',
# content_description: 'This is a description'
# end
#
# Finally, Action Mailer also supports passing <tt>Proc</tt> objects into the default hash, so you
# can define methods that evaluate as the message is being generated:
#
# class NotifierMailer < ApplicationMailer
# default 'X-Special-Header' => Proc.new { my_method }
#
# private
#
# def my_method
# 'some complex call'
# end
# end
#
# Note that the proc is evaluated right at the start of the mail message generation, so if you
# set something in the defaults using a proc, and then set the same thing inside of your
# mailer method, it will get over written by the mailer method.
#
# It is also possible to set these default options that will be used in all mailers through
# the <tt>default_options=</tt> configuration in <tt>config/application.rb</tt>:
#
# config.action_mailer.default_options = { from: "no-reply@example.org" }
#
# = Callbacks
#
# You can specify callbacks using before_action and after_action for configuring your messages.
# This may be useful, for example, when you want to add default inline attachments for all
# messages sent out by a certain mailer class:
#
# class NotifierMailer < ApplicationMailer
# before_action :add_inline_attachment!
#
# def welcome
# mail
# end
#
# private
#
# def add_inline_attachment!
# attachments.inline["footer.jpg"] = File.read('/path/to/filename.jpg')
# end
# end
#
# Callbacks in Action Mailer are implemented using
# <tt>AbstractController::Callbacks</tt>, so you can define and configure
# callbacks in the same manner that you would use callbacks in classes that
# inherit from <tt>ActionController::Base</tt>.
#
# Note that unless you have a specific reason to do so, you should prefer using before_action
# rather than after_action in your Action Mailer classes so that headers are parsed properly.
#
# = Previewing emails
#
# You can preview your email templates visually by adding a mailer preview file to the
# <tt>ActionMailer::Base.preview_path</tt>. Since most emails do something interesting
# with database data, you'll need to write some scenarios to load messages with fake data:
#
# class NotifierMailerPreview < ActionMailer::Preview
# def welcome
# NotifierMailer.welcome(User.first)
# end
# end
#
# Methods must return a <tt>Mail::Message</tt> object which can be generated by calling the mailer
# method without the additional <tt>deliver_now</tt> / <tt>deliver_later</tt>. The location of the
# mailer previews directory can be configured using the <tt>preview_path</tt> option which has a default
# of <tt>test/mailers/previews</tt>:
#
# config.action_mailer.preview_path = "#{Rails.root}/lib/mailer_previews"
#
# An overview of all previews is accessible at <tt>http://localhost:3000/rails/mailers</tt>
# on a running development server instance.
#
# Previews can also be intercepted in a similar manner as deliveries can be by registering
# a preview interceptor that has a <tt>previewing_email</tt> method:
#
# class CssInlineStyler
# def self.previewing_email(message)
# # inline CSS styles
# end
# end
#
# config.action_mailer.preview_interceptors :css_inline_styler
#
# Note that interceptors need to be registered both with <tt>register_interceptor</tt>
# and <tt>register_preview_interceptor</tt> if they should operate on both sending and
# previewing emails.
#
# = Configuration options
#
# These options are specified on the class level, like
# <tt>ActionMailer::Base.raise_delivery_errors = true</tt>
#
# * <tt>default_options</tt> - You can pass this in at a class level as well as within the class itself as
# per the above section.
#
# * <tt>logger</tt> - the logger is used for generating information on the mailing run if available.
# Can be set to +nil+ for no logging. Compatible with both Ruby's own +Logger+ and Log4r loggers.
#
# * <tt>smtp_settings</tt> - Allows detailed configuration for <tt>:smtp</tt> delivery method:
# * <tt>:address</tt> - Allows you to use a remote mail server. Just change it from its default
# "localhost" setting.
# * <tt>:port</tt> - On the off chance that your mail server doesn't run on port 25, you can change it.
# * <tt>:domain</tt> - If you need to specify a HELO domain, you can do it here.
# * <tt>:user_name</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, set the username in this setting.
# * <tt>:password</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, set the password in this setting.
# * <tt>:authentication</tt> - If your mail server requires authentication, you need to specify the
# authentication type here.
# This is a symbol and one of <tt>:plain</tt> (will send the password in the clear), <tt>:login</tt> (will
# send password Base64 encoded) or <tt>:cram_md5</tt> (combines a Challenge/Response mechanism to exchange
# information and a cryptographic Message Digest 5 algorithm to hash important information)
# * <tt>:enable_starttls_auto</tt> - Detects if STARTTLS is enabled in your SMTP server and starts
# to use it. Defaults to <tt>true</tt>.
# * <tt>:openssl_verify_mode</tt> - When using TLS, you can set how OpenSSL checks the certificate. This is
# really useful if you need to validate a self-signed and/or a wildcard certificate. You can use the name
# of an OpenSSL verify constant (<tt>'none'</tt>, <tt>'peer'</tt>, <tt>'client_once'</tt>,
# <tt>'fail_if_no_peer_cert'</tt>) or directly the constant (<tt>OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_NONE</tt>,
# <tt>OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER</tt>, ...).
#
# * <tt>sendmail_settings</tt> - Allows you to override options for the <tt>:sendmail</tt> delivery method.
# * <tt>:location</tt> - The location of the sendmail executable. Defaults to <tt>/usr/sbin/sendmail</tt>.
# * <tt>:arguments</tt> - The command line arguments. Defaults to <tt>-i -t</tt> with <tt>-f sender@address</tt>
# added automatically before the message is sent.
#
# * <tt>file_settings</tt> - Allows you to override options for the <tt>:file</tt> delivery method.
# * <tt>:location</tt> - The directory into which emails will be written. Defaults to the application
# <tt>tmp/mails</tt>.
#
# * <tt>raise_delivery_errors</tt> - Whether or not errors should be raised if the email fails to be delivered.
#
# * <tt>delivery_method</tt> - Defines a delivery method. Possible values are <tt>:smtp</tt> (default),
# <tt>:sendmail</tt>, <tt>:test</tt>, and <tt>:file</tt>. Or you may provide a custom delivery method
# object e.g. +MyOwnDeliveryMethodClass+. See the Mail gem documentation on the interface you need to
# implement for a custom delivery agent.
#
# * <tt>perform_deliveries</tt> - Determines whether emails are actually sent from Action Mailer when you
# call <tt>.deliver</tt> on an email message or on an Action Mailer method. This is on by default but can
# be turned off to aid in functional testing.
#
# * <tt>deliveries</tt> - Keeps an array of all the emails sent out through the Action Mailer with
# <tt>delivery_method :test</tt>. Most useful for unit and functional testing.
class Base < AbstractController::Base
include DeliveryMethods
include Previews
abstract!
include AbstractController::Rendering
include AbstractController::Logger
include AbstractController::Helpers
include AbstractController::Translation
include AbstractController::AssetPaths
include AbstractController::Callbacks
include ActionView::Layouts
PROTECTED_IVARS = AbstractController::Rendering::DEFAULT_PROTECTED_INSTANCE_VARIABLES + [:@_action_has_layout]
def _protected_ivars # :nodoc:
PROTECTED_IVARS
end
helper ActionMailer::MailHelper
private_class_method :new #:nodoc:
class_attribute :default_params
self.default_params = {
mime_version: "1.0",
charset: "UTF-8",
content_type: "text/plain",
parts_order: [ "text/plain", "text/enriched", "text/html" ]
}.freeze
class << self
# Register one or more Observers which will be notified when mail is delivered.
def register_observers(*observers)
observers.flatten.compact.each { |observer| register_observer(observer) }
end
# Register one or more Interceptors which will be called before mail is sent.
def register_interceptors(*interceptors)
interceptors.flatten.compact.each { |interceptor| register_interceptor(interceptor) }
end
# Register an Observer which will be notified when mail is delivered.
# Either a class, string or symbol can be passed in as the Observer.
# If a string or symbol is passed in it will be camelized and constantized.
def register_observer(observer)
delivery_observer = case observer
when String, Symbol
observer.to_s.camelize.constantize
else
observer
end
Mail.register_observer(delivery_observer)
end
# Register an Interceptor which will be called before mail is sent.
# Either a class, string or symbol can be passed in as the Interceptor.
# If a string or symbol is passed in it will be camelized and constantized.
def register_interceptor(interceptor)
delivery_interceptor = case interceptor
when String, Symbol
interceptor.to_s.camelize.constantize
else
interceptor
end
Mail.register_interceptor(delivery_interceptor)
end
# Returns the name of current mailer. This method is also being used as a path for a view lookup.
# If this is an anonymous mailer, this method will return +anonymous+ instead.
def mailer_name
@mailer_name ||= anonymous? ? "anonymous" : name.underscore
end
# Allows to set the name of current mailer.
attr_writer :mailer_name
alias :controller_path :mailer_name
# Sets the defaults through app configuration:
#
# config.action_mailer.default(from: "no-reply@example.org")
#
# Aliased by ::default_options=
def default(value = nil)
self.default_params = default_params.merge(value).freeze if value
default_params
end
# Allows to set defaults through app configuration:
#
# config.action_mailer.default_options = { from: "no-reply@example.org" }
alias :default_options= :default
# Receives a raw email, parses it into an email object, decodes it,
# instantiates a new mailer, and passes the email object to the mailer
# object's +receive+ method.
#
# If you want your mailer to be able to process incoming messages, you'll
# need to implement a +receive+ method that accepts the raw email string
# as a parameter:
#
# class MyMailer < ActionMailer::Base
# def receive(mail)
# # ...
# end
# end
def receive(raw_mail)
ActiveSupport::Notifications.instrument("receive.action_mailer") do |payload|
mail = Mail.new(raw_mail)
set_payload_for_mail(payload, mail)
new.receive(mail)
end
end
# Wraps an email delivery inside of <tt>ActiveSupport::Notifications</tt> instrumentation.
#
# This method is actually called by the <tt>Mail::Message</tt> object itself
# through a callback when you call <tt>:deliver</tt> on the <tt>Mail::Message</tt>,
# calling +deliver_mail+ directly and passing a <tt>Mail::Message</tt> will do
# nothing except tell the logger you sent the email.
def deliver_mail(mail) #:nodoc:
ActiveSupport::Notifications.instrument("deliver.action_mailer") do |payload|
set_payload_for_mail(payload, mail)
yield # Let Mail do the delivery actions
end
end
def respond_to?(method, include_private = false) #:nodoc:
super || action_methods.include?(method.to_s)
end
protected
def set_payload_for_mail(payload, mail) #:nodoc:
payload[:mailer] = name
payload[:message_id] = mail.message_id
payload[:subject] = mail.subject
payload[:to] = mail.to
payload[:from] = mail.from
payload[:bcc] = mail.bcc if mail.bcc.present?
payload[:cc] = mail.cc if mail.cc.present?
payload[:date] = mail.date
payload[:mail] = mail.encoded
end
def method_missing(method_name, *args) # :nodoc:
if action_methods.include?(method_name.to_s)
MessageDelivery.new(self, method_name, *args)
else
super
end
end
end
attr_internal :message
# Instantiate a new mailer object. If +method_name+ is not +nil+, the mailer
# will be initialized according to the named method. If not, the mailer will
# remain uninitialized (useful when you only need to invoke the "receive"
# method, for instance).
def initialize(method_name=nil, *args)
super()
@_mail_was_called = false
@_message = Mail.new
process(method_name, *args) if method_name
end
def process(method_name, *args) #:nodoc:
payload = {
mailer: self.class.name,
action: method_name
}
ActiveSupport::Notifications.instrument("process.action_mailer", payload) do
super
@_message = NullMail.new unless @_mail_was_called
end
end
class NullMail #:nodoc:
def body; '' end
def respond_to?(string, include_all=false)
true
end
def method_missing(*args)
nil
end
end
# Returns the name of the mailer object.
def mailer_name
self.class.mailer_name
end
# Allows you to pass random and unusual headers to the new <tt>Mail::Message</tt>
# object which will add them to itself.
#
# headers['X-Special-Domain-Specific-Header'] = "SecretValue"
#
# You can also pass a hash into headers of header field names and values,
# which will then be set on the <tt>Mail::Message</tt> object:
#
# headers 'X-Special-Domain-Specific-Header' => "SecretValue",
# 'In-Reply-To' => incoming.message_id
#
# The resulting <tt>Mail::Message</tt> will have the following in its header:
#
# X-Special-Domain-Specific-Header: SecretValue
#
# Note about replacing already defined headers:
#
# * +subject+
# * +sender+
# * +from+
# * +to+
# * +cc+
# * +bcc+
# * +reply-to+
# * +orig-date+
# * +message-id+
# * +references+
#
# Fields can only appear once in email headers while other fields such as
# <tt>X-Anything</tt> can appear multiple times.
#
# If you want to replace any header which already exists, first set it to
# +nil+ in order to reset the value otherwise another field will be added
# for the same header.
def headers(args = nil)
if args
@_message.headers(args)
else
@_message
end
end
# Allows you to add attachments to an email, like so:
#
# mail.attachments['filename.jpg'] = File.read('/path/to/filename.jpg')
#
# If you do this, then Mail will take the file name and work out the mime type
# set the Content-Type, Content-Disposition, Content-Transfer-Encoding and
# base64 encode the contents of the attachment all for you.
#
# You can also specify overrides if you want by passing a hash instead of a string:
#
# mail.attachments['filename.jpg'] = {mime_type: 'application/x-gzip',
# content: File.read('/path/to/filename.jpg')}
#
# If you want to use a different encoding than Base64, you can pass an encoding in,
# but then it is up to you to pass in the content pre-encoded, and don't expect
# Mail to know how to decode this data:
#
# file_content = SpecialEncode(File.read('/path/to/filename.jpg'))
# mail.attachments['filename.jpg'] = {mime_type: 'application/x-gzip',
# encoding: 'SpecialEncoding',
# content: file_content }
#
# You can also search for specific attachments:
#
# # By Filename
# mail.attachments['filename.jpg'] # => Mail::Part object or nil
#
# # or by index
# mail.attachments[0] # => Mail::Part (first attachment)
#
def attachments
if @_mail_was_called
LateAttachmentsProxy.new(@_message.attachments)
else
@_message.attachments
end
end
class LateAttachmentsProxy < SimpleDelegator
def inline; _raise_error end
def []=(_name, _content); _raise_error end
private
def _raise_error
raise RuntimeError, "Can't add attachments after `mail` was called.\n" \
"Make sure to use `attachments[]=` before calling `mail`."
end
end
# The main method that creates the message and renders the email templates. There are
# two ways to call this method, with a block, or without a block.
#
# It accepts a headers hash. This hash allows you to specify
# the most used headers in an email message, these are:
#
# * +:subject+ - The subject of the message, if this is omitted, Action Mailer will
# ask the Rails I18n class for a translated +:subject+ in the scope of
# <tt>[mailer_scope, action_name]</tt> or if this is missing, will translate the
# humanized version of the +action_name+
# * +:to+ - Who the message is destined for, can be a string of addresses, or an array
# of addresses.
# * +:from+ - Who the message is from
# * +:cc+ - Who you would like to Carbon-Copy on this email, can be a string of addresses,
# or an array of addresses.
# * +:bcc+ - Who you would like to Blind-Carbon-Copy on this email, can be a string of
# addresses, or an array of addresses.
# * +:reply_to+ - Who to set the Reply-To header of the email to.
# * +:date+ - The date to say the email was sent on.
#
# You can set default values for any of the above headers (except +:date+)
# by using the ::default class method:
#
# class Notifier < ActionMailer::Base
# default from: 'no-reply@test.lindsaar.net',
# bcc: 'email_logger@test.lindsaar.net',
# reply_to: 'bounces@test.lindsaar.net'
# end
#
# If you need other headers not listed above, you can either pass them in
# as part of the headers hash or use the <tt>headers['name'] = value</tt>
# method.
#
# When a +:return_path+ is specified as header, that value will be used as
# the 'envelope from' address for the Mail message. Setting this is useful
# when you want delivery notifications sent to a different address than the
# one in +:from+. Mail will actually use the +:return_path+ in preference
# to the +:sender+ in preference to the +:from+ field for the 'envelope
# from' value.
#
# If you do not pass a block to the +mail+ method, it will find all
# templates in the view paths using by default the mailer name and the
# method name that it is being called from, it will then create parts for
# each of these templates intelligently, making educated guesses on correct
# content type and sequence, and return a fully prepared <tt>Mail::Message</tt>
# ready to call <tt>:deliver</tt> on to send.
#
# For example:
#
# class Notifier < ActionMailer::Base
# default from: 'no-reply@test.lindsaar.net'
#
# def welcome
# mail(to: 'mikel@test.lindsaar.net')
# end
# end
#
# Will look for all templates at "app/views/notifier" with name "welcome".
# If no welcome template exists, it will raise an ActionView::MissingTemplate error.
#
# However, those can be customized:
#
# mail(template_path: 'notifications', template_name: 'another')
#
# And now it will look for all templates at "app/views/notifications" with name "another".
#
# If you do pass a block, you can render specific templates of your choice:
#
# mail(to: 'mikel@test.lindsaar.net') do |format|
# format.text
# format.html
# end
#
# You can even render plain text directly without using a template:
#
# mail(to: 'mikel@test.lindsaar.net') do |format|
# format.text { render plain: "Hello Mikel!" }
# format.html { render html: "<h1>Hello Mikel!</h1>".html_safe }
# end
#
# Which will render a +multipart/alternative+ email with +text/plain+ and
# +text/html+ parts.
#
# The block syntax also allows you to customize the part headers if desired:
#
# mail(to: 'mikel@test.lindsaar.net') do |format|
# format.text(content_transfer_encoding: "base64")
# format.html
# end
#
def mail(headers = {}, &block)
return @_message if @_mail_was_called && headers.blank? && !block
m = @_message
# At the beginning, do not consider class default for content_type
content_type = headers[:content_type]
# Call all the procs (if any)
default_values = {}
self.class.default.each do |k,v|
default_values[k] = v.is_a?(Proc) ? instance_eval(&v) : v
end
# Handle defaults
headers = headers.reverse_merge(default_values)
headers[:subject] ||= default_i18n_subject
# Apply charset at the beginning so all fields are properly quoted
m.charset = charset = headers[:charset]
# Set configure delivery behavior
wrap_delivery_behavior!(headers.delete(:delivery_method), headers.delete(:delivery_method_options))
# Assign all headers except parts_order, content_type and body
assignable = headers.except(:parts_order, :content_type, :body, :template_name, :template_path)
assignable.each { |k, v| m[k] = v }
# Render the templates and blocks
responses = collect_responses(headers, &block)
@_mail_was_called = true
create_parts_from_responses(m, responses)
# Setup content type, reapply charset and handle parts order
m.content_type = set_content_type(m, content_type, headers[:content_type])
m.charset = charset
if m.multipart?
m.body.set_sort_order(headers[:parts_order])
m.body.sort_parts!
end
m
end
protected
# Used by #mail to set the content type of the message.
#
# It will use the given +user_content_type+, or multipart if the mail
# message has any attachments. If the attachments are inline, the content
# type will be "multipart/related", otherwise "multipart/mixed".
#
# If there is no content type passed in via headers, and there are no
# attachments, or the message is multipart, then the default content type is
# used.
def set_content_type(m, user_content_type, class_default)
params = m.content_type_parameters || {}
case
when user_content_type.present?
user_content_type
when m.has_attachments?
if m.attachments.detect(&:inline?)
["multipart", "related", params]
else
["multipart", "mixed", params]
end
when m.multipart?
["multipart", "alternative", params]
else
m.content_type || class_default
end
end
# Translates the +subject+ using Rails I18n class under <tt>[mailer_scope, action_name]</tt> scope.
# If it does not find a translation for the +subject+ under the specified scope it will default to a
# humanized version of the <tt>action_name</tt>.
# If the subject has interpolations, you can pass them through the +interpolations+ parameter.
def default_i18n_subject(interpolations = {})
mailer_scope = self.class.mailer_name.tr('/', '.')
I18n.t(:subject, interpolations.merge(scope: [mailer_scope, action_name], default: action_name.humanize))
end
def collect_responses(headers) #:nodoc:
responses = []
if block_given?
collector = ActionMailer::Collector.new(lookup_context) { render(action_name) }
yield(collector)
responses = collector.responses
elsif headers[:body]
responses << {
body: headers.delete(:body),
content_type: self.class.default[:content_type] || "text/plain"
}
else
templates_path = headers.delete(:template_path) || self.class.mailer_name
templates_name = headers.delete(:template_name) || action_name
each_template(Array(templates_path), templates_name) do |template|
self.formats = template.formats
responses << {
body: render(template: template),
content_type: template.type.to_s
}
end
end
responses
end
def each_template(paths, name, &block) #:nodoc:
templates = lookup_context.find_all(name, paths)
if templates.empty?
raise ActionView::MissingTemplate.new(paths, name, paths, false, 'mailer')
else
templates.uniq(&:formats).each(&block)
end
end
def create_parts_from_responses(m, responses) #:nodoc:
if responses.size == 1 && !m.has_attachments?
responses[0].each { |k,v| m[k] = v }
elsif responses.size > 1 && m.has_attachments?
container = Mail::Part.new
container.content_type = "multipart/alternative"
responses.each { |r| insert_part(container, r, m.charset) }
m.add_part(container)
else
responses.each { |r| insert_part(m, r, m.charset) }
end
end
def insert_part(container, response, charset) #:nodoc:
response[:charset] ||= charset
part = Mail::Part.new(response)
container.add_part(part)
end
# Emails do not support relative path links.
def self.supports_path?
false
end
ActiveSupport.run_load_hooks(:action_mailer, self)
end
end
Jump to Line
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.