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# frozen_string_literal: true
require "active_support/core_ext/array/conversions"
require "active_support/core_ext/string/inflections"
require "active_support/core_ext/object/deep_dup"
require "active_support/core_ext/string/filters"
module ActiveModel
# == Active \Model \Errors
#
# Provides a modified +Hash+ that you can include in your object
# for handling error messages and interacting with Action View helpers.
#
# A minimal implementation could be:
#
# class Person
# # Required dependency for ActiveModel::Errors
# extend ActiveModel::Naming
#
# def initialize
# @errors = ActiveModel::Errors.new(self)
# end
#
# attr_accessor :name
# attr_reader :errors
#
# def validate!
# errors.add(:name, :blank, message: "cannot be nil") if name.nil?
# end
#
# # The following methods are needed to be minimally implemented
#
# def read_attribute_for_validation(attr)
# send(attr)
# end
#
# def self.human_attribute_name(attr, options = {})
# attr
# end
#
# def self.lookup_ancestors
# [self]
# end
# end
#
# The last three methods are required in your object for +Errors+ to be
# able to generate error messages correctly and also handle multiple
# languages. Of course, if you extend your object with <tt>ActiveModel::Translation</tt>
# you will not need to implement the last two. Likewise, using
# <tt>ActiveModel::Validations</tt> will handle the validation related methods
# for you.
#
# The above allows you to do:
#
# person = Person.new
# person.validate! # => ["cannot be nil"]
# person.errors.full_messages # => ["name cannot be nil"]
# # etc..
class Errors
include Enumerable
CALLBACKS_OPTIONS = [:if, :unless, :on, :allow_nil, :allow_blank, :strict]
MESSAGE_OPTIONS = [:message]
attr_reader :messages, :details
# Pass in the instance of the object that is using the errors object.
#
# class Person
# def initialize
# @errors = ActiveModel::Errors.new(self)
# end
# end
def initialize(base)
@base = base
@messages = apply_default_array({})
@details = apply_default_array({})
end
def initialize_dup(other) # :nodoc:
@messages = other.messages.dup
@details = other.details.deep_dup
super
end
# Copies the errors from <tt>other</tt>.
#
# other - The ActiveModel::Errors instance.
#
# Examples
#
# person.errors.copy!(other)
def copy!(other) # :nodoc:
@messages = other.messages.dup
@details = other.details.dup
end
# Merges the errors from <tt>other</tt>.
#
# other - The ActiveModel::Errors instance.
#
# Examples
#
# person.errors.merge!(other)
def merge!(other)
@messages.merge!(other.messages) { |_, ary1, ary2| ary1 + ary2 }
@details.merge!(other.details) { |_, ary1, ary2| ary1 + ary2 }
end
# Clear the error messages.
#
# person.errors.full_messages # => ["name cannot be nil"]
# person.errors.clear
# person.errors.full_messages # => []
def clear
messages.clear
details.clear
end
# Returns +true+ if the error messages include an error for the given key
# +attribute+, +false+ otherwise.
#
# person.errors.messages # => {:name=>["cannot be nil"]}
# person.errors.include?(:name) # => true
# person.errors.include?(:age) # => false
def include?(attribute)
attribute = attribute.to_sym
messages.key?(attribute) && messages[attribute].present?
end
alias :has_key? :include?
alias :key? :include?
# Delete messages for +key+. Returns the deleted messages.
#
# person.errors[:name] # => ["cannot be nil"]
# person.errors.delete(:name) # => ["cannot be nil"]
# person.errors[:name] # => []
def delete(key)
attribute = key.to_sym
details.delete(attribute)
messages.delete(attribute)
end
# When passed a symbol or a name of a method, returns an array of errors
# for the method.
#
# person.errors[:name] # => ["cannot be nil"]
# person.errors['name'] # => ["cannot be nil"]
def [](attribute)
messages[attribute.to_sym]
end
# Iterates through each error key, value pair in the error messages hash.
# Yields the attribute and the error for that attribute. If the attribute
# has more than one error message, yields once for each error message.
#
# person.errors.add(:name, :blank, message: "can't be blank")
# person.errors.each do |attribute, error|
# # Will yield :name and "can't be blank"
# end
#
# person.errors.add(:name, :not_specified, message: "must be specified")
# person.errors.each do |attribute, error|
# # Will yield :name and "can't be blank"
# # then yield :name and "must be specified"
# end
def each
messages.each_key do |attribute|
messages[attribute].each { |error| yield attribute, error }
end
end
# Returns the number of error messages.
#
# person.errors.add(:name, :blank, message: "can't be blank")
# person.errors.size # => 1
# person.errors.add(:name, :not_specified, message: "must be specified")
# person.errors.size # => 2
def size
values.flatten.size
end
alias :count :size
# Returns all message values.
#
# person.errors.messages # => {:name=>["cannot be nil", "must be specified"]}
# person.errors.values # => [["cannot be nil", "must be specified"]]
def values
messages.select do |key, value|
!value.empty?
end.values
end
# Returns all message keys.
#
# person.errors.messages # => {:name=>["cannot be nil", "must be specified"]}
# person.errors.keys # => [:name]
def keys
messages.select do |key, value|
!value.empty?
end.keys
end
# Returns +true+ if no errors are found, +false+ otherwise.
# If the error message is a string it can be empty.
#
# person.errors.full_messages # => ["name cannot be nil"]
# person.errors.empty? # => false
def empty?
size.zero?
end
alias :blank? :empty?
# Returns an xml formatted representation of the Errors hash.
#
# person.errors.add(:name, :blank, message: "can't be blank")
# person.errors.add(:name, :not_specified, message: "must be specified")
# person.errors.to_xml
# # =>
# # <?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\"?>
# # <errors>
# # <error>name can't be blank</error>
# # <error>name must be specified</error>
# # </errors>
def to_xml(options = {})
to_a.to_xml({ root: "errors", skip_types: true }.merge!(options))
end
# Returns a Hash that can be used as the JSON representation for this
# object. You can pass the <tt>:full_messages</tt> option. This determines
# if the json object should contain full messages or not (false by default).
#
# person.errors.as_json # => {:name=>["cannot be nil"]}
# person.errors.as_json(full_messages: true) # => {:name=>["name cannot be nil"]}
def as_json(options = nil)
to_hash(options && options[:full_messages])
end
# Returns a Hash of attributes with their error messages. If +full_messages+
# is +true+, it will contain full messages (see +full_message+).
#
# person.errors.to_hash # => {:name=>["cannot be nil"]}
# person.errors.to_hash(true) # => {:name=>["name cannot be nil"]}
def to_hash(full_messages = false)
if full_messages
messages.each_with_object({}) do |(attribute, array), messages|
messages[attribute] = array.map { |message| full_message(attribute, message) }
end
else
without_default_proc(messages)
end
end
# Adds +message+ to the error messages and used validator type to +details+ on +attribute+.
# More than one error can be added to the same +attribute+.
# If no +message+ is supplied, <tt>:invalid</tt> is assumed.
#
# person.errors.add(:name)
# # => ["is invalid"]
# person.errors.add(:name, :not_implemented, message: "must be implemented")
# # => ["is invalid", "must be implemented"]
#
# person.errors.messages
# # => {:name=>["is invalid", "must be implemented"]}
#
# person.errors.details
# # => {:name=>[{error: :not_implemented}, {error: :invalid}]}
#
# If +message+ is a symbol, it will be translated using the appropriate
# scope (see +generate_message+).
#
# If +message+ is a proc, it will be called, allowing for things like
# <tt>Time.now</tt> to be used within an error.
#
# If the <tt>:strict</tt> option is set to +true+, it will raise
# ActiveModel::StrictValidationFailed instead of adding the error.
# <tt>:strict</tt> option can also be set to any other exception.
#
# person.errors.add(:name, :invalid, strict: true)
# # => ActiveModel::StrictValidationFailed: Name is invalid
# person.errors.add(:name, :invalid, strict: NameIsInvalid)
# # => NameIsInvalid: Name is invalid
#
# person.errors.messages # => {}
#
# +attribute+ should be set to <tt>:base</tt> if the error is not
# directly associated with a single attribute.
#
# person.errors.add(:base, :name_or_email_blank,
# message: "either name or email must be present")
# person.errors.messages
# # => {:base=>["either name or email must be present"]}
# person.errors.details
# # => {:base=>[{error: :name_or_email_blank}]}
def add(attribute, message = :invalid, options = {})
message = message.call if message.respond_to?(:call)
detail = normalize_detail(message, options)
message = normalize_message(attribute, message, options)
if exception = options[:strict]
exception = ActiveModel::StrictValidationFailed if exception == true
raise exception, full_message(attribute, message)
end
details[attribute.to_sym] << detail
messages[attribute.to_sym] << message
end
# Returns +true+ if an error on the attribute with the given message is
# present, or +false+ otherwise. +message+ is treated the same as for +add+.
#
# person.errors.add :name, :blank
# person.errors.added? :name, :blank # => true
# person.errors.added? :name, "can't be blank" # => true
#
# If the error message requires an option, then it returns +true+ with
# the correct option, or +false+ with an incorrect or missing option.
#
# person.errors.add :name, :too_long, { count: 25 }
# person.errors.added? :name, :too_long, count: 25 # => true
# person.errors.added? :name, "is too long (maximum is 25 characters)" # => true
# person.errors.added? :name, :too_long, count: 24 # => false
# person.errors.added? :name, :too_long # => false
# person.errors.added? :name, "is too long" # => false
def added?(attribute, message = :invalid, options = {})
if message.is_a? Symbol
self.details[attribute].map { |e| e[:error] }.include? message
else
message = message.call if message.respond_to?(:call)
message = normalize_message(attribute, message, options)
self[attribute].include? message
end
end
# Returns all the full error messages in an array.
#
# class Person
# validates_presence_of :name, :address, :email
# validates_length_of :name, in: 5..30
# end
#
# person = Person.create(address: '123 First St.')
# person.errors.full_messages
# # => ["Name is too short (minimum is 5 characters)", "Name can't be blank", "Email can't be blank"]
def full_messages
map { |attribute, message| full_message(attribute, message) }
end
alias :to_a :full_messages
# Returns all the full error messages for a given attribute in an array.
#
# class Person
# validates_presence_of :name, :email
# validates_length_of :name, in: 5..30
# end
#
# person = Person.create()
# person.errors.full_messages_for(:name)
# # => ["Name is too short (minimum is 5 characters)", "Name can't be blank"]
def full_messages_for(attribute)
attribute = attribute.to_sym
messages[attribute].map { |message| full_message(attribute, message) }
end
# Returns a full message for a given attribute.
#
# person.errors.full_message(:name, 'is invalid') # => "Name is invalid"
def full_message(attribute, message)
return message if attribute == :base
attr_name = attribute.to_s.tr(".", "_").humanize
attr_name = @base.class.human_attribute_name(attribute, default: attr_name)
I18n.t(:"errors.format",
default: "%{attribute} %{message}",
attribute: attr_name,
message: message)
end
# Translates an error message in its default scope
# (<tt>activemodel.errors.messages</tt>).
#
# Error messages are first looked up in <tt>activemodel.errors.models.MODEL.attributes.ATTRIBUTE.MESSAGE</tt>,
# if it's not there, it's looked up in <tt>activemodel.errors.models.MODEL.MESSAGE</tt> and if
# that is not there also, it returns the translation of the default message
# (e.g. <tt>activemodel.errors.messages.MESSAGE</tt>). The translated model
# name, translated attribute name and the value are available for
# interpolation.
#
# When using inheritance in your models, it will check all the inherited
# models too, but only if the model itself hasn't been found. Say you have
# <tt>class Admin < User; end</tt> and you wanted the translation for
# the <tt>:blank</tt> error message for the <tt>title</tt> attribute,
# it looks for these translations:
#
# * <tt>activemodel.errors.models.admin.attributes.title.blank</tt>
# * <tt>activemodel.errors.models.admin.blank</tt>
# * <tt>activemodel.errors.models.user.attributes.title.blank</tt>
# * <tt>activemodel.errors.models.user.blank</tt>
# * any default you provided through the +options+ hash (in the <tt>activemodel.errors</tt> scope)
# * <tt>activemodel.errors.messages.blank</tt>
# * <tt>errors.attributes.title.blank</tt>
# * <tt>errors.messages.blank</tt>
def generate_message(attribute, type = :invalid, options = {})
type = options.delete(:message) if options[:message].is_a?(Symbol)
if @base.class.respond_to?(:i18n_scope)
i18n_scope = @base.class.i18n_scope.to_s
defaults = @base.class.lookup_ancestors.flat_map do |klass|
[ :"#{i18n_scope}.errors.models.#{klass.model_name.i18n_key}.attributes.#{attribute}.#{type}",
:"#{i18n_scope}.errors.models.#{klass.model_name.i18n_key}.#{type}" ]
end
defaults << :"#{i18n_scope}.errors.messages.#{type}"
else
defaults = []
end
defaults << :"errors.attributes.#{attribute}.#{type}"
defaults << :"errors.messages.#{type}"
key = defaults.shift
defaults = options.delete(:message) if options[:message]
value = (attribute != :base ? @base.send(:read_attribute_for_validation, attribute) : nil)
options = {
default: defaults,
model: @base.model_name.human,
attribute: @base.class.human_attribute_name(attribute),
value: value,
object: @base
}.merge!(options)
I18n.translate(key, options)
end
def marshal_dump # :nodoc:
[@base, without_default_proc(@messages), without_default_proc(@details)]
end
def marshal_load(array) # :nodoc:
@base, @messages, @details = array
apply_default_array(@messages)
apply_default_array(@details)
end
def init_with(coder) # :nodoc:
coder.map.each { |k, v| instance_variable_set(:"@#{k}", v) }
@details ||= {}
apply_default_array(@messages)
apply_default_array(@details)
end
private
def normalize_message(attribute, message, options)
case message
when Symbol
generate_message(attribute, message, options.except(*CALLBACKS_OPTIONS))
else
message
end
end
def normalize_detail(message, options)
{ error: message }.merge(options.except(*CALLBACKS_OPTIONS + MESSAGE_OPTIONS))
end
def without_default_proc(hash)
hash.dup.tap do |new_h|
new_h.default_proc = nil
end
end
def apply_default_array(hash)
hash.default_proc = proc { |h, key| h[key] = [] }
hash
end
end
# Raised when a validation cannot be corrected by end users and are considered
# exceptional.
#
# class Person
# include ActiveModel::Validations
#
# attr_accessor :name
#
# validates_presence_of :name, strict: true
# end
#
# person = Person.new
# person.name = nil
# person.valid?
# # => ActiveModel::StrictValidationFailed: Name can't be blank
class StrictValidationFailed < StandardError
end
# Raised when attribute values are out of range.
class RangeError < ::RangeError
end
# Raised when unknown attributes are supplied via mass assignment.
#
# class Person
# include ActiveModel::AttributeAssignment
# include ActiveModel::Validations
# end
#
# person = Person.new
# person.assign_attributes(name: 'Gorby')
# # => ActiveModel::UnknownAttributeError: unknown attribute 'name' for Person.
class UnknownAttributeError < NoMethodError
attr_reader :record, :attribute
def initialize(record, attribute)
@record = record
@attribute = attribute
super("unknown attribute '#{attribute}' for #{@record.class}.")
end
end
end