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# frozen_string_literal: true
require "active_storage/downloader"
# A blob is a record that contains the metadata about a file and a key for where that file resides on the service.
# Blobs can be created in two ways:
# 1. Subsequent to the file being uploaded server-side to the service via <tt>create_after_upload!</tt>.
# 2. Ahead of the file being directly uploaded client-side to the service via <tt>create_before_direct_upload!</tt>.
# The first option doesn't require any client-side JavaScript integration, and can be used by any other back-end
# service that deals with files. The second option is faster, since you're not using your own server as a staging
# point for uploads, and can work with deployments like Heroku that do not provide large amounts of disk space.
# Blobs are intended to be immutable in as-so-far as their reference to a specific file goes. You're allowed to
# update a blob's metadata on a subsequent pass, but you should not update the key or change the uploaded file.
# If you need to create a derivative or otherwise change the blob, simply create a new blob and purge the old one.
class ActiveStorage::Blob < ActiveRecord::Base
require_dependency "active_storage/blob/analyzable"
require_dependency "active_storage/blob/identifiable"
require_dependency "active_storage/blob/representable"
include Analyzable
include Identifiable
include Representable
self.table_name = "active_storage_blobs"
has_secure_token :key
store :metadata, accessors: [ :analyzed, :identified ], coder: ActiveRecord::Coders::JSON
class_attribute :service
has_many :attachments
scope :unattached, -> { left_joins(:attachments).where(ActiveStorage::Attachment.table_name => { blob_id: nil }) }
before_destroy(prepend: true) do
raise ActiveRecord::InvalidForeignKey if attachments.exists?
class << self
# You can used the signed ID of a blob to refer to it on the client side without fear of tampering.
# This is particularly helpful for direct uploads where the client-side needs to refer to the blob
# that was created ahead of the upload itself on form submission.
# The signed ID is also used to create stable URLs for the blob through the BlobsController.
def find_signed(id)
find ActiveStorage.verifier.verify(id, purpose: :blob_id)
# Returns a new, unsaved blob instance after the +io+ has been uploaded to the service.
# When providing a content type, pass <tt>identify: false</tt> to bypass automatic content type inference.
def build_after_upload(io:, filename:, content_type: nil, metadata: nil, identify: true)
new(filename: filename, content_type: content_type, metadata: metadata).tap do |blob|
blob.upload(io, identify: identify)
def build_after_unfurling(io:, filename:, content_type: nil, metadata: nil, identify: true) #:nodoc:
new(filename: filename, content_type: content_type, metadata: metadata).tap do |blob|
blob.unfurl(io, identify: identify)
# Returns a saved blob instance after the +io+ has been uploaded to the service. Note, the blob is first built,
# then the +io+ is uploaded, then the blob is saved. This is done this way to avoid uploading (which may take
# time), while having an open database transaction.
# When providing a content type, pass <tt>identify: false</tt> to bypass automatic content type inference.
def create_after_upload!(io:, filename:, content_type: nil, metadata: nil, identify: true)
build_after_upload(io: io, filename: filename, content_type: content_type, metadata: metadata, identify: identify).tap(&:save!)
# Returns a saved blob _without_ uploading a file to the service. This blob will point to a key where there is
# no file yet. It's intended to be used together with a client-side upload, which will first create the blob
# in order to produce the signed URL for uploading. This signed URL points to the key generated by the blob.
# Once the form using the direct upload is submitted, the blob can be associated with the right record using
# the signed ID.
def create_before_direct_upload!(filename:, byte_size:, checksum:, content_type: nil, metadata: nil)
create! filename: filename, byte_size: byte_size, checksum: checksum, content_type: content_type, metadata: metadata
# Returns a signed ID for this blob that's suitable for reference on the client-side without fear of tampering.
# It uses the framework-wide verifier on <tt>ActiveStorage.verifier</tt>, but with a dedicated purpose.
def signed_id
ActiveStorage.verifier.generate(id, purpose: :blob_id)
# Returns the key pointing to the file on the service that's associated with this blob. The key is in the
# standard secure-token format from Rails. So it'll look like: XTAPjJCJiuDrLk3TmwyJGpUo. This key is not intended
# to be revealed directly to the user. Always refer to blobs using the signed_id or a verified form of the key.
def key
# We can't wait until the record is first saved to have a key for it
self[:key] ||= self.class.generate_unique_secure_token
# Returns an ActiveStorage::Filename instance of the filename that can be
# queried for basename, extension, and a sanitized version of the filename
# that's safe to use in URLs.
def filename[:filename])
# Returns true if the content_type of this blob is in the image range, like image/png.
def image?
# Returns true if the content_type of this blob is in the audio range, like audio/mpeg.
def audio?
# Returns true if the content_type of this blob is in the video range, like video/mp4.
def video?
# Returns true if the content_type of this blob is in the text range, like text/plain.
def text?
# Returns the URL of the blob on the service. This URL is intended to be short-lived for security and not used directly
# with users. Instead, the +service_url+ should only be exposed as a redirect from a stable, possibly authenticated URL.
# Hiding the +service_url+ behind a redirect also gives you the power to change services without updating all URLs. And
# it allows permanent URLs that redirect to the +service_url+ to be cached in the view.
def service_url(expires_in: ActiveStorage.service_urls_expire_in, disposition: :inline, filename: nil, **options)
filename = ActiveStorage::Filename.wrap(filename || self.filename)
service.url key, expires_in: expires_in, filename: filename, content_type: content_type,
disposition: forcibly_serve_as_binary? ? :attachment : disposition, **options
# Returns a URL that can be used to directly upload a file for this blob on the service. This URL is intended to be
# short-lived for security and only generated on-demand by the client-side JavaScript responsible for doing the uploading.
def service_url_for_direct_upload(expires_in: ActiveStorage.service_urls_expire_in)
service.url_for_direct_upload key, expires_in: expires_in, content_type: content_type, content_length: byte_size, checksum: checksum
# Returns a Hash of headers for +service_url_for_direct_upload+ requests.
def service_headers_for_direct_upload
service.headers_for_direct_upload key, filename: filename, content_type: content_type, content_length: byte_size, checksum: checksum
# Uploads the +io+ to the service on the +key+ for this blob. Blobs are intended to be immutable, so you shouldn't be
# using this method after a file has already been uploaded to fit with a blob. If you want to create a derivative blob,
# you should instead simply create a new blob based on the old one.
# Prior to uploading, we compute the checksum, which is sent to the service for transit integrity validation. If the
# checksum does not match what the service receives, an exception will be raised. We also measure the size of the +io+
# and store that in +byte_size+ on the blob record. The content type is automatically extracted from the +io+ unless
# you specify a +content_type+ and pass +identify+ as false.
# Normally, you do not have to call this method directly at all. Use the factory class methods of +build_after_upload+
# and +create_after_upload!+.
def upload(io, identify: true)
unfurl io, identify: identify
upload_without_unfurling io
def unfurl(io, identify: true) #:nodoc:
self.checksum = compute_checksum_in_chunks(io)
self.content_type = extract_content_type(io) if content_type.nil? || identify
self.byte_size = io.size
self.identified = true
def upload_without_unfurling(io) #:nodoc:
service.upload key, io, checksum: checksum
# Downloads the file associated with this blob. If no block is given, the entire file is read into memory and returned.
# That'll use a lot of RAM for very large files. If a block is given, then the download is streamed and yielded in chunks.
def download(&block) key, &block
# Downloads the blob to a tempfile on disk. Yields the tempfile.
# The tempfile's name is prefixed with +ActiveStorage-+ and the blob's ID. Its extension matches that of the blob.
# By default, the tempfile is created in <tt>Dir.tmpdir</tt>. Pass +tempdir:+ to create it in a different directory:
# "/path/to/tmp") do |file|
# # ...
# end
# The tempfile is automatically closed and unlinked after the given block is executed.
# Raises ActiveStorage::IntegrityError if the downloaded data does not match the blob's checksum.
def open(tempdir: nil, &block), tempdir: tempdir).download_blob_to_tempfile(&block)
# Deletes the files on the service associated with the blob. This should only be done if the blob is going to be
# deleted as well or you will essentially have a dead reference. It's recommended to use #purge and #purge_later
# methods in most circumstances.
def delete
service.delete_prefixed("variants/#{key}/") if image?
# Deletes the file on the service and then destroys the blob record. This is the recommended way to dispose of unwanted
# blobs. Note, though, that deleting the file off the service will initiate a HTTP connection to the service, which may
# be slow or prevented, so you should not use this method inside a transaction or in callbacks. Use #purge_later instead.
def purge
rescue ActiveRecord::InvalidForeignKey
# Enqueues an ActiveStorage::PurgeJob to call #purge. This is the recommended way to purge blobs from a transaction,
# an Active Record callback, or in any other real-time scenario.
def purge_later
def compute_checksum_in_chunks(io) do |checksum|
while chunk =
checksum << chunk
def extract_content_type(io)
Marcel::MimeType.for io, name: filename.to_s, declared_type: content_type
def forcibly_serve_as_binary?
ActiveSupport.run_load_hooks(:active_storage_blob, self)