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require 'yaml'
require 'set'
require 'active_support/benchmarkable'
require 'active_support/dependencies'
require 'active_support/descendants_tracker'
require 'active_support/time'
require 'active_support/core_ext/module/attribute_accessors'
require 'active_support/core_ext/class/delegating_attributes'
require 'active_support/core_ext/array/extract_options'
require 'active_support/core_ext/hash/deep_merge'
require 'active_support/core_ext/hash/slice'
require 'active_support/core_ext/string/behavior'
require 'active_support/core_ext/kernel/singleton_class'
require 'active_support/core_ext/module/introspection'
require 'active_support/core_ext/object/duplicable'
require 'active_support/core_ext/class/subclasses'
require 'arel'
require 'active_record/errors'
require 'active_record/log_subscriber'
require 'active_record/explain_subscriber'
require 'active_record/relation/delegation'
module ActiveRecord #:nodoc:
# = Active Record
#
# Active Record objects don't specify their attributes directly, but rather infer them from
# the table definition with which they're linked. Adding, removing, and changing attributes
# and their type is done directly in the database. Any change is instantly reflected in the
# Active Record objects. The mapping that binds a given Active Record class to a certain
# database table will happen automatically in most common cases, but can be overwritten for the uncommon ones.
#
# See the mapping rules in table_name and the full example in link:files/activerecord/README_rdoc.html for more insight.
#
# == Creation
#
# Active Records accept constructor parameters either in a hash or as a block. The hash
# method is especially useful when you're receiving the data from somewhere else, like an
# HTTP request. It works like this:
#
# user = User.new(name: "David", occupation: "Code Artist")
# user.name # => "David"
#
# You can also use block initialization:
#
# user = User.new do |u|
# u.name = "David"
# u.occupation = "Code Artist"
# end
#
# And of course you can just create a bare object and specify the attributes after the fact:
#
# user = User.new
# user.name = "David"
# user.occupation = "Code Artist"
#
# == Conditions
#
# Conditions can either be specified as a string, array, or hash representing the WHERE-part of an SQL statement.
# The array form is to be used when the condition input is tainted and requires sanitization. The string form can
# be used for statements that don't involve tainted data. The hash form works much like the array form, except
# only equality and range is possible. Examples:
#
# class User < ActiveRecord::Base
# def self.authenticate_unsafely(user_name, password)
# where("user_name = '#{user_name}' AND password = '#{password}'").first
# end
#
# def self.authenticate_safely(user_name, password)
# where("user_name = ? AND password = ?", user_name, password).first
# end
#
# def self.authenticate_safely_simply(user_name, password)
# where(user_name: user_name, password: password).first
# end
# end
#
# The <tt>authenticate_unsafely</tt> method inserts the parameters directly into the query
# and is thus susceptible to SQL-injection attacks if the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+
# parameters come directly from an HTTP request. The <tt>authenticate_safely</tt> and
# <tt>authenticate_safely_simply</tt> both will sanitize the <tt>user_name</tt> and +password+
# before inserting them in the query, which will ensure that an attacker can't escape the
# query and fake the login (or worse).
#
# When using multiple parameters in the conditions, it can easily become hard to read exactly
# what the fourth or fifth question mark is supposed to represent. In those cases, you can
# resort to named bind variables instead. That's done by replacing the question marks with
# symbols and supplying a hash with values for the matching symbol keys:
#
# Company.where(
# "id = :id AND name = :name AND division = :division AND created_at > :accounting_date",
# { id: 3, name: "37signals", division: "First", accounting_date: '2005-01-01' }
# ).first
#
# Similarly, a simple hash without a statement will generate conditions based on equality with the SQL AND
# operator. For instance:
#
# Student.where(first_name: "Harvey", status: 1)
# Student.where(params[:student])
#
# A range may be used in the hash to use the SQL BETWEEN operator:
#
# Student.where(grade: 9..12)
#
# An array may be used in the hash to use the SQL IN operator:
#
# Student.where(grade: [9,11,12])
#
# When joining tables, nested hashes or keys written in the form 'table_name.column_name'
# can be used to qualify the table name of a particular condition. For instance:
#
# Student.joins(:schools).where(schools: { category: 'public' })
# Student.joins(:schools).where('schools.category' => 'public' )
#
# == Overwriting default accessors
#
# All column values are automatically available through basic accessors on the Active Record
# object, but sometimes you want to specialize this behavior. This can be done by overwriting
# the default accessors (using the same name as the attribute) and calling
# <tt>read_attribute(attr_name)</tt> and <tt>write_attribute(attr_name, value)</tt> to actually
# change things.
#
# class Song < ActiveRecord::Base
# # Uses an integer of seconds to hold the length of the song
#
# def length=(minutes)
# write_attribute(:length, minutes.to_i * 60)
# end
#
# def length
# read_attribute(:length) / 60
# end
# end
#
# You can alternatively use <tt>self[:attribute]=(value)</tt> and <tt>self[:attribute]</tt>
# instead of <tt>write_attribute(:attribute, value)</tt> and <tt>read_attribute(:attribute)</tt>.
#
# == Attribute query methods
#
# In addition to the basic accessors, query methods are also automatically available on the Active Record object.
# Query methods allow you to test whether an attribute value is present.
#
# For example, an Active Record User with the <tt>name</tt> attribute has a <tt>name?</tt> method that you can call
# to determine whether the user has a name:
#
# user = User.new(name: "David")
# user.name? # => true
#
# anonymous = User.new(name: "")
# anonymous.name? # => false
#
# == Accessing attributes before they have been typecasted
#
# Sometimes you want to be able to read the raw attribute data without having the column-determined
# typecast run its course first. That can be done by using the <tt><attribute>_before_type_cast</tt>
# accessors that all attributes have. For example, if your Account model has a <tt>balance</tt> attribute,
# you can call <tt>account.balance_before_type_cast</tt> or <tt>account.id_before_type_cast</tt>.
#
# This is especially useful in validation situations where the user might supply a string for an
# integer field and you want to display the original string back in an error message. Accessing the
# attribute normally would typecast the string to 0, which isn't what you want.
#
# == Dynamic attribute-based finders
#
# Dynamic attribute-based finders are a mildly deprecated way of getting (and/or creating) objects
# by simple queries without turning to SQL. They work by appending the name of an attribute
# to <tt>find_by_</tt> like <tt>Person.find_by_user_name</tt>.
# Instead of writing <tt>Person.find_by(user_name: user_name)</tt>, you can use
# <tt>Person.find_by_user_name(user_name)</tt>.
#
# It's possible to add an exclamation point (!) on the end of the dynamic finders to get them to raise an
# <tt>ActiveRecord::RecordNotFound</tt> error if they do not return any records,
# like <tt>Person.find_by_last_name!</tt>.
#
# It's also possible to use multiple attributes in the same find by separating them with "_and_".
#
# Person.find_by(user_name: user_name, password: password)
# Person.find_by_user_name_and_password(user_name, password) # with dynamic finder
#
# It's even possible to call these dynamic finder methods on relations and named scopes.
#
# Payment.order("created_on").find_by_amount(50)
#
# == Saving arrays, hashes, and other non-mappable objects in text columns
#
# Active Record can serialize any object in text columns using YAML. To do so, you must
# specify this with a call to the class method +serialize+.
# This makes it possible to store arrays, hashes, and other non-mappable objects without doing
# any additional work.
#
# class User < ActiveRecord::Base
# serialize :preferences
# end
#
# user = User.create(preferences: { "background" => "black", "display" => large })
# User.find(user.id).preferences # => { "background" => "black", "display" => large }
#
# You can also specify a class option as the second parameter that'll raise an exception
# if a serialized object is retrieved as a descendant of a class not in the hierarchy.
#
# class User < ActiveRecord::Base
# serialize :preferences, Hash
# end
#
# user = User.create(preferences: %w( one two three ))
# User.find(user.id).preferences # raises SerializationTypeMismatch
#
# When you specify a class option, the default value for that attribute will be a new
# instance of that class.
#
# class User < ActiveRecord::Base
# serialize :preferences, OpenStruct
# end
#
# user = User.new
# user.preferences.theme_color = "red"
#
#
# == Single table inheritance
#
# Active Record allows inheritance by storing the name of the class in a column that by
# default is named "type" (can be changed by overwriting <tt>Base.inheritance_column</tt>).
# This means that an inheritance looking like this:
#
# class Company < ActiveRecord::Base; end
# class Firm < Company; end
# class Client < Company; end
# class PriorityClient < Client; end
#
# When you do <tt>Firm.create(name: "37signals")</tt>, this record will be saved in
# the companies table with type = "Firm". You can then fetch this row again using
# <tt>Company.where(name: '37signals').first</tt> and it will return a Firm object.
#
# If you don't have a type column defined in your table, single-table inheritance won't
# be triggered. In that case, it'll work just like normal subclasses with no special magic
# for differentiating between them or reloading the right type with find.
#
# Note, all the attributes for all the cases are kept in the same table. Read more:
# http://www.martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/singleTableInheritance.html
#
# == Connection to multiple databases in different models
#
# Connections are usually created through ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection and retrieved
# by ActiveRecord::Base.connection. All classes inheriting from ActiveRecord::Base will use this
# connection. But you can also set a class-specific connection. For example, if Course is an
# ActiveRecord::Base, but resides in a different database, you can just say <tt>Course.establish_connection</tt>
# and Course and all of its subclasses will use this connection instead.
#
# This feature is implemented by keeping a connection pool in ActiveRecord::Base that is
# a Hash indexed by the class. If a connection is requested, the retrieve_connection method
# will go up the class-hierarchy until a connection is found in the connection pool.
#
# == Exceptions
#
# * ActiveRecordError - Generic error class and superclass of all other errors raised by Active Record.
# * AdapterNotSpecified - The configuration hash used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> didn't include an
# <tt>:adapter</tt> key.
# * AdapterNotFound - The <tt>:adapter</tt> key used in <tt>establish_connection</tt> specified a
# non-existent adapter
# (or a bad spelling of an existing one).
# * AssociationTypeMismatch - The object assigned to the association wasn't of the type
# specified in the association definition.
# * AttributeAssignmentError - An error occurred while doing a mass assignment through the
# <tt>attributes=</tt> method.
# You can inspect the +attribute+ property of the exception object to determine which attribute
# triggered the error.
# * ConnectionNotEstablished - No connection has been established. Use <tt>establish_connection</tt>
# before querying.
# * MultiparameterAssignmentErrors - Collection of errors that occurred during a mass assignment using the
# <tt>attributes=</tt> method. The +errors+ property of this exception contains an array of
# AttributeAssignmentError
# objects that should be inspected to determine which attributes triggered the errors.
# * RecordInvalid - raised by save! and create! when the record is invalid.
# * RecordNotFound - No record responded to the +find+ method. Either the row with the given ID doesn't exist
# or the row didn't meet the additional restrictions. Some +find+ calls do not raise this exception to signal
# nothing was found, please check its documentation for further details.
# * SerializationTypeMismatch - The serialized object wasn't of the class specified as the second parameter.
# * StatementInvalid - The database server rejected the SQL statement. The precise error is added in the message.
#
# *Note*: The attributes listed are class-level attributes (accessible from both the class and instance level).
# So it's possible to assign a logger to the class through <tt>Base.logger=</tt> which will then be used by all
# instances in the current object space.
class Base
extend ActiveModel::Naming
extend ActiveSupport::Benchmarkable
extend ActiveSupport::DescendantsTracker
extend ConnectionHandling
extend QueryCache::ClassMethods
extend Querying
extend Translation
extend DynamicMatchers
extend Explain
extend Enum
extend Delegation::DelegateCache
include Core
include Persistence
include ReadonlyAttributes
include ModelSchema
include Inheritance
include Scoping
include Sanitization
include AttributeAssignment
include ActiveModel::Conversion
include Integration
include Validations
include CounterCache
include Locking::Optimistic
include Locking::Pessimistic
include AttributeMethods
include Timestamp
include Callbacks
include Associations
include ActiveModel::SecurePassword
include AutosaveAssociation
include NestedAttributes
include Aggregations
include Transactions
include NoTouching
include Reflection
include Serialization
include Store
end
ActiveSupport.run_load_hooks(:active_record, Base)
end
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